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  • He was a powerful king whose break with the church of Rome

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • would forever change the course of English history.

    他是一位強大的國王, 他和羅馬教廷的分家,

  • But was he a charismatic reformer or a bullying tyrant?

    永遠改變了英國歷史的軌道。

  • Find out on History versus Henry VIII.

    但,他是迷人的改革者, 還是霸道的暴君?

  • Judge: Order, order. Now, who do we have here? Looks like quite the dashing fellow.

    「歷史 vs.亨利八世」 帶大家找出答案。

  • Defense: Indeed, your honour. This is Henry VIII, the acclaimed king

    法官:秩序,秩序。看看這是誰。 看來是個相當時髦的傢伙。

  • who reformed England's religion and government

    辯方:的確,庭上。這位是 亨利八世,受到讚揚的國王,

  • and set it on course to becoming a modern nation.

    他改革了英國的宗教和政府,

  • Prosecutor: I beg to differ. This is a cruel, impulsive, and extravagant king

    讓英國步上成為現代國家的軌道。

  • who had as little regard for his people as he did for his six wives.

    控方:恕我不能同意。 這是一位殘酷、衝動、奢侈的國王

  • Judge: Six wives?

    他對人民的忽視,就像 他對六位妻子的忽視一樣。

  • Defense: Your honor, Henry's first marriage was arranged for him

    法官:六位妻子?

  • when he was only a child.

    辯方:庭上,亨利的第一次婚姻

  • He only married Catherine of Aragon to strengthen England's alliance with Spain.

    是他小時候就被安排好的。

  • Prosecutor: An alliance he was willing to toss aside with no regard for the nation.

    他娶了阿拉貢的凱瑟琳,只是 為了強化英國和西班牙的聯盟。

  • Defense: Henry had every regard for the nation.

    控方:他完全不考量國家, 就可以把這個聯姻丟到一邊。

  • It was imperative to secure the Tudor dynasty by producing a male heir

    辯方:亨利總是為國家考量。

  • something Catherine failed to do in over twenty years of marriage.

    為了要保住都鐸王朝, 生出男性後裔是非常要緊的——

  • Prosecutor: It takes two to make an heir, your honor.

    在超過二十年的婚姻中, 凱瑟琳都沒有做到。

  • Defense: Ahem. Regardless, England needed a new queen to ensure stability,

    控方:要兩個人才能 生出後裔,庭上。

  • but the Pope refused to annul the union and let the king remarry.

    辯方:嗯哼。不論如何,英國需要 一個新皇后來確保國家穩定,

  • Judge: Sounds like quite a pickle. Can't argue with the Pope.

    但教皇拒絕廢除他們的 婚姻來讓國王再婚。

  • Prosecutor: And yet that's exactly what the king decided to do.

    法官:聽起來是個困境。 不能和教皇爭。

  • He uprooted the country's religious foundations

    控方:但國王就打算這麼做。

  • and broke the Church of England away from Rome,

    他直接根除了國家的宗教基礎,

  • leading to centuries of strife.

    將英國教廷和羅馬分離,

  • Defense: All Henry did was give the Church honest domestic leadership.

    導致了數世紀的爭鬥。

  • He freed his subjects from the corrupt Roman Catholic establishment.

    辯方:亨利做的只是給予教廷 正當取得的國內領導權。

  • And by rejecting the more radical changes of the Protestant reformation,

    他讓國民脫離 腐敗的羅馬天主教體制。

  • he allowed his people to preserve most of their religious traditions.

    還經由拒絕更極端的新教改革,

  • Prosecutor: Objection! The Church had been a beloved and popular institution

    讓人民能保有大部分的宗教傳統。

  • that brought comfort and charity to the masses.

    控方:抗議!教廷一直是 備受愛戴和歡迎的機構,

  • Thanks to Henry, church property was seized;

    將安慰與慈悲帶給大眾。

  • hospitals closed, and precious monastic libraries lost forever,

    因為亨利的關係, 教堂資產被扣押,醫院關閉,

  • all to enrich the Crown.

    珍貴的修道院圖書館永遠不再, 都是為了滿足君王。

  • Defense: Some of the funds were used to build new cathedrals

    辯方:有一些基金被用來建立 新的大教堂,開辦非宗教的學校。

  • and open secular schools.

    英國的確需要從羅馬手上 拿回英國事務的控制權。

  • And it was necessary for England to bring its affairs

    控方:你是指拿回來給亨利控制。

  • under its own control rather than Rome's.

    辯方:不是的。國王的 所有改革都經過國會。

  • Prosecutor: You mean under Henry's control.

    當時沒有其他國家在治理上 會允許其人民有這種發言權。

  • Defense: Not true. All of the king's major reforms went through Parliament.

    控方:他依自己的意思, 把國會當作橡皮圖章來使用。

  • No other country of the time allowed its people such a say in government.

    同時,他的統治方式就像暴君一樣,

  • Prosecutor: He used Parliament as a rubber stamp for his own personal will.

    忠誠度被他懷疑的人就會被處決。

  • Meanwhile he ruled like a tyrant, executing those he suspected of disloyalty.

    他手下的受害者包括偉大的 政治家兼哲學家湯瑪斯摩爾

  • Among his victims were the great statesman and philosopher Thomas More

    ——曾經是他的好朋友及顧問——

  • once his close friend and advisor

    以及安寶琳,她是亨利不惜讓國家 四分五裂也要娶到的新皇后。

  • and Anne Boleyn, the new queen Henry had torn the country apart to marry.

    法官:他處決了他自己的妻子?

  • Judge: He executed his own wife?

    辯方:那……並不是 亨利國王主導的。

  • Defense: Thatwasn't King Henry's initiative.

    她是在和國王的大臣湯瑪斯 克倫威爾的權力鬥爭中被控叛國。

  • She was accused of treason in a power struggle

    控方:那審判是場騙局,且若沒有 亨利的核准,她不可能會被定罪。

  • with the King's minister, Thomas Cromwell.

    此外,他對於結果 並沒有感到太沮喪——

  • Prosecutor: The trial was a sham

    才十一天後,他又娶了珍西摩兒!

  • and she wouldn't have been convicted without Henry's approval.

    辯方:我要註明,這場婚姻 成功產生了男性後裔,

  • Besides, he wasn't too upset by the outcome -

    確保能夠有穩定的繼承……

  • he married Jane Seymour just 11 days later!

    不過,很不幸地, 新皇后在生孩子時過世。

  • Defense: A marriage that, I note, succeeded in producing a male heir

    控方:這場悲劇並沒有 阻止他迎娶克里維斯的安妮,

  • and guaranteeing a stable succession

    完成計畫不周的第四次婚姻,

  • though the new queen tragically died in childbirth.

    後來他一念之間廢除了這次婚姻,

  • Prosecutor: This tragedy didn't deter him

    用它來當藉口,處決了克倫威爾。

  • from an ill conceived fourth marriage to Anne of Cleves,

    好像這樣還不夠,他接著 又娶了凱薩琳霍華德

  • which Henry then annulled on a whim and used as an excuse to execute Cromwell.

    ——安寶琳的表親—— 之後也把她處決了。

  • As if that weren't enough, he then married Catherine Howard

    辯方:她犯了通姦罪, 且她也承認了!

  • – a cousin of Anne Boleynbefore having her executed too.

    總之,亨利又娶了凱薩琳帕爾, 這最後一次婚姻是非常成功的。

  • Defense: She was engaged in adultery to which she confessed!

    控方:他的第六次!這只顯示出 他是個不懂節制的國王,

  • Regardless, Henry's final marriage to Catherine Parr

    允許他的朝廷中 有派系鬥爭和陰謀策劃,

  • was actually very successful.

    只關心他自己的享樂和浮誇。

  • Prosecutor: His sixth! It only goes to show he was an intemperate king

    辯方:國王要扮演人民的模範, 而那浮誇只是角色的一部分。

  • who allowed faction and intrigue to rule his court,

    他是位有學問的學者和音樂家, 大方地贊助藝術,

  • concerned only with his own pleasure and grandiosity.

    同時還是位氣勢宏偉的 戰士和運動員。

  • Defense: That grandiosity was part of the king's role as a model for his people.

    而他非常慷慨主辦的競賽, 讓英國在世界舞台的名聲更響亮。

  • He was a learned scholar and musician who generously patronized the arts,

    控方:可是他的國外 和國內政策都是一塌糊塗。

  • as well as being an imposing warrior and sportsman.

    他在法國的戰役及對蘇格蘭的 野蠻入侵,讓國庫透支,

  • And the lavish tournaments he hosted

    他嘗試圖支付債務的方式是 讓貨幣貶值,導致常態性通貨膨脹。

  • enhanced England's reputation on the world stage.

    領主和地主的因應方式是 不再開放公有牧地,

  • Prosecutor: And yet both his foreign and domestic policies were a disaster.

    讓農夫變成乞丐。

  • His campaigns in France and his brutal invasion of Scotland drained the treasury,

    辯方:乞丐很快就會變成自耕農。

  • and his attempt to pay for it by debasing the coinage led to constant inflation.

    圈圍的做法讓農耕變得 更有效,勞動力有剩餘,

  • The lords and landowners responded by removing access to common pastures

    為工業革命奠定了基礎。

  • and turning the peasant population into beggars.

    英國之所以能變成後來那樣的強權,

  • Defense: Beggars who would soon become yeomen farmers.

    靠的就是他們以及亨利。

  • The enclosures made farming more efficient, and created a labor surplus

    法官:嗯,我想, 不論如何,我們都能同意

  • that laid the foundation for the Industrial Revolution.

    他在畫像上十分好看。

  • England would never have become the great power that it did without them

    和教廷分離的虔誠信徒。

  • and without Henry.

    處決學者的知識分子。

  • Judge: Well, I think no matter what,

    讓王位穩定下來,

  • we can all agree he looks great in that portrait.

    卻用它來促成自身榮耀的國王,

  • A devout believer who broke with the Church.

    在現代的邊緣,亨利八世體現了

  • A man of learning who executed scholars.

    君主政治的所有矛盾。

  • A king who brought stability to the throne,

    但將統治者和神話分開來,

  • but used it to promote his own glory,

    本來就是讓歷史接受審判的一部分。

  • Henry VIII embodied all the contradictions of monarchy

  • on the verge of the modern era.

  • But separating the ruler from the myth is all part of putting history on trial.

He was a powerful king whose break with the church of Rome

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 亨利 國王 婚姻 處決 英國

歷史法庭:亨利八世的功與過 (History vs. Henry VIII - Mark Robinson and Alex Gendler)

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    詹士緯 發佈於 2018 年 12 月 16 日
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