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  • Hi everyone, it's Lauren and this is the first video in a series that I'm doing on the plays of William Shakespeare.

    大家好,我是蘿倫,這是莎士比亞系列的第一支影片,

  • I'm going to be looking at Shakespeare in context, Shakespeare in performance

    我會以戲劇來解讀莎士比亞、

  • and giving some tips and advice on how to read Shakespeare

    並介紹讀莎士比亞作品的訣竅,

  • and also doing some separate videos really analyzing some of his plays,

    以及在之後的影片分析他的戲劇作品。

  • so if there's any requests that you have, any specific parts of Shakespeare or certain plays that you want me to focus on,

    所以如果你有任何關於莎士比亞哪個方面或特定作品的請求,

  • let me know in the comments below and today's video is just going to be a really brief

    可以再下面留言。這部影片

  • really brand-new overview, sort of a Shakespeare 1010 for people who maybe who are

    只是做個簡短介紹

  • interested in learning a little bit more about Shakespeare but don't really have any

    給對莎士比亞有興趣但所知甚少、

  • experience or have had really bad experiences in school. Starting from the

    或是在學校學莎士比亞經驗不佳的人。

  • very beginning, Shakespeare was born in 1564 in Stratford-Upon-Avon which is a

    第一點:莎士比亞 1564 出生在英格蘭中部小鎮斯特拉特福埃文河畔

  • small town in the middle of England. He was married there, he had three children

    他也在那裏結婚,有三個小孩,

  • and then sometime later left them all behind to move down to London to pursue

    但之後拋棄他們搬到倫敦,

  • his career as an actor and playwright. He was part of a group of players called

    追尋演員與編劇的夢想。他加入

  • the Lord Chamberlain's Men and they performed in several different theatres

    「宮內大臣劇團」,劇團在倫敦演了幾場戲,

  • in London, they also toured the country, until about 15 99 when they opened their

    也在全國巡迴演出,直到 1599 年開了自己的戲院「環球劇院」,

  • own theater - The Globe, a replica of which is in London which you can go and whatch

    這個露天劇場在倫敦有複製品,現今你還可以去那邊看表演,

  • plays in today, and this was an open-air theatre. The stage is covered, so the actors

    舞台有遮蔽物,所以下雨時演員不會淋濕,

  • stay dry but if it rains all of the audience standing in the pit below get

    但正廳後座的觀眾

  • wet

    就會淋濕。

  • Although Shakespeare's language is very poetic and I do enjoy reading his plays

    雖然莎士比亞的作品行文優美有詩意,我也很喜歡,

  • his plays weren't really written to be read they are written to be performed so

    但他的戲劇作品並不是要拿來讀而是用來表演的,

  • understanding the context in which they performed really helps you understand

    所以用這些舞台表演了解這些作品可以幫助你們了解

  • what's going on in the plays and Shakespeare's motivation for some of the things

    劇本內容以及莎士比亞做某些事的動機。

  • that he's doing. So we can roughly divided Shakespeare's plays into about two

    我們可以大致將莎士比亞的戲劇分成兩類:

  • areas, the first area is when he's performing under the reign of Queen

    第一種是伊麗莎白時代的作品,

  • Elizabeth I and plays of this time tend to be historical plays which

    這一類通常跟歷史有關,跟著社會流行,

  • are really fashionable and also a lot of comedies are written at this time. It's

    當時莎士比亞也寫了很多喜劇

  • important to remember with the history plays in particular that these are not

    但必須要記得的是這些歷史劇並沒有很客觀,

  • being written from a position of objectivity because Queen Elizabeth is a

    因為伊莉莎白女王是督鐸王朝的成員,

  • Tudor monarch and she is the current reigning monarch, and there is a lot of

    也是當時的元首,有很多關於督鐸王室的宣傳活動,

  • Tudor propaganda which turns up in some of these plays that Shakespeare's writing

    而這些宣傳有出現在莎士比亞的作品裡,

  • particularly Richard III

    特別是《理查三世》,

  • Quick English history lesson here! Richard III was the king before Elizabeth's

    來快速複習一下英國歷史!理查三世是伊莉莎白女王祖父─亨利七世─的前一個國王,

  • grandfather, Henry VII and he was killed in battle during a time

    理查三世在玫瑰戰爭中被殺,

  • called the Wars of the Roses and since he was killed and basically usurped

    之後基本上就被亨利七世篡位。

  • by Henry VII, it was really important for the Tudors to depict

    督鐸王室認為理查三世是個殘忍令人生厭的邪惡國王,

  • him as a terrible cruel and evil king which he is depicted as in 'Richard III'

    這個看法很具代表性,因為莎士比亞的同名戲劇也是這樣描寫他。

  • The second part of Shakespeare's career takes place under the reign of King

    莎士比亞生涯的第二段是在詹姆士一世時代,

  • James I who is a Stuart king and his group of players, the Lord

    詹姆士一世是斯圖亞特王朝成員,

  • Chamberlain's Men is changed to become the King's Men and they have a much

    當時莎士比亞所屬劇團「宮內大臣劇團」也被改名成「國王劇團」,

  • closer relationship with the monarch and there is a change in the type of plays

    跟王室關係也更緊密,演出的作品類型也有所變動:

  • that he's producing at this point, they're not so much comedies and really literal

    喜劇數量變少,更多的是有關歷史悲劇,內容更為複雜,

  • historical tragedies. They're a little bit more complex such as Hamlet, Othello, King Lear

    《哈姆雷特》、《奧賽羅》、《李爾王》和《冬日的故事》都是在那個時代寫成。

  • and The Winter's Tale, they are all written in this period. We also notice some

    我們也可以注意到這些主題很符合詹姆士一世的喜好,

  • themes which are probably appealing more to King James's taste, who was really

    他很著迷於《馬克白》和《暴風雨》,

  • obsessed with magic and witchcraft and those sorts of things appear in Macbeth

    裡面有類似魔術與巫術的東西。

  • and The Tempest. At this point the King's Men are also given a theatre to perform in

    詹姆士一世在冬天時也有讓國王劇團在劇院表演,

  • during the winter months because you can imagine in The Globe being open air can

    之前的環球劇院是露天的,所以表演只會在夏天進行,

  • only be performed in summer, it would be too cold in the winter otherwise, but

    冬天太冷了。

  • performing plays indoors is actually kind of a new and interesting concept

    室內表演在當時是個新穎有趣的替代方法,

  • and allows the players to try out some different techniques with special

    演員可以嘗試不同特效和技術,

  • effects. It means that they can make the stage dark for the first time, they've

    室內表演讓他們第一次可以把舞台變得全黑,

  • never been able to do that before and the use of candlelight is very interesting

    這是以前未能做到的,使用蠟燭是有趣的方法,也具代表性,

  • and important and comes back in lots of Jacobean plays. Now we come to the part

    詹姆士一世時代的很多戲劇都有採用。

  • which a lot of people seem to struggle with with Shakespeare and that is the

    現在我們回到劇本裡的文學語言這個方面,許多人都覺得很難懂,

  • language itself. So firstly you have to remember that these plays were written

    首先你必須了解這些作品是四百年前完成的,

  • 400 years ago and language and certain words, certain meanings is very different

    很多當時語言、用字和意思與現在非常不同,

  • to how we speak now. Not only that, you've got to imagine that these players are

    可以想像那是當時的演員台詞。

  • performing these words, performing these speeches in front of audiences who don't

    那時候也沒有很多舞台布置

  • have very much set, there's not very much special special effects as we know

    和特效,跟現今我們常看到的舞台不同,

  • them today, people might be standing in the cold for hours on end to see these

    觀眾看戲時,可能要在露天劇場受凍好幾小時,

  • plays and the key isn't just a tell a good story is also to capture the imagination

    而莎士比亞作品吸引人的關鍵不僅在於說好故事的方法,

  • of the audience and also maybe explain stuff that can't be portrayed them

    也藉由描述看不到的事物啟發觀眾的想像力,

  • visually. For example with plays like Henry V you can't have a massive

    例如《亨利五世》。當時不可能在

  • battlefield on the stage, it just isn't possible and they

    舞台架設龐大的戰爭場景,

  • can't do it justice to the audience so they have to use their words, they

    為了要呈現戰爭場面,

  • have to use the language to really evoke the atmosphere. So this descriptive

    他們必須要用生動的語言營造氣氛,

  • poetry that he uses can get a little bit flowery and to a modern audience seemed to

    因此作品裡有些用華麗詞藻描寫戰爭場面,

  • get a little bit off topic, but you've got to perhaps put yourselves in the shoes of

    現代人會覺得離題,但你必須用當時觀眾的角度來看待這些台詞。

  • the audience who are listening to these passages.Shakespeare also uses a lot

    莎士比亞也引用很多

  • of myth, a lot of stories that his audience would have been really familiar with in

    觀眾熟悉的神話和故事,

  • the way that these days we might watch a lot of World War II films or read some

    就像現在我們可能會看二戰電影

  • books which are fairytale retellings because those stories are sort of in our

    或是讀童話改編,因為那些故事

  • collective consciousness and Shakespeare uses stories of recent history such as

    存在我們的集體意識裡。而莎士比亞用最近發生的歷史事件─

  • the Wars of the Roses which were not really long ago for his audience and he

    例如玫瑰戰爭,對當時的觀眾而言沒有很久遠。

  • also uses allusions and comparisons to characters in Greek and Roman mythology

    某些戲劇角色也是參考或影射希臘羅馬神話以及家喻戶曉的傳說故事人物,

  • and well-known folktales because these are stories that his audiences would

    因為觀眾相當了解這些故事,

  • have been really aware of and it's just a metaphorical way of setting the scene

    知道舞台布景和角色的情緒與動機

  • and explaining and the emotions and motivations of the characters. And this

    只是比喻手法,

  • is why I would really advocate listening to Shakespeare being read aloud, by

    這也是為什麼我推薦聽莎士比亞作品的朗讀,

  • someone else or reading and out to yourself or watching an adaptation of

    聽別人念、念給自己聽、舞台劇或電影的改編都可以,

  • one of his plays either on stage or film. Not only can the language itself be

    莎士比亞作品的文字有時候有點難懂

  • a little bit tricky at times but also the structure I think people can find

    很多人對劇本架構可能也很陌生。

  • alienating. So Shakespeare uses two different types of structure depending

    莎士比亞會依據角色台詞

  • on who's speaking

    以及情境使用不同文體:

  • and depending on the nature of the speech or the scene. He uses prose for

    如果是白話閒聊、

  • more colloquial chatter when people are talking to each other, being funny or

    滑稽對談、

  • when characters are of a lower status, and then he uses verse for his epic

    或者是地位較低的角色,莎士比亞會用散文;

  • grand speeches and often when characters are of noble blood. Now the verses,

    貴族的台詞則高貴華麗。現在我來介紹韻文

  • although it doesn't often rhyme, it does sometimes, and they are written in

    雖然莎士比亞的五音步抑揚格韻文常常不押韻,但有的還是會,

  • iambic pentameter. Now I'm sure you've heard that phrase before I'm sure it was

    我保證你在學校一定學過很多次。

  • banged over your head at school, and it really is very simple, so breaking it

    「五音步抑揚格」很簡單,我們拆開來看:

  • down, a penetameter is basically a set of five pairs of syllables we know that

    「五音步」是指詩句中的五對音節,pent 代表五,

  • pent (pentagon) is five, it's five sets of two syllables which means actually the

    而兩個音節組成一對,

  • whole sentence itself is ten syllables but it's more like ONE and TWO and THREE

    所以一句詩就有十個音節,有點像「一和二和三

  • and FOUR and FIVE

    和四和五。」

  • that is a penetameter. Iambic pentameter flips the rhythm of that on

    這就是五音步。抑揚格五音步改變節奏,重音稍微往前,

  • its head a little bit and it means that the stress is always on the second

    變成在第二個音節,

  • syllable rather than the first

    而不是第一個,

  • so rather than ONE andTWO and THREE and FOUR and FIVE

    所以會變成「搭盪搭盪搭盪搭盪搭盪」(重音在「盪」)。

  • it's more like da DUM da DUM da DUM da DUM da DUM To BE or NOTto BE that IS the QUEStion

    像是莎士比亞的「『生』或『死』,這『真』是『個』好『問』題」 ( 『』代表重音 )

  • that his iambic pentameter. Simple! Another reason I think it's a really

    這就是抑揚格五音步,很簡單吧!

  • good idea to watch a production or an adaptation of Shakespeare's plays is the

    我覺得要多看莎士比亞的戲劇演出或改編的另一個原因在於

  • way that his plays have been written down and preserved there aren't a lot of

    他的劇本寫作方式。劇本本身沒有很多

  • stage directions in there which can make a reader perhaps imagine the characters

    舞台方面的指引,讀者只能想像那些角色站在舞台上

  • just standing on stage and giving a really long monologue and that there's

    說一段長獨白,

  • not much going on, and you really need a director to bring this stuff to life

    沒有什麼特別的,因此需要導演讓劇本栩栩如生,

  • When these plays were written, the actors didn't get a whole play as you would

    在那個年代,演員並不會像我們現在拿到完整劇本,

  • these days, they literally got their parts written down just with the last

    他們只拿到自己的台詞部分,加上前一句其他演員的台詞,

  • line of the person speaking before them so that they knew their cue so that when

    讓他們知道當聽到那句時

  • they heard that line they knew that that was then their turn to speak

    接下來就換他們了。

  • so there wasn't really a play as such which existed in one form for the actors

    所以當時的演員

  • to work from

    並沒有完整的劇本。

  • so the stage directions and what was going on would have just been happening

    所以舞台走位的指導也只會出現在排練,

  • while the play was being rehearsed and they haven't all been written down

    並沒有被寫在劇本裡。

  • However there are actually a lot of visual jokes in Shakespeare and gestures

    但其實莎士比亞的作品也有很多笑點和示意

  • which you can see in people's words they're reacting to, but it's not obvious

    可以從台詞看出,

  • that that's what other characters are doing so if you are new to Shakespeare I

    不過角色的動作還是不明顯。所以你如果剛開始接觸莎士比亞,

  • think it really helps having someone who deeply understands that text bring it to

    我覺得讓非常了解文本的人生動呈現作品

  • life before your eyes and it just helps with the comprehension

    能幫助你對作品的理解。

  • for example there's a scene in As You Like It where Rosalind walks on stage

    例如在《皆大歡喜》有一幕,蘿絲琳在舞台走動,

  • and says 'Well this is the Forest of Arden' and that's just a line when you

    說:「這就是雅登森林」,如果在書上讀,這只會是一句話,

  • read it down because she's saying 'oh we're in the forest', but if you saw her

    蘿絲琳說:「我們在森林裡」;但如果

  • on stage in a blank and empty wooden state and she goes 'Wwell this is the

    你看到她在單調、無人居住的森林裡

  • Forest of Arden!'

    說:「原來這就是雅登森林!」

  • that's actually quite funny (if you're actually a professional actor and not me)

    這就比較有趣 ( 如果你其實是專業演員、不像我一樣只是普通人、就會這麼想 ),

  • and that's quite a funny visual joke for the audience but it's something that you

    觀眾會覺得好笑,但一開始在書上讀並不會了解。

  • wouldn't get on a first read. So I hope that has whetted your appetite somewhat

    我希望以上的介紹可以增加你對莎士比亞的興趣,

  • and given you a little bit of background into who Shakespeare was and

    也讓你有更多背景知識,知道莎士比亞是誰、

  • how and why he was writing these plays. Like I said I'm going to be doing some

    他為什麼以及如何寫這些劇本。我先前也提過:

  • small videos really focusing on a couple of his plays, perhaps ones that you're

    我將會製作一些短影片,聚焦在特定作品,

  • studying at

    也許就是你在學校學過的,

  • school maybe Romeo and Juliet or Hamlet and really going through the language

    可能會是《羅密歐與茱麗葉》或《哈姆雷特》,我會仔細帶你們看裡面的文辭,

  • of them, so if there are any that you would really particularly like me to

    所以你們如果有特別希望我介紹莎士比亞的什麼作品,

  • make a video on please let me know

    請讓我知道。

  • make sure that your subscribed to get all of the videos in this series and I will

    別忘了訂閱我的頻道,

  • see you next time, bye!

    下回見!

Hi everyone, it's Lauren and this is the first video in a series that I'm doing on the plays of William Shakespeare.

大家好,我是蘿倫,這是莎士比亞系列的第一支影片,

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影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

A2 初級 中文 英國腔 莎士比亞 作品 劇本 舞台 劇團 戲劇

莎士比亞簡介 (An Introduction to Shakespeare)

  • 145 9
    Jerry Liu 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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