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  • What I'm really here to do today is talk to you about micromanagement

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Yanyan Hong

  • and what I learned about micromanagement

    今天我來這裡, 是要和大家談微觀管理,

  • by being a micromanager over the last few years of my life.

    以及我在過去幾年 身為一名微觀管理者,

  • But first off, what is micromanagement?

    從微觀管理中學到的事。

  • How do we really define it?

    但首先,微觀管理是什麼?

  • Well, I posit that it's actually taking great, wonderful, imaginative people --

    我們要如何定義它?

  • like all of you --

    我認為,微觀管理就是把很不簡單、

  • bringing them in into an organization

    有想像力的人—— 比如在座的各位——

  • and then crushing their souls --

    將他們帶入一個組織中, 接著壓碎他們的靈魂

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)告訴他們要用多大的字體。

  • by telling them what font size to use.

    在人類史上,

  • In the history of mankind,

    有沒有人說過這句話?

  • has anyone ever said this?

    「約翰,用 Times New Roman 字體我們是不可能成交的,

  • "John, we were never going to close that deal with Times New Roman,

    但因為你堅持用 Helvetica 字體——

  • but because you insisted on Helvetica --

    砰!虛線——

  • bam!

    數百萬美金就開始流動。 我們缺的就是這個!」

  • Dotted line --

    沒人說過這種話吧?

  • millions of dollars started to flow.

    當我們正受微觀管理時,

  • That was the missing piece!"

    我們可能會在自己身上 看到具體化的呈現。

  • No one's ever said that, right?

    想想看你人生中最累的時刻。

  • There's actually physical manifestations that we probably see in ourselves

    可能不是你工作加班 成為最後一個離開的人,

  • by being micromanaged.

    可能不是你完成了一趟 道路旅行回到家的時候,

  • Think about the most tired you've ever been in your life, right?

    而是有人一直盯著你,

  • It probably wasn't when you stayed the latest at work,

    看著你做每一個動作。

  • or it wasn't when you came home from a road trip,

    有點像我岳母來拜訪的時候。

  • it was probably when you had someone looking over your shoulder,

    (笑聲)

  • watching your each and every move.

    我心裡嘀咕:「我可以好不好。」

  • Kind of like my mother-in-law when she's over right?

    這背後其實有資料佐證。

  • (Laughter)

    最近英國有一項研究。

  • I'm like, "I got this," you know?

    他們找了一百位醫院員工,

  • And so there's actually data to support this.

    在他們身上裝活動追蹤器,

  • There was a recent study in the UK.

    接著讓他們在接下來的 十二小時獨自執班,

  • They took 100 hospital employees,

    只是一般的十二小時排班。

  • put an activity tracker on them

    在執班結束之後,他們問員工: 「你們覺得疲勞嗎?」

  • and then let them go about their next 12-hour shift all alone,

    他們的發現十分有趣,

  • just a regular 12-hour shift.

    不見得是移動最多的人 會覺得最疲勞,

  • At the end of the shift, they asked them, "Do you feel fatigued?"

    反而是無法控制自己工作的那些人。

  • And what they found was actually really interesting.

    所以,如果我們知道 微觀管理不是很有效,

  • It wasn't necessarily the people who moved the most

    為什麼我們還要用它?

  • that felt the most fatigued,

    是定義有錯嗎?

  • but it was the folks that didn't have control over their jobs.

    我認為,微觀管理

  • So if we know that micromanagement isn't really effective,

    只是把很不簡單、 有想像力的人帶進來,

  • why do we do it?

    接著壓碎他們的靈魂,

  • Is it that the definition is wrong?

    所以我們是否其實是想要僱用——

  • I posited that micromanagement

    內心深處的想法——

  • is just bringing in great, wonderful, imaginative people

    無聊又沒想像力的人?

  • and then crushing their souls,

    這種問題是不用問也知道答案的。

  • so is it that we actually want to hire --

    就像:「你希望你的行李 在機場被偷嗎?」

  • deep down inside of us --

    可能不想,但從來沒被問過吧?

  • dull and unimaginative people?

    若你是管理者, 是否有任何人問過你:

  • It's one of those questions you probably don't even need to ask.

    「你是否想要僱用無聊 又沒想像力的人?」

  • It's like, "Do you want to get your luggage stolen at the airport?"

    我不知道,這裡是 TED, 我們最好用資料來佐證。

  • Probably not, but I've never been asked, right?

    我們真的去問了全國各地的數百人——

  • So has anyone asked you, as a manager,

    全國各地的數百名管理者——

  • "Do you want to hire dull and unimaginative people?"

    你是否想要僱用無聊 且沒有想像力的人?

  • So, I don't know, this is TED, we better back it up with data.

    好,這是個有趣的問題。

  • We actually asked hundreds of people around the country --

    嗯,結果也很有趣。

  • hundreds of managers across the country --

    94% 的人說不(笑聲)——

  • do you want to hire dull and unimaginative people?

    我們不想要僱用無聊 且沒有想像力的人。

  • Alright, it's an interesting question.

    6% 可能是不了解問題——

  • Well, interesting results as well.

    (笑聲)

  • So, 94% said no --

    但,好傢伙,

  • (Laughter)

    也許他們真的想要僱用 無聊且沒想像力的人。

  • we don't want to hire dull and unimaginative people.

    但 94% 說他們不想,

  • Six percent probably didn't understand the question --

    所以為什麼我們仍然這麼做?

  • (Laughter)

    我認為答案非常非常簡單,

  • but, bless their hearts,

    是我們所有人的內心深處 都知道且感覺得到的。

  • maybe they do just want to hire dull and unimaginative people.

    當我們被僱用進入一個組織——

  • But 94 percent said they did not, and so why do we do this still then?

    可能是俱樂部,可能是法律事務所,

  • Well, I posit that it's something really, really simple

    可能是學校組織,什麼都有可能——

  • that all of us deep down inside know and have actually felt.

    沒有人會直接跳到最上級,對吧?

  • So when we get hired into an organization --

    你要從最基層做起。

  • it could be a club, it could be a law firm,

    做什麼?

  • it could be a school organization, it could be anything --

    做工作。

  • no one ever jumps to the top of the totem pole, right?

    你真的要做工作,對吧?

  • You start at the very bottom.

    如果你真的很擅長做工作, 你會得到什麼獎賞?

  • Doing what?

    更多的工作,對吧?

  • Doing work.

    是的,你們這些人全都是 很棒的微觀管理者。

  • You actually do the work, right?

    (笑聲)你要做更多工作,

  • And if you're really good at doing the work,

    接著,很快的, 如果你真的很擅長它,

  • what do you get rewarded with?

    你仍然要做一點工作,

  • More work, right?

    但,其實,你會開始 管理做工作的人。

  • Yeah, that's right, you guys are all great micromanagers.

    如果你很擅長管理, 之後會發生什麼事?

  • (Laughter)

    你開始要管理那些 管理做工作的人的人,

  • You do more work,

    就在那個時間點,

  • and then pretty soon, if you're really good at it,

    你會開始無法控制你工作的產出。

  • you do a little bit of work still,

    我真的親自目賭過。

  • but actually, you start to manage people doing the work.

    我在我們的車庫創立了 一間公司,叫做 Boxed,

  • And if you're really good at that, what happens after that?

    就是它——我知道 它看起來不怎麼樣——

  • You start managing the people who manage the people doing the work,

    後面其實有一台壓力清洗裝置——

  • and it's at that point in time,

    這是「活在夢想中」。

  • you start to lose control over the output of your job.

    我們剛創立時, 我太太對我感到很驕傲,

  • I've actually witnessed this firsthand.

    或是至少她說 她對我感到很驕傲——

  • So, I started a company called Boxed in our garage,

    她會給我一個擁抱, 我很確定她還拿著手機,

  • and this was it -- I know it doesn't seem like much --

    且她在想:「喔, 哈佛的約翰還單身嗎?」

  • you know, there's a pressure washer in the back --

    這有點像是檸檬水攤子 一開始就出了差錯,

  • this is "living the dream."

    但我們卻跑出來說 行動商務將會變得很大,

  • And my wife was really proud of me when we started this,

    且快速消費品將會隨著時間改變,

  • or that's what she said, she was really proud of me --

    所以,我們把這些你其實 不想吃力搬回家的龐大包裝——

  • and so she would give me a hug, and I'm pretty sure she had her phone up

    不是兩件裝的奧利奧, 是 24 件裝的,

  • and she was thinking, "Oh, is John from Harvard still single?"

    不是 24 件裝的廁所衛生紙, 而是 48 件裝的——

  • It was kind of like a lemonade stand gone wrong in the beginning,

    我們把它寄給你, 就像倉儲會員店會做的那樣,

  • but we actually went up and said mobile commerce is going to be big,

    除了它們不會把它寄給你。

  • and actually consumer packaged goods were going to change over time,

    基本上,那就是我們做的。 我們有台很慢的印表機,

  • so let's take these big, bulky packs that you don't want to lug home --

    我們做的是說:「這台印表機 要一輩子才會印出東西來。

  • so not the two-pack of Oreo cookies but the 24-pack

    我們在這些發票的背後隨便寫些 能討好消費者的東西吧。」

  • and not the 24-pack of toilet paper but the 48-pack --

    所以,我們會說: 「嘿,保持微笑。」

  • and let's ship it to you much like a warehouse club would do

    「嘿,你很棒。」

  • except they wouldn't ship it to you.

    或「嘿,好好享用多力多滋。」 或「我們也愛開特力。」

  • So that's what we basically did.

    諸如此類。

  • We had a really slow printer

    所以,工作的單調性也開始被打破,

  • and what we did was actually say, "OK, this printer is taking forever, man.

    因為我在撿貨和包裝所有的盒子,

  • Let's scribble something that would delight the customer

    基本上,你一天八小時、十小時、

  • on the back of these invoices."

    十二小時都坐在車庫裡做這些。

  • So we'd say, "Hey, keep smiling," you know?

    於是,一件有趣的事發生了。

  • "Hey, you're awesome,"

    我們真的開始成長了。

  • or, "Hey, enjoy the Doritos,"

    所以,在過去——

  • or, "We love Gatorade, too."

    其實,即使是在那之後 36 個月,

  • Stuff like that.

    我們就銷售出數億美元的東西,

  • And so it started breaking up the monotony of the job as well

    我們真的成長得很快。

  • because I was picking and packing all of the boxes,

    但在那段時間, 我的角色也開始改變了。

  • and that's all you basically do for eight, nine, 10, 12 hours a day

    是的,我是車庫裡的執行長;

  • when you're sitting in the garage.

    我做撿貨和包裝等等所有的工作,

  • And so an interesting thing happened.

    但接著,我畢業了, 真的開始管理別人,

  • So we actually started to grow.

    讓他們來撿貨和包裝,

  • And so, you know, over the last --

    接著,很快,我所管理的人

  • actually just even 36 months after that,

    是在管理撿貨和包裝的人的人。

  • we ended up selling hundreds of millions of dollars worth of stuff,

    即使現在,我管理的是最高層的人,

  • and we actually grew really, really quickly.

    他們要管理部門,

  • But during that time, my role started to change, too.

    部門要管理那些 管理撿貨和包裝的人的人。

  • So, yes, I was the CEO in the garage;

    所以,在那個時點,我失去了控制。

  • I was picking and packing, doing all the work,

    我心想,我們用這些字條 來讓客人感到很愉快。

  • but then I graduated

    他們很愛這些字條, 但我不能再寫字條了,

  • to actually managing the people who picked and packed,

    你們知道我打算怎麼做嗎?

  • and then pretty soon I managed the people

    我要告訴這些人如何寫字條。

  • who managed the people picking and packing.

    要用什麼筆、要用什麼顏色、 要寫什麼內容、

  • And even now, I manage the C-staff who manage the departments

    要用什麼字體、

  • who manage the people who manage the people picking and packing.

    邊際留白很重要、

  • And it is at that point in time, I lost control.

    這東西要這麼大、這東西要那麼大。

  • So I thought, OK, we were delighting all of these customers with these notes.

    很快,這個靠著打破 配送中心內的單調性

  • They loved them, but I can't write these notes anymore,

    來提升士氣的目標,

  • so you know what I'm going to do?

    就變成了微觀管理, 大家開始向人力資源處抱怨。

  • I'm going to tell these folks how to write these notes.

    比如:「老兄,這個執行長 能不能別再來煩我了?

  • What pen to use, what color to use, what you should write,

    我知道要怎麼寫該死的字條。」

  • what font you should use,

    (笑聲)

  • don't mess up the margins,

    在那個時點,我們說: 「好,你知道嗎?

  • this has to be this big, this has to be that big.

    既然我們僱用了這些很不簡單的人,

  • And pretty soon this goal of raising morale

    我們就來分派

  • by breaking up the monotony in the fulfillment center

    「讓客人愉快」的任務給他們,

  • actually became micromanagement, and people started complaining to HR.

    我們提供他們必要的工具, 就是這些字條——來做吧。」

  • It's like, "Dude, this CEO guy has got to get out of my hair, OK?

    我們的發現十分驚人。

  • I know how to write a damn note."

    有些人真的拿了這些字條,

  • (Laughter)

    且開始在上面畫一些小小的裝飾。

  • So it was at that point in time, we said, "OK, you know?

    有人訂尿布時, 會收到像這樣的有趣字條:

  • We hired these great, wonderful people,

    「替我們向寶寶說聲『嗨』!」

  • let's give them the mission that's 'delight the customer,'

    如果客人買了更大尺寸的尿布,

  • let's give them the tool to do so, and that's these notes -- have at it."

    他們會寫:「好快就長大了。」

  • And so what we found was actually pretty startling.

    大家真的喜歡它。

  • Some folks actually took the notes

    但在那時,真的發生了幾次狀況。

  • and actually started drawing these really ornate minimurals on them.

    我們有個人,永遠只會寫 「謝了,謝了」,

  • When folks ordered diapers, you'd get really fun notes like this:

    就好像是:「老兄,我老闆 以前就只會寫那些給我。」

  • "Say 'hi' to the baby for us!"

    可不可以不要再寫「謝了」。

  • And you know, the next size up, if they bought a bigger size,

    但另一方面也會有很有趣的事。

  • they'd write, "Growing up so fast."

    大家變得太有創意。

  • And so people really, really took to it.

    我之前說過,我們所有的東西 都是大型量販包:

  • But it was at that time that it also went off the rails a few times.

    大型量販包尿布、 大型量販包的廁所衛生紙、

  • And so we had someone just writing, "Thx, thx," all the time,

    大型量販包的 多力多滋和奧利奧餅乾。

  • and it's like, "Alright, dude, my boss used to write that to me,"

    我們也賣大包的避孕用品,

  • so, let's not write "Thx" anymore.

    所以——

  • But you also had interesting things on the other side.

    開始變得有點難搞。

  • People got a little too creative.

    (笑聲)

  • And so, like I said before, we sell everything in bulk:

    我們會賣四十包大包裝的保險套。

  • the big packs of diapers, big packs of toilet paper,

    這的都是成年人—— 四十包大包裝的保險套。

  • the big packs of Doritos and Oreo cookies.

    有人訂購了四組四十包 大包裝的保險套——

  • We also sell the big packs of contraception,

    (笑聲)他們只訂購這些,沒別的,

  • and so --

    所以,160 個保險套,

  • this is getting a little hairy.

    包裝者就說:「我知道 要如何讓客人愉快。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So we sell the 40-pack of condoms, right?

    「這個傢伙……」

  • We're all adults in this room -- 40-pack of condoms.

    這是他們寫的:

  • So, someone ordered four 40-packs of condoms --

    〔大家都愛樂觀的人。〕

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And that's all they ordered,

    (掌聲)

  • so, 160 condoms,

    我們不知道該開除他 還是升遷他,但他還在那裡。

  • the packer was like, "I know how to delight the customer."

    所以,「大家都愛樂觀的人。」

  • (Laughter)

    但就是在這次出了點差錯,

  • "This guy ..."

    讓我覺得這一切有點矛盾。

  • This is what they wrote:

    且——

  • [Everyone loves an optimist]

    喔,有打錯字(CONFLIC"T")——

  • (Laughter)

    如果我這裡的台上只有 紅色的 T-E-D 字樣,

  • (Applause)

    就不會打錯字了,對吧?(笑聲)

  • We didn't know whether to fire him or to promote him, but he's still there.

    (掌聲)

  • So, "Everyone loves an optimist."

    我向各位保證,我的幽默感很差,

  • But here is where it went a little bit off the rails

    現在我很滿足。

  • and I felt a little bit conflicted in all of this.

    但我真的感到很矛盾。

  • And --

    在這個時點,我們開始做一些

  • oh, there's a really bad typo --

    其實不屬於我們核心任務的事,

  • so if there was only a red T-E-D on stage that I counted on being here,

    且大家開始做不好。

  • it wouldn't be a typo, right?

    所以,我心想,我們應該 要讓他們失敗嗎?

  • (Laughter)

    我們應該要讓他們持續做下去嗎?

  • (Applause)

    我不知道——

  • I promised you I had a really bad sense of humor,

    那時我不知道,

  • and now I'm gratifying that.

    但我這樣想:

  • So I told you. But I really was conflicted, right?

    失敗真的那麼不好嗎?

  • At this point in time, we started doing things

    我的意思並不是我們要慶祝失敗。

  • that actually weren't part of our core mission

    矽谷常常會聽見這種說法: 「我們來慶祝失敗吧。」

  • and people started failing at it.

    我不知道我們是否會做到那樣,

  • And so, I thought, should we let them fail?

    因為,在我們的董事會議上,

  • Should we continue to let them do this?

    董事們從來不會說: 「嘿,傑,你上一季失敗了,

  • I don't know --

    繼續保持下去,伙計。」

  • I didn't know at that moment,

    從來沒有人這樣說。 如果你是那種組織的一員,

  • but I thought this:

    打通電話給我, 我想要參與那種會議。

  • Is failure really that bad?

    私底下,我不認為 有很多人會慶祝失敗,

  • I'm not saying we should celebrate failure.

    但我認為,長期來看,

  • There's a lot of talk in Silicon Valley that says, "Let's celebrate failure."

    失敗是必要的,

  • No, I don't know if we would go all the way there,

    這樣子,聰明、有想像力的人

  • because like, in our board meetings,

    才會真正試著去完成 你給他們的任務。

  • our board members are never like, "Hey, Chieh, you failed last quarter,

    所以,失敗可以被視為是里程碑,

  • keep doing that, buddy, OK?"

    朝向成功完成任務 前進過程的里程碑。

  • No one's ever said that.

    如果不做微觀管理的不利面

  • If you're part of an organization like that,

    是覺得你有可能會更常失敗,

  • give me a call, I want to sit in on that meeting.

    如果失敗真的沒有那麼不好,

  • In private, I don't think many people celebrate failure,

    有利面是什麼?

  • but failure, I posit, is actually pretty necessary

    我們看到了有利面,且它很棒。

  • for the folks truly in the long-term,

    我們給工程師任務並說:

  • for the smart and imaginative people

    「我們的一些配送中心 建造的成本要數百萬美元,

  • truly trying to fulfill the mission that you give them at hand.

    有數英哩的傳輸裝置,

  • And so failure can actually be seen as a milestone

    你們能否做到同樣的事,

  • along that mission towards success.

    你們能否做到更有效率, 且不用花數百萬美元?」

  • And if the downside of not micromanaging

    他們就去努力了:

  • is potentially this perceived notion that you might fail more often,

    他們真的做了這個—— 這不是用軟體修圖過的,

  • and if it's really not that bad,

    這個傢伙真的在磨東西。

  • what is the upside?

    他們建造了一台自動引導的車子。

  • Well, we saw the upside and it's pretty great.

    我並沒有告訴他們要做什麼, 要是什麼形式。

  • We tasked our engineers and said,

    他們花了九十天做出了原型機:

  • "Hey, some of our fulfillment centers cost millions of dollars to build,

    用特斯拉的電池供電, 有實體鏡攝影機,光達系統。

  • there's miles and miles of conveyor,

    基本上,它複製了輸送帶的效率,

  • and so, can you do the same thing,

    但不用真的投入資金打造輸送帶。

  • can you make them efficient without spending millions of dollars?"

    並不只有工程師這麼做。

  • So, they got to work:

    我們告訴行銷部門:

  • they actually did this -- this is not photoshopped,

    「嘿,把話傳出去;做對的事。」

  • the guy is really grinding.

    我們的行銷團隊有位 很棒的女士,妮塔莎。

  • They built an autonomous guided vehicle.

    早上,她攔住我,說:「傑, 『粉紅稅』要怎麼辦?」

  • We didn't tell them what to build, what format it needed to be.

    我繼續去弄我的咖啡,然後坐下,

  • In 90 days they produced the first prototype:

    我說:「好,妮塔莎, 粉紅稅是什麼?」