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  • This episode is sponsored by LastPass.

    本集節目由 LastPass 贊助播出。

  • Hey smart people.

    嘿,聰明的各位。

  • Joe here.

    我是 Joe。

  • I need to warn you: This video is gonna be a little gross.

    我得警告你這部影片會有點噁心。

  • Especially if you're afraid of tinylittle... HOLES.

    尤其是如果你很害怕小小的、密集的 ... 洞洞!!

  • Or, maybe you're like me.

    或者,你可能跟我一樣。

  • In which case you're probably wondering: Why exactly is this disgusting?

    想著:這到底噁心在哪?

  • I mean, it's just a bunch of holesright?

    就只是一堆洞啊,對吧?

  • Trypophobia.

    密集恐懼症。

  • In Greek it translates to a fearof holes.

    在希臘文的意思是「對洞的恐懼」。

  • But it can also include an aversion to bumps, clusters, blobs and bubbles.

    但它也可以表示對一堆密集的腫塊、斑點和泡泡的厭惡。

  • It's actually pretty new as phobias go. The word was invented by an Irish blogger in 2005.

    在 2005 年時,「密集恐懼症」(Trypophobia) 一詞才被一位愛爾蘭的部落客發明。所以它其實滿新的。

  • So there's not a lot of great data out there, but as many as 1 in 6 people may have trypophobia.

    也因此目前還沒有太多研究數據,但是高達六分之一的人或許有密集恐懼症。

  • It's even more common than acrophobia, the fear of heights.

    這意味著密集恐懼症甚至比懼高症更常見。

  • Yes, even ol' PewDiePie himself fears all things holey.

    連 Pewdiepie 都承認自己害怕有一堆洞的東西。

  • Butaccording to the people in charge of these things, trypophobia isn't even officially recognized as an actual phobia.

    但根據有關人士說法,密集恐懼症甚至還未被正式地承認為一種恐懼症。

  • Wait, then what exactly is a phobia in the first place?

    等等,所以恐懼症到底是甚麼啊?

  • The definition of a phobia is an extreme or irrational fear of something.

    恐懼症的定義是對某種東西極端或不合理的恐懼。

  • Fearin generalserves a good biological purpose - it helps us avoid deadly things, like venomous snakes or the edge of a cliff.

    一般來說,恐懼有其生物性目的:它讓我們躲避會致死的危險因子,像是毒蛇和懸崖。

  • But when our brains take it too far, and we aim our fear at things that can't actually hurt us in that moment, that's a phobia.

    但是當大腦過度延伸,使我們害怕起當下無害的事物時,就成了恐懼症。

  • Like a fear of spiders.

    例如蜘蛛恐懼症。

  • Sure, if you live in Australia then arachnophobia is not irrational, because Australia is full of scary things that can kill you.

    當然,你如果住在澳洲,蜘蛛恐懼症並不是不合理的,畢竟澳洲多的是可以殺死你的東西。

  • But if you're just reading Harry Potter at bedtime and a little cellar spider joins the party, there's no reason to burn down your house.

    但如果你睡前讀哈利波特時有隻小小的地窖蜘蛛想加入,沒有理由讓你燒掉整間房子。

  • You're not in any real danger.

    你沒有真的遭遇危險。

  • Unless you knock yourself out running away from it or something.

    除非你在逃走的時候把自己撞暈了。

  • It's irrational to be afraid of that little harmless spider friend.

    對那隻小而無害的蜘蛛朋友感到害怕是完全不合理的。

  • A fear of a bunch of small holes?

    對一堆洞感到恐懼?

  • It's definitely irrational.

    肯定不合理。

  • But what if people with trypophobia aren't actually evenafraid of holes?

    但假如 ... 密集恐懼症患者並非真的對洞感到害怕呢?

  • If it's not fear, it can't be a phobia.

    如果沒有害怕,就不是恐懼症。

  • Certain emotions do certain things to people's faces, almost universally.

    特定情緒造成特定表情,幾乎舉世如此 ...。

  • Almost universally.

    ... 幾乎舉世如此。

  • People experiencing fear typically have high eyebrows, their mouth is open, their eyes are wide.

    感到恐懼的人通常會提高眉毛、張開嘴巴、張大眼睛。

  • But people feeling disgust typically have wrinkled brows, pursed lips, and crinkled up noses.

    但是感到厭惡的人會皺眉、癟嘴和皺起鼻子。

  • Now, there aren't a lot of scientists studying trypophobia.

    現在並沒有很多科學家研究密集恐懼症。

  • Because, who would want to?

    因為 ... 誰會想要啊?

  • But we can study people's reactions, looking for these telltale signs.

    但我們可以觀察人們的反應,尋找明顯的特徵。

  • Scientists have done this, and research is starting to suggest: trypophobia is more about disgust than fear.

    科學家的研究結果正逐漸明朗:比起恐懼,密集恐懼症更多的是厭惡。

  • Why did we develop a reaction like this, back in evolution?

    就演化而言,我們為甚麼會有這樣的反應?

  • Fear and disgust evolved for different reasons, but they both tell us to avoid a bad thing.

    恐懼和厭惡因不同原因形成,但它們都是為了讓我們遠離不好的東西而存在。

  • Fear helps us avoid immediate danger, usually by triggering the fight or flight response.

    恐懼通常利用戰鬥或逃跑反應,來避開立即的危險。

  • But disgust helps us avoid something different.

    但厭惡則讓我們避開不同的東西。

  • There have been plenty of theories on why disgust evolved, but they each only explain part of the picture.

    目前有許多理論解釋為甚麼厭惡會形成,但它們都只解釋了一小部分。

  • Like helping us avoid rotten food or sick people.

    例如讓我們避開腐敗的食物和病人。

  • It wasn't until a couple of decades ago that we came up with a unified theory of disgust.

    直到數十年前我們才發展出一個關於厭惡統一的理論。

  • A scientist named Val Curtisthat's Val Kilmer, guysOk.

    有個叫 Val Curtis 的科學家,不不那是 Val Kilmer,喔好。

  • So Val Curtis developed the idea that our innate disgust reaction evolved as a way to avoid crawly, wormy, oozy things that could cause infection and disease.

    總之,Val Curtis 認為我們先天便具有厭惡的感受,是為了讓我們避開可能導致感染和傳播疾病的噁心東西。

  • It's called the Parasite Avoidance Theory of disgust, and it's the top theory of why we find some things gross.

    這稱為「避免性厭惡寄生蟲理論」(Parasite Avoidance Theory of disgust),也是對於我們為甚麼會感到噁心的最高理論。

  • It falls into these six categories.

    它分成以下六類。

  • Basically, the things that disgust us risk having some microscopic danger hiding inside of them.

    簡單來說,我們討厭的東西都隱藏著危險。

  • Like poop has bacteria.

    例如大便裡面有細菌。

  • Rotting food may have mold.

    腐敗的食物可能有黴菌。

  • Flesh wounds could carry parasites.

    傷口可能攜帶寄生蟲。

  • Feeling disgust ensures that we literally physically close ourselves off and avoid those things.

    厭惡感讓我們不願靠近那些東西。

  • We're even disgusted by things if they just don't seem quite right, our bodies way of saying, "You can't be too careful when it comes to parasites."

    我們甚至對只是看起來不太對勁的物體感到討厭,我們的身體像是說:避免寄生蟲永遠沒有太小心這回事。

  • If we find it gross, we won't touch it or eat it, which makes it more likely that we'll survive and reproduce, and that's all natural selection cares about.

    如果我們感到噁心,我們便不會觸碰或食用,這使我們更易存活和繁衍後代,而天擇就是這麼進行的。

  • And because our brains have this awesome ability to generalize and categorize and remember, even things that look like dangerous things disgust us.

    也因為我們大腦有這超讚的概括、分類和記憶能力,即使是看起來有點危險的東西都會使我們厭惡。

  • Clusters of holes?

    密集的洞?

  • They most likely remind people of something in one of those six categories of disgusting stuff.

    這可能讓我們想起那六類令人厭惡的東西。

  • I mean, think about it, a lotus seed pod does sort of look like the worst skin infection imaginable.

    想想看,蓮蓬的確有點像很可怕的傷口感染。

  • That may be why these images are particularly nausea-inducing.

    這或許是為甚麼這些圖特別讓我們噁心。

  • Of course people and cultures and customs are very different, and what we find disgusting varies too.

    當然不同地方的文化習俗都不同,會令大家感到噁心的也不一樣。

  • The disgust response may be biologically programmed and universal, but maybe a lot of what we find disgusting is taught and learned.

    厭惡的反應可能是生物上普遍的,但很多也可能是我們學習而來的。

  • More research is needed.

    我們需要更多研究。

  • I'm sure there will be a lot of volunteers.

    我相信會有一堆志願者的。

  • So if you have trypophobia, you may feel afraid of holes, but you're probably just disgusted.

    所以如果你有密集恐懼症,你可能非常害怕洞,但更可能只是厭惡他們而已。

  • Andthat means it's likely not a phobia at all.

    這代表...或許那根本不是恐懼症。

  • Unfortunately, we don't really know if trypophobia can be cured, but avoiding videos like this seems like the best way to deal with it for now.

    很不幸地,我們不確定密集恐懼症是否可以被治療,但避免看這樣的影片似乎是目前最好的辦法。

  • So if your friend has trypophobia, don't show them this video!

    所以如果你的朋友有密集恐懼症,不要給他們看這支影片!

  • And if you have it, I'm sorry you had to watch this!

    如果你有,很抱歉你得看這個!

  • But thanks for staying curious.

    謝謝你,請繼續保持好奇心!

This episode is sponsored by LastPass.

本集節目由 LastPass 贊助播出。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 恐懼症 噁心 蜘蛛 寄生蟲 避開 危險

好多洞啊!你是不是也有密集恐懼症!? (Are You Afraid of Holes?)

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    April Lu 發佈於 2019 年 03 月 18 日
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