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  • 1. Is Islam in the West changing?

    1. 西方社會中的伊斯蘭教正在轉變嗎?

  • The West has a problem with Muslims living in their midst.

    西方社會和穆斯林之間有一些問題。

  • You ask Westerners in polls, Islam is the faith that they would least like their neighbors to belong to and they'd least like their children to marry into.

    在民調中,西方人最不希望他們的鄰里是穆斯林,也最不希望他們孩子的另一半是穆斯林。

  • It's not the details of the Koran that bother people, it's fear of terrorism.

    並不是《古蘭經》哪裡惹到了人們,而是因為人們對於恐怖主義的恐懼。

  • What a lot of people haven't noticed is that Islam itself is evolving in Europe, evolving into a more Western, if you like, form.

    人們沒留意到的是,歐洲的伊斯蘭教正在轉變,可以說是轉變得更加「西方化」。

  • 2. Is Islam a threat to the West?

    2. 伊斯蘭教對於西方社會是個威脅嗎?

  • In Europe the number of jihadist terrorist attacks have fallen by nine tenths since 2015 but still any murder is one too many and the pictures of people having their heads cut off by Islamic State in Syria and Iraq are seared onto people's brains.

    2005 年起,發生在歐洲的聖戰恐怖主義攻擊減少了 90%,但話說回來,任何殺人事件都不容忽視,更不用提那些從敘利亞和伊拉克流出的伊斯蘭國砍頭照片,都已經深深烙印在人們的腦海。

  • There's a great worry that some of the fighters who left Europe and went to Islamic State in Syria and Iraq might come back to Europe and wreak havoc there.

    一大隱憂是,那些離開歐洲、到敘利亞和伊拉克加入伊斯蘭國的戰士可能回到歐洲、造成動亂。

  • Western governments have responded in two ways.

    西方政府採取兩種方式預防危機。

  • Firstly, by trying to catch terrorists directly and secondly, and more controversially, by trying to curb Islam itself.

    首先是直接逮捕恐怖主義分子,再來是試著約束伊斯蘭教本身,這做法比較受爭議。

  • We see this in Donald Trump's travel ban on travelers from some Muslim countries and in efforts by governments in places like France to restrict displays of Islamic piety in public by banning the burka.

    如總統川普的旅遊禁令禁止來自某些伊斯蘭國家的人入境,還有像是法國政府禁止穆斯林在公眾場所穿戴波卡 (頭罩)。

  • 3. Are Western Muslims becoming more liberal?

    3. 西方的穆斯林們是不是越來越開放了?

  • The first generation of modern Muslims to move to Europe didn't know how long they were gonna stay and didn't tend to get too involved in the local culture.

    遷移到歐洲的第一代現代穆斯林並不確定他們會在當地待多久,也不打算太過深入當地文化。

  • For religious guidance, they depended on imams usually from the countries that they came from.

    在宗教指導方面,他們仰賴與自己出身同國的伊瑪目 (伊斯蘭教領袖、教長)。

  • That changed with the second generation who spoke the local languages extremely well and had no illusions that they were ever going anywhere else but felt slightly alienated from their parents' foreign religious influence and also from the societies that they were living in.

    但第二代就不同了,他們能夠流利說當地語言,也認為自己會久留當地,但又對他們爸媽的「異國」宗教和他們所處的社會感到有些疏遠。

  • A few of these people became so alienated that they turned to terrorism.

    他們之中有一些人感到太過疏離,甚至轉而投身恐怖主義。

  • The third generation of Muslims in Europe appear to have fewer hang-ups than the previous ones.

    在歐洲的第三代穆斯林則比上一代少一些煩惱。

  • They're culturally more assimilated, they're much more liberal than the earlier generations on questions about things like homosexuality or premarital sex.

    他們的文化同化程度更高,在同性戀和婚前性行為的議題上也比上一代更開放。

  • They're creating a new kind of Islam which in many ways is more liberal.

    他們在創造一種新的伊斯蘭教,在許多方面都更自由。

  • Half the Muslim students in the United States admit to having had premarital sex, something that in countries that many of them came from would carry a death penalty.

    在美國有一半的穆斯林學生都承認有過婚前性行為,要是在他們原先所處的國家,這種行為會帶來死刑。

  • 4. Should governments interfere with Islam?

    4. 政府應該干涉伊斯蘭教嗎?

  • How can Western governments encourage the integration of Muslims?

    西方政府該如何鼓勵穆斯林融入社會?

  • The first thing is that they have to be very strict about the real crimes being committed by the few.

    他們首先需要嚴懲由其中少數人真實犯下的罪行。

  • They have to be tough on catching terrorists and tough on sending them to prison.

    他們必須強硬起來,逮捕恐怖主義分子然後將他們關進大牢。

  • What they should not do is attempt to meddle with the faith itself.

    他們不應該做的,則是去干涉到信仰層面的事。

  • That's something government's not very good at and it's evolving anyway without official interference.

    那不是政府的強項,而且就算沒有官方干涉,它自然會轉變。

  • Once you start having things like burka bans and state-sponsored mosques and public funding for the right kind of preacher you risk creating a backlash and further alienation.

    一旦你發佈一些命令,如波卡穿戴禁令、國家管理的清真寺,和由官方提供資金的「核准」牧師,你就是在冒著受到社會反彈的風險,以及引來更嚴重的社會疏離感。

  • As people realize that newcomer's cultures are not set in stone and the way that they interpret their religion doesn't necessarily mean they're not gonna get on with their neighbors, people become more accepting.

    當人們意識到這些新住民的文化並非陳舊古板,而且他們的信仰並不會阻礙他們和鄰里相處,人們就會更加願意接受。

  • That's probably why, for example, London, the biggest city in Europe, now has a Muslim mayor, Rotterdam, the biggest port in Europe also has a Muslim mayor, and why two Muslim women were elected to the United States Congress this year, one of them veiled.

    這或許也是為什麼,舉例來說,歐洲最大的城市倫敦現在有個穆斯林市長,歐洲最大的港口鹿特丹也有穆斯林市長,還有為什麼今年美國國會中有兩名穆斯林女性,其中一位還有蒙布。

  • Islam has a long, and frankly underappreciated, history in the West.

    伊斯蘭教在西方有段,說實在話,不太討喜的冗長歷史。

  • Muslims have governed parts of Europe for 13 centuries.

    穆斯林統治了部分歐洲地區 13 個世紀。

  • They helped rekindle the renaissance.

    他們幫助帶動了文藝復興。

  • And if today the new slightly more liberal form of Islam that we see flourishing in the West continues to do so, it could serve as an example for Muslims in other parts of the world.

    而要是伊斯蘭教在西方國家中越趨開放的轉變持續下去,它或許能成為世界各地穆斯林族群的一個參考。

1. Is Islam in the West changing?

1. 西方社會中的伊斯蘭教正在轉變嗎?

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 穆斯林 伊斯蘭教 歐洲 轉變 社會 恐怖

【多元文化】你注意到了嗎?西方社會中的伊斯蘭教正在轉變 (How Islam in the West is changing | The Economist)

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    Liang Chen 發佈於 2019 年 03 月 18 日
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