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  • Over on our sister channel, BBC Earth Lab, we've delved into why it is that some foods can be super spicy.

    在我們的姐妹頻道 BBC Earth Lab 中,我們深入探討了,為什麼有些食物可能是超辣的。

  • The answer lies in a tiny molecule, called capsaicin, that naturally occurs in chilli peppers,

    答案在於一種叫做辣椒素的微小分子,它存在於天然的辣椒中

  • and which has the ability to trigger an intense burning sensation.

    能夠引發強烈的燒灼感。

  • For how that works, you'll have to watch Greg's video, but I'm really interested in why some plants go to the effort of making such a sadistic chemical.

    至於它是如何產生的,你要看 Greg 的視頻才會知道,但我真的很感興趣,為什麼一些植物會努力製造這種整人的化學物質。

  • You see, chilli peppers are a type of fleshy fruit that plants develop after being fertilisedjust like apples, bananas, and raspberries.

    是這樣的,辣椒是一種植物受精後發育出的肉質果實 - 就像蘋果,香蕉和覆盆子一樣。

  • The point of these fruits is to be enticing to passing animals, in the hope that they'll spot them,

    這些果實的主要目的,就是想吸引路過的動物,希望能被這些動物發現

  • chow down on them, and then travel far away before the resistant seeds find their way back out through their poo.

    把它們吞下,然後這些動物旅行至遠方,將無法被消化的種子隨著糞便排泄出來。

  • With any luck, the seeds will survive and germinate in their new home, far away from

    運氣好的話,這些種子會在遠離母株的新天地中存活、發芽

  • the mother plant, giving them more than an even chance to survive and thrive.

    這樣一來它們有更多的生存和茁壯的機會。

  • And chilli peppers are no exception to the eat-travel-poop method of seed dispersal.

    辣椒也不例外,藉著被動物「吞食 - 移動 - 排泄」的方式,將種子散播出去。

  • The bright reds, yellows and oranges of the ripe fruit are just what's needed to attract passing creatures.

    靠著成熟果實鮮艷的紅色、黃色和橙色,來吸引路過的動物來吃它。

  • But they hide a vicious secret. Most fruits of the Capsicum genusthat's chilli

    但這中間隱藏著一個邪惡的秘密。 那就是大多數辣椒屬植物的果實 - 對你我而言

  • peppers to you and me - contain the burn-inducing chemical capsaicin, lying in wait for unsuspecting snackers.

    就是辣椒 - 都含有引發燒灼感的辣椒素,正等待著毫無戒心的吃客上門。

  • What benefit can there be to advertising sugar but only delivering spice?

    想叫別人來吃你,卻把自己弄得那麼辣,這有什麼好處呢?

  • You might think that it's because other animals don't feel the same burn we do when they munch on a scotch bonnet.

    你可能會認為,這是因為其他的動物吃蘇格蘭帽辣椒時,沒有和我們一樣的燒灼感。

  • But researchers have found that both mammals and insects also experience the heat of capsaicin

    但研究人員發現,哺乳動物和昆蟲在口腔內部甚至是皮膚

  • when it comes into contact with the insides of their mouths or even with their skin, making

    接觸到辣椒時,也會感受到辣椒素的燒灼感

  • them avoid the deceptive fruits of the Capsicum genus.

    這使得它們得以避免被辣椒屬的果實所欺騙而誤食。

  • Which is lucky, because it's these animals that have the ability to throw a spanner in the works of the seed dispersal plan.

    這是件好事,因為就是這些動物會破壞了種子的傳宗接代計畫。

  • Even though the seeds, like bits of sweetcorn, are able to survive the journey through an

    即使像是甜玉米的種子,能夠在通過動物的腸道後存活下來

  • animal's gut, the small mammals that eat the chilli fruits do so by grinding the tough

    但吃辣椒的小型哺乳動物,會用牙齒將堅硬的種子磨碎

  • bits with their teeth, damaging the seeds so that when they pop out the other end, they won't germinate.

    使得種子被破壞,所以當它們從腸道的另一端被排泄出來時,它們就無法發芽。

  • Likewise, insects feed on chilli peppers by puncturing the flesh and sucking out the juice

    同樣的,昆蟲是透過穿刺果肉吸取汁液的方式來吃辣椒

  • but these puncture wounds are perfect breeding grounds for fungi that can also damage

    - 但是這些被刺破的傷口,卻成為真菌滋生的理想場所,而真菌會破壞種子

  • the seeds, and the plant's hopes of reproducing.

    並毀了植物繁殖的希望。

  • So with spicy capsaicin deterring these dangerous munchers, the seeds have a decent chance of surviving to germinate.

    因此,辣椒素可以阻止這些危險的咀嚼者,使種子有很好的機會可以存活發芽。

  • But how do they get dispersed?

    但這些種子是如何被傳播至各處呢?

  • Well, there is one group of animals that capsaicin doesn't affectand that's birds.

    嗯,有一種動物不會被辣椒素所影響 - 那就是鳥類。

  • With a different configuration of nerves, the birds take no notice of even scorchingly

    由於神經結構的不同,鳥類對即使更辣的辣素都無感

  • high concentrations of spice, and gobble chilli peppers down like a kid with sweets. And the

    他們會像小孩吃糖菓一樣吞食辣椒

  • crucial thing is that they don't chew or grind themthe seeds go straight in, and

    重要的是,他們不會咀嚼或磨碎種子 - 種子被直接吞進去

  • come straight back out again, hopefully after a nice long flight.

    希望經過一段長途飛行後,再直接被排泄出去。

  • So by using a simple chemical to drive away the grinders, and attract the gobblers, Capsicum

    因此,通過使用一種簡單的化學物質 (辣椒素) 來驅走咀嚼者並吸引吞食者者

  • plants get only the best dispersers, making sure none of their precious reproductive resources are wasted.

    辣椒類植物獲得了最佳的種子傳播方式,確保它們寶貴的繁殖資源不會被浪費掉。

  • But this does raise another questionif capsaicin is so good at ensuring successful

    但這引發了另一個疑問 - 如果辣椒素對於確保種子傳播這麼有用

  • seed dispersal, why don't all fruiting plants produce it?

    為什麼不是所有的果樹都製造它呢?

  • The answer, is that chilli spice isn't such a simple chemical after all, and it takes

    答案是,辣椒辛香素畢竟不是一種簡單的化學物質

  • a lot of the plant's precious nutritional resourceslike nitrogento produce it.

    它需要植物大量的珍貴養分 - 如氮素 - 來製造它。

  • The Capsicum plants took a big risk when they put their eggs in the chemistry basket, as

    辣椒植物使種子產生化學效應時,它們冒了一個很大的風險

  • they're relying on an uninterrupted supply of water and nutrients to even start to make the manipulative chilli pepper.

    因為它們必須依靠不斷供應水和養分,才能開始製作辣椒。

  • And when there's a dry spell, it's the chillies that suffer, while the traditionalists come out on top.

    當碰到乾旱的時候,受害的就是辣椒,因為傳統的作物會被優先灌溉。

  • But the chilli's peculiar evolutionary gamble has paid off in more ways than one. Since

    雖然辣椒獨特的進化方式像是賭博一般,但在很多方面都得到了回報。自從

  • their discovery by native American human populations thousands of years ago, who found they could

    幾千年前辣椒被美洲土著發現它可以

  • provide just the zing their cuisine needed, the plants have been nurtured and cultured and selectively bred to suite every palate.

    增添食物的風味後,這些植物就受到了培育和種植,並被刻意地栽種來搭配各式佳餚。

  • As a result, they've spread further than even a bird could carry them. Even here, to the Alnwick Garden in Northumberland!

    因此,它們散播之廣,遠遠超過了鳥類能夠傳播的範圍。甚至到了這裡,(英國) 諾森伯蘭郡的阿尼克花園!

  • So, that's the secret to spicy plants.

    這就是辣椒的秘密。

  • Click here to check out the Earth Lab video on how they tingle our tastebuds,

    請點擊這裡觀看 Earth Lab 的視頻,了解它們如何刺激我們的味蕾

  • and don't forget to like and subscribe for more fascinating nature videos.

    並且不要忘記按讚,和訂閱更有趣有關大自然的視頻。

Over on our sister channel, BBC Earth Lab, we've delved into why it is that some foods can be super spicy.

在我們的姐妹頻道 BBC Earth Lab 中,我們深入探討了,為什麼有些食物可能是超辣的。

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B2 中高級 中文 英國腔 辣椒 種子 辣椒素 植物 動物 果實

為什麼辣椒很辣?| 大地無疆 (Why Are Chillies Spicy? | Earth Unplugged)

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    Amy.Lin 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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