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  • With nearly 30,000 cafes across the globe, Starbucks has become more than just a household name.

    星巴克在全球遍佈近三萬間分店,它早已不只是一個家喻戶曉的名字。

  • From its iconic cups, often adorned with misspelled names, to the espresso inside them, Starbucks has catapulted from one coffee bean shop in Seattle to a sprawling $80 billion business over the last 47 years.

    從它標誌性的杯子,上頭還通常寫錯名字,到裡頭裝著的濃縮咖啡,星巴克在過去 47 年間,從不過是西雅圖的一間咖啡豆店成長成價值 800 億的企業。

  • Starbucks sales account for 57% of the total cafe market.

    星巴克的銷售額佔了咖啡市場的 57%。

  • Yes, 57 percent.

    你沒聽錯,就是 57%。

  • Nearly two-thirds of all coffee sold at cafes in the U.S. comes from a Starbucks.

    在美國賣出的所有咖啡中有三分之二都是出自星巴克。

  • But this impressive expansion hasn't come without growing pains.

    但這驚人的成長得來不易。

  • With more than 14,000 locations in the U.S. alone, Starbucks has spread itself too thin.

    星巴克光是在美國就有一萬四千個據點,有些做過頭了。

  • Having too many stores has led to fewer transactions at individual stores.

    太多分店意味著每一間店的交易量就會減少。

  • To compensate, the company has raised prices.

    為了彌補這點,公司提高了價格。

  • But doing this too quickly, or too often, can drive customers away.

    但是抬價太快或是太頻繁都會流失顧客。

  • So how did this happen?

    所以這是怎麼一回事?

  • And what's a coffee giant to do about it?

    如此一位咖啡大亨又是如何解決危機的?

  • The year is 1970.

    要先回到 1970 年。

  • Three college friends, Zev Siegl, Jerry Baldwin and Gordon Bowker decide to get into the coffee business.

    Zev Siegl、Jerry Baldwin 和 Gordon Bowker 這三位大學好友決定要加入咖啡界。

  • They found a mentor in Alfred Peet, founder of Peet's Coffee and the man responsible for bringing custom coffee roasting to the U.S..

    他們找來了 Alfred Peet 當指導人,他是畢特咖啡的創辦者,也是將客製化咖啡烘焙引進美國的人。

  • He knew the coffee industry inside and out, especially the gourmet end.

    他對於咖啡界理解透徹,尤其是優質咖啡的部分。

  • He was the most educated coffee guy in the country at that time.

    他是當時國內最有學識的咖啡業者。

  • So with Peet's help, the three friends open Starbucks, a coffee bean shop and roastery at Seattle's famous Pike Place Market in 1971.

    所以這三位朋友在 Peet 的協助下於 1971 年開設了星巴克,一間位於西雅圖有名的派克市場的咖啡豆烘焙坊。

  • Peet provided the young entrepreneurs with roasted coffee beans and connected them with coffee brokers until they could set up their own roastery and source their own beans.

    Peet 提供烘焙咖啡豆給這些年輕的企業家,並且幫助他們建立和咖啡中盤商的人脈,直到他們可以建立起自己的烘焙坊並且自行購買咖啡豆。

  • For the first decade, the founders opened five more locations in Seattle.

    在頭十年,他們在西雅圖又多開了五間分店。

  • At this point, contemporary coffee consumers might have noticed a glaring absence: actual coffee drinks.

    到了這時候,當代咖啡消費者大概已經注意到他們一直以來缺少的一塊 : 真正的咖啡飲品。

  • But that's the thing about the 70s coffee culture: it didn't really exist outside the home.

    但 70 年代的咖啡文化就是這樣,在家門外沒有真的咖啡。

  • There were no coffee bars.

    沒有咖啡館。

  • Nor was there much of a demand for espresso-based drinks.

    也沒有什麼濃縮咖啡基底飲品的消費需求。

  • You purchased coffee beans and you either took them home as beans or we ground them for you in the store.

    買了咖啡豆之後,你要嘛原封不動帶回家,或是我們在店裡幫你把豆子磨好。

  • Nobody expected to get a beverage at a Starbucks coffee store until after 1980.

    在 1980 年以前,沒有人想過能從星巴克咖啡店買飲品。

  • Starbucks' initial focus was bringing high quality beans to consumers who were more accustomed to instant or canned coffee.

    星巴克一開始著重在販售高品質咖啡豆給比較習慣即溶咖啡和罐裝咖啡的消費者。

  • But that changed with the addition of one man.

    但這個人帶來了改變。

  • The company hired its first really professional Director of Marketing and Sales, and that man was Howard Schultz.

    星巴克聘請了他們第一位專業的市場營銷總監,這名男子就是 Howard Schultz。

  • And he couldn't figure out why we weren't selling beverages.

    他不能理解我們為什麼不買飲品。

  • In 1983, Schultz travels to Italy and returns with an idea: turn the coffee bean stores into cafes.

    在 1983 年,Schultz 到義大利旅遊,帶回了一個點子 : 將咖啡豆販售店變成咖啡館。

  • Starbucks served its first latte the next year.

    在隔年,星巴克賣出了他們第一杯拿鐵。

  • The experiment was a success, and four years later, Schultz partnered with investors and bought Starbucks for $3.8 million.

    這次的實驗是個成功,四年後,Schultz 和投資者合夥,以 380 萬美金的價格買下星巴克。

  • He was only 34 at the time.

    他當時才 34 歲。

  • Schultz pursued a strategy of aggressive expansion.

    Schultz 企圖採取大型擴張的策略。

  • By the time the company went public in 1992, it had 165 stores.

    到了該公司於 1992 年上市時,它已經有了 165 間店。

  • By 1996, it had opened more than a thousand locations, including its first international cafes in Japan and Singapore.

    到了 1996 年,它已經開了超過一千間分店,包括最初幾間在日本和新加坡的國際分店。

  • Growth was so rapid that, just three years later, Starbucks opened its 2,000th location.

    成長得實在太迅速,短短三年後星巴克有了第 2000 個據點。

  • Schultz switched from CEO to Executive Chairman in 2000, at which time Starbucks operated 3,500 stores in more than a dozen countries.

    Schultz 在 2000 年從執行長轉到執行董事長,在這時候,星巴克已經在超過十個國家開了 3500 間店。

  • Between 2000 and 2007, the number of Starbucks cafes more than quadrupled, from 3,500 to over 15,000.

    在 2000 到 2007 年間,星巴克咖啡館數量成長超過四倍,從 3500 間增加到 15000 以上。

  • During this period, the company opened an average of 1,500 stores every year, including 2,500 in 2007 alone.

    在此期間,該公司平均每年開設 1500 間店,而在 2007 年一年內就開了 2500 間。

  • Sales shot up from $2 billion to $9.4 billion.

    銷售額從 20 億直衝到 94 億。

  • Consumers were increasingly ditching their kitchen mugs for these iconic paper to-go cups.

    越多消費者捨棄家中的馬克杯,轉而投向這些代表性的外賣紙杯。

  • But then, Starbucks hit a wall: the 2007 financial crash.

    但就在這時,星巴克面臨了一個危機 : 2007 年的金融危機。

  • That year, its rapid growth screeched to a halt and its stock price plummeted by 50 percent as cash-strapped consumers backed away from pricey coffee habits.

    在那年,它飛快的成長猝然終止,而且股票價格猛跌了 50 個百分點,因為勒緊皮帶的消費者沒辦法再繼續花大錢喝咖啡。

  • The Great Recession was devastating for the restaurant industry.

    經濟大蕭條重創了餐飲業者。

  • What we typically saw was more trading out, so consumers taking a pause on that everyday luxury that Starbucks offered.

    比較典型的是企業互換商品或服務,所以消費者就先暫停了每日到星巴克買咖啡的奢侈。

  • So Starbucks brought back Howard Schultz.

    所以星巴克召回了 Howard Schultz。

  • This news alone caused Starbucks stock to shoot up by 9 percent.

    光是這個消息就讓星巴克股市上升了 9 個百分點。

  • Schultz halted growth and focused on customer experience.

    Schultz 暫停擴店,並且聚焦在消費者體驗。

  • He shuttered cafesmore than 600 in 2008 and another 300 in 2009–and laid off around 6,700 baristas.

    他在 2008 年關了超過 600 間咖啡館,2009 年又關了 300 間,並且解僱了約 6700 名咖啡師。

  • A month after his return, Schultz ordered Starbucks to close all of its U.S. locations for one afternoon so he could retrain more than 135,000 baristas about how to make its signature espresso.

    在他回歸後一個月,Schultz 下令美國境內所有星巴克暫停營業一個下午,所以他才能重新指導 13 萬 5000 名咖啡師怎麼做他們最具代表性的濃縮咖啡。

  • Schultz's goal was to remind customers what they loved about the brand by making the stores an experience, not just a place to get a quick coffee.

    Schultz 的目標是藉由將咖啡館營造為一個體驗,而非只是一個能夠快速買咖啡的地方,來喚起消費者對於這個品牌的喜愛。

  • They stopped selling breakfast sandwiches and brought back in-house grinding, infusing the cafes once again with that fresh coffee aroma.

    他們不再賣早餐三明治,並且復甦了現磨咖啡,再一次將新鮮的咖啡香氣注入咖啡館。

  • Schultz even mandated the removal of automatic espresso machines.

    Schultz 甚至下令撤掉自動的濃縮咖啡機。

  • These made service faster, but removed much of the romance and theater of watching baristas craft each cup of coffee.

    這些機器讓服務加快,但是卻消弭了觀看咖啡師精巧製作一杯杯咖啡的浪漫氛圍和劇場效果。

  • Schultz's makeover worked.

    Schultz 的改造奏效了。

  • The company's stock soared more than 143% in 2009 and same-store sales rebounded.

    公司的股市在 2009 年驟升了 143 個百分點,而且同店銷售也回歸了。

  • Starbucks has posted positive same-store sales ever since.

    星巴克自那時起的同店銷售一直保持正向發展。

  • During Schultz's makeover of the cafes, Starbucks barely opened any new stores.

    在 Schultz 重整咖啡館期間,星巴克幾乎沒有再開任何新的店。

  • But the pace picked up again in 2012.

    但是在 2012 年步調回升了。

  • By 2017, Starbucks opened nearly 3,000 more locations, ending the year with 28,000 cafes around the world.

    到了 2017 年,星巴克開了近 3000 間新店,到了年底全球擁有 2 萬 8000 間分店。

  • However this brings us back to the first problem: profit cannibalization.

    然而這也帶我們回到最初的問題 : 利潤互食。

  • Over-saturation, particularly in urban locations, has spread sales thin.

    過度的飽和,尤其在都市地區,導致各間店分到的利潤減少。

  • Because Starbucks has so many locations, customers don't have to be loyal to just one.

    因為星巴克擁有太多的據點,消費者不需要忠於特定一間。

  • So even if Starbucks' overall sales are growing, its individual same-store sales won't reflect it.

    所以雖然星巴克整體銷售在成長,獨立的同店銷售卻反映不出來。

  • Compounding this problem are changing consumer preferences.

    問題還不止如此,消費者喜好的改變更是雪上加霜。

  • People are shying away from sugar-laden calorie bombs, which happens to be one of Starbucks' staples.

    人們開始避開滿是糖分的高卡路里怪獸,那剛好也是星巴克主打的其中一種。

  • These signature Frappuccinos contain an average of 57 grams of sugar.

    這些代表性的星冰樂平均含有 57 克的糖。

  • That's more than double the recommended daily limit of sugar.

    那可是每日建議攝取糖分的兩倍以上。

  • So to combat these problems, Starbucks is changing once again.

    所以為了克服這些問題,星巴克再一次進行改變。

  • The company announced the closure of 150 stores in 2019.

    公司宣佈在 2019 年要關閉 150 間分店。

  • That may seem like a drop in the bucket for a sprawling company like Starbucks, but it's three times the number of stores it usually closes each year.

    對於如星巴克這種據點眾多的公司來說,那看來似乎數量不多,但其實那已經是它每年通常會關閉的店家數量的三倍。

  • The company will still open stores, but future growth will be more focused.

    他們還是會持續開店,不過會著重更多在未來成長上。

  • Additionally, decadent drinks topped with whipped cream are taking a backseat.

    還有就是,那些覆滿鮮奶油的甜滋滋罪惡飲料將會退居幕後。

  • Instead, the company is pushing lighter drinks like cold brew and its fruity Refreshers.

    改為推廣輕飲品,像是冷萃咖啡和冰搖沁爽水果系列。

  • The company also plans to roll out delivery to a quarter of its company-owned stores by the middle of 2019.

    公司也打算在 2019 上半年於四分之一的分店推出外送服務。

  • Perhaps the company's biggest undertaking is its new line of upscale stores: Starbucks Reserve Roasteries.

    或許該公司最大的任務是他們新的高檔店鋪 : 星巴克典藏烘焙坊。

  • These massive, 20,000-square foot stores are designed to be a tourist destination.

    這些巨型的、占兩萬平方英呎的店鋪是設計來作為一個觀光景點。

  • Here, Starbucks baristas and bartenders experiment with different brewing methods and craft new, innovative beverages.

    在這裡,星巴克咖啡師和酒保用各種不同的沖泡方法做實驗,做出新滋味飲品。

  • These have proven popular.

    這些店受到歡迎。

  • In the first weeks, the Shanghai Roastery made an average of $64,000 every day, which is double what a regular cafe makes in a week.

    在頭幾週,上海典藏烘焙坊每日平均有 6 萬 4000 元美金的收益,是一間尋常咖啡館一週收益的兩倍。

  • The company has opened four Roasteries so far with plans for two more.

    星巴克目前已經開了四間典藏點,有預計會再開兩間。

  • It doesn't look and feel like anything else that Starbucks has.

    不論是視覺上或感覺上,都不像星巴克。

  • Those are the kinds of experiential stores, the high-end experience stores, that consumers are really looking for.

    這些是體驗商店,消費者真正在找尋的高端體驗店。

  • But I think what's going to be more interesting, coming out of this, is the halo effect that puts the brand in a higher light among consumers.

    但我想,接下來從中可以看到更有趣的是,這樣的光環效應會讓品牌在消費者眼中更耀眼。

  • Yeah, that's pretty meaningful.

    這還滿有意義的。

With nearly 30,000 cafes across the globe, Starbucks has become more than just a household name.

星巴克在全球遍佈近三萬間分店,它早已不只是一個家喻戶曉的名字。

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星巴克是如何變成咖啡界龍頭的? (How Starbucks Became An $80B Business)

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    April Lu 發佈於 2019 年 01 月 16 日
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