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  • In 1956, architect Frank Lloyd Wright proposed a mile-high skyscraper.

    1956 年,建築師 Frank Lloyd Wright 提出了一英哩高摩天大樓的計畫。

  • It was going to be the world's tallest building, by a lot, five times as high as the Eiffel Tower.

    它將會是世界上最高的建築,而且真的很高,是艾菲爾鐵塔的五倍高。

  • But many critics laughed at the architect, arguing that people would have to wait hours for an elevator, or worse, that the tower would collapse under its own weight.

    但許多評論家嘲笑這位建築師,指出大家光等電梯就要好幾個小時,更糟的是,高樓會因為它自己的重量而垮掉。

  • Most engineers agreed, and despite the publicity around the proposal, the titanic tower was never built.

    大部分的工程師認同,儘管這項提案的曝光率很高,這棟巨大的高樓還是沒有被建造起來。

  • But today, bigger and bigger buildings are going up around the world.

    但現今,在世界各地出現更高且更大的建築。

  • Firms are even planning skyscrapers more than a kilometer tall, like the Jeddah Tower in Saudi Arabia, three times the size of the Eiffel Tower.

    甚至有些公司正在規劃建造超過一公里高的摩天大樓,如同沙烏地阿拉伯的吉達塔,是艾菲鐵塔的三倍高。

  • Very soon, Wright's mile-high miracle may be a reality.

    不久後,Wright 的一英哩高樓奇景很可能即將成真。

  • So what exactly was stopping us from building these megastructures 70 years ago, and how do we build something a mile high today?

    所以,到底是為什麼我們在七十年前無法建造這些超級建築?現今我們又要如何建造一英哩高的東西?

  • In any construction project, each story of the structure needs to be able to support the stories on top of it.

    在任何建案中,每一層的結構都要能夠支撐它上面的所有樓層。

  • The higher we build, the higher the gravitational pressure from the upper stories on the lower ones.

    建得越高,上面樓層對下面樓層的重量壓力就會越大。

  • This principle has long dictated the shape of our buildings, leading ancient architects to favor pyramids with wide foundations that support lighter upper levels.

    長久以來,這項原則一直主宰著我們建築物的形式,所以古代建築師偏好金字塔型的寬地基,才能支持較輕的上層。

  • But this solution doesn't quite translate to a city skyline–a pyramid that tall would be roughly one-and-a-half miles wide, tough to squeeze into a city center.

    但這種解決方案不太能夠用在城市中,要做那麼高的金字塔,地基大約需要一英哩半的寬度,若要塞到市中心更是難上加難。

  • Fortunately, strong materials like concrete can avoid this impractical shape.

    幸運的是,堅固的材料如混凝土,就能避免這種不符合現實需求的形狀。

  • And modern concrete blends are reinforced with steel-fibers for strength and water-reducing polymers to prevent cracking.

    現代混凝土會加入鋼鐵纖維來強化其強度,還會添加減水聚合物預防裂開。

  • The concrete in the world's tallest tower, Dubai's Burj Khalifa, can withstand about 8,000 tons of pressure per square meterthe weight of over 1,200 African elephants!

    世界上最高的高樓是杜拜的哈里發塔,它用的混凝土可以承受每平方公尺八千噸的壓力,等同於一千兩百隻非洲大象的重量!

  • Of course, even if a building supports itself, it still needs support from the ground.

    當然,就算一棟建築能支撐自身的重量,它仍然需要來自地面的支撐力。

  • Without a foundation, buildings this heavy would sink, fall, or lean over.

    若沒有地基,這麼重的建築就會下沉、倒塌,或傾斜。

  • To prevent the roughly half a million ton tower from sinking, 192 concrete and steel supports called piles were buried over 50 meters deep.

    為了避免這棟重量約一百萬噸的高樓下沉,它底下五十公尺處埋有 192 枝混凝土和鋼製的支撐物,叫做樁。

  • The friction between the piles and the ground keeps this sizable structure standing.

    樁和地面之間的磨擦力能讓偌大的建築物穩固地豎立。

  • Besides defeating gravity, which pushes the building down, a skyscraper also needs to overcome the blowing wind, which pushes from the side.

    除了要克服將建築物向下推的地心引力之外,摩天大樓也要克服風吹,風力會將建築物往側邊推。

  • On average days, wind can exert up to 17 pounds of force per square meter on a high-rise buildingas heavy as a gust of bowling balls.

    一般的情況下,高樓所承受的風力可能高達每平方公尺十七磅,如同保齡球的撞擊力道。

  • Designing structures to be aerodynamic, like China's sleek Shanghai Tower, can reduce that force by up to a quarter.

    依據空氣動力學來設計大樓,如同中國時尚的上海中心大廈,能將風力減少高達四分之一。

  • And wind-bearing frames inside or outside the building can absorb the remaining wind force, such as in Seoul's Lotte Tower.

    建築內部或外部的抗風結構能夠吸收剩餘的風力,首爾的樂天世界塔就有這種設計。

  • But even after all these measures, you could still find yourself swaying back and forth more than a meter on top floors during a hurricane.

    就算有所有這些方法,在颶風中大樓頂層還是會感受到超過一公尺距離的前後搖晃。

  • To prevent the wind from rocking tower tops, many skyscrapers employ a counterweight weighing hundreds of tons called a "tuned mass damper."

    為了防止大樓頂層因為風吹而晃動,許多摩天大樓採用一種重達數百噸的平衡錘,叫做「調諧質量阻尼器」。

  • The Taipei 101, for instance, has suspended a giant metal orb above the 87th floor.

    例如,台北一○一就在八十七樓上懸掛了一個巨大的金屬球。

  • When wind moves the building, this orb sways into action, absorbing the building's kinetic energy.

    當風力吹動大樓時,這顆球就會開始擺動,吸收掉大樓的動能。

  • As its movements trail the tower's, hydraulic cylinders between the ball and the building convert that kinetic energy into heat, and stabilize the swaying structure.

    當它隨著大樓擺動時,球和建築物之間的液壓缸會將動能轉換為熱能,讓擺動的建築物穩定下來。

  • With all these technologies in place, our mega-structures can stay standing and stable.

    在這麼多技術的應用之下,我們的超級建築已經可以站得穩穩的了。

  • But quickly traveling through buildings this large is a challenge in itself.

    但要在這麼大的建築物中快速移動,本身就是一種挑戰。

  • In Wright's age, the fastest elevators moved a mere 22 kilometers per hour.

    在 Wright 的時代,最快的電梯時速只有二十二公里。

  • Thankfully, today's elevators are much faster, traveling over 70 km per hour with future cabins potentially using frictionless magnetic rails for even higher speeds.

    令人欣慰地,現今的電梯快多了,時速超過七十公里,未來的電梯車廂有可能使用無摩擦的磁力軌道,以達到更快的速度。

  • And traffic management algorithms group riders by destination to get passengers and empty cabins where they need to be.

    還有流量管理演算法將乘客依據目的地來分群,把乘客和空車廂送到正確地方。

  • Skyscrapers have come a long way since Wright proposed his mile-high tower.

    在 Wright 提出一英哩高的高樓之後, 摩天大樓已經有了長足的進步。

  • What were once considered impossible ideas have become architectural opportunities.

    以前曾被認為不可能的點子,已經成為建築的新契機。

  • Today it may just be a matter of time until one building goes the extra mile.

    現今,建築物高度能否再增加,可能只是時間的問題而已。

In 1956, architect Frank Lloyd Wright proposed a mile-high skyscraper.

1956 年,建築師 Frank Lloyd Wright 提出了一英哩高摩天大樓的計畫。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 高樓 建築物 大樓 摩天大樓 風力

是否會有一英哩高的摩天大樓?(Will there ever be a mile-high skyscraper? - Stefan Al)

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    shuting1215 發佈於 2019 年 03 月 10 日
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