字幕列表 影片播放 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 He was a powerful king whose break with the church of Rome 譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang would forever change the course of English history. 他是一位強大的國王， 他和羅馬教廷的分家， But was he a charismatic reformer or a bullying tyrant? 永遠改變了英國歷史的軌道。 Find out on History versus Henry VIII. 但，他是迷人的改革者， 還是霸道的暴君？ Judge: Order, order. Now, who do we have here? Looks like quite the dashing fellow. 「歷史 vs.亨利八世」 帶大家找出答案。 Defense: Indeed, your honour. This is Henry VIII, the acclaimed king 法官：秩序，秩序。看看這是誰。 看來是個相當時髦的傢伙。 who reformed England's religion and government 辯方：的確，庭上。這位是 亨利八世，受到讚揚的國王， and set it on course to becoming a modern nation. 他改革了英國的宗教和政府， Prosecutor: I beg to differ. This is a cruel, impulsive, and extravagant king 讓英國步上成為現代國家的軌道。 who had as little regard for his people as he did for his six wives. 控方：恕我不能同意。 這是一位殘酷、衝動、奢侈的國王 Judge: Six wives? 他對人民的忽視，就像 他對六位妻子的忽視一樣。 Defense: Your honor, Henry's first marriage was arranged for him 法官：六位妻子？ when he was only a child. 辯方：庭上，亨利的第一次婚姻 He only married Catherine of Aragon to strengthen England's alliance with Spain. 是他小時候就被安排好的。 Prosecutor: An alliance he was willing to toss aside with no regard for the nation. 他娶了阿拉貢的凱瑟琳，只是 為了強化英國和西班牙的聯盟。 Defense: Henry had every regard for the nation. 控方：他完全不考量國家， 就可以把這個聯姻丟到一邊。 It was imperative to secure the Tudor dynasty by producing a male heir – 辯方：亨利總是為國家考量。 something Catherine failed to do in over twenty years of marriage. 為了要保住都鐸王朝， 生出男性後裔是非常要緊的—— Prosecutor: It takes two to make an heir, your honor. 在超過二十年的婚姻中， 凱瑟琳都沒有做到。 Defense: Ahem. Regardless, England needed a new queen to ensure stability, 控方：要兩個人才能 生出後裔，庭上。 but the Pope refused to annul the union and let the king remarry. 辯方：嗯哼。不論如何，英國需要 一個新皇后來確保國家穩定， Judge: Sounds like quite a pickle. Can't argue with the Pope. 但教皇拒絕廢除他們的 婚姻來讓國王再婚。 Prosecutor: And yet that's exactly what the king decided to do. 法官：聽起來是個困境。 不能和教皇爭。 He uprooted the country's religious foundations 控方：但國王就打算這麼做。 and broke the Church of England away from Rome, 他直接根除了國家的宗教基礎， leading to centuries of strife. 將英國教廷和羅馬分離， Defense: All Henry did was give the Church honest domestic leadership. 導致了數世紀的爭鬥。 He freed his subjects from the corrupt Roman Catholic establishment. 辯方：亨利做的只是給予教廷 正當取得的國內領導權。 And by rejecting the more radical changes of the Protestant reformation, 他讓國民脫離 腐敗的羅馬天主教體制。 he allowed his people to preserve most of their religious traditions. 還經由拒絕更極端的新教改革， Prosecutor: Objection! The Church had been a beloved and popular institution 讓人民能保有大部分的宗教傳統。 that brought comfort and charity to the masses. 控方：抗議！教廷一直是 備受愛戴和歡迎的機構， Thanks to Henry, church property was seized; 將安慰與慈悲帶給大眾。 hospitals closed, and precious monastic libraries lost forever, 因為亨利的關係， 教堂資產被扣押，醫院關閉， all to enrich the Crown. 珍貴的修道院圖書館永遠不再， 都是為了滿足君王。 Defense: Some of the funds were used to build new cathedrals 辯方：有一些基金被用來建立 新的大教堂，開辦非宗教的學校。 and open secular schools. 英國的確需要從羅馬手上 拿回英國事務的控制權。 And it was necessary for England to bring its affairs 控方：你是指拿回來給亨利控制。 under its own control rather than Rome's. 辯方：不是的。國王的 所有改革都經過國會。 Prosecutor: You mean under Henry's control. 當時沒有其他國家在治理上 會允許其人民有這種發言權。 Defense: Not true. All of the king's major reforms went through Parliament. 控方：他依自己的意思， 把國會當作橡皮圖章來使用。 No other country of the time allowed its people such a say in government. 同時，他的統治方式就像暴君一樣， Prosecutor: He used Parliament as a rubber stamp for his own personal will. 忠誠度被他懷疑的人就會被處決。 Meanwhile he ruled like a tyrant, executing those he suspected of disloyalty. 他手下的受害者包括偉大的 政治家兼哲學家湯瑪斯摩爾 Among his victims were the great statesman and philosopher Thomas More ——曾經是他的好朋友及顧問—— – once his close friend and advisor – 以及安寶琳，她是亨利不惜讓國家 四分五裂也要娶到的新皇后。 and Anne Boleyn, the new queen Henry had torn the country apart to marry. 法官：他處決了他自己的妻子？ Judge: He executed his own wife? 辯方：那……並不是 亨利國王主導的。 Defense: That…wasn't King Henry's initiative. 她是在和國王的大臣湯瑪斯 克倫威爾的權力鬥爭中被控叛國。 She was accused of treason in a power struggle 控方：那審判是場騙局，且若沒有 亨利的核准，她不可能會被定罪。 with the King's minister, Thomas Cromwell. 此外，他對於結果 並沒有感到太沮喪—— Prosecutor: The trial was a sham 才十一天後，他又娶了珍西摩兒！ and she wouldn't have been convicted without Henry's approval. 辯方：我要註明，這場婚姻 成功產生了男性後裔， Besides, he wasn't too upset by the outcome - 確保能夠有穩定的繼承…… he married Jane Seymour just 11 days later! 不過，很不幸地， 新皇后在生孩子時過世。 Defense: A marriage that, I note, succeeded in producing a male heir 控方：這場悲劇並沒有 阻止他迎娶克里維斯的安妮， and guaranteeing a stable succession… 完成計畫不周的第四次婚姻， though the new queen tragically died in childbirth. 後來他一念之間廢除了這次婚姻， Prosecutor: This tragedy didn't deter him 用它來當藉口，處決了克倫威爾。 from an ill conceived fourth marriage to Anne of Cleves, 好像這樣還不夠，他接著 又娶了凱薩琳霍華德 which Henry then annulled on a whim and used as an excuse to execute Cromwell. ——安寶琳的表親—— 之後也把她處決了。 As if that weren't enough, he then married Catherine Howard 辯方：她犯了通姦罪， 且她也承認了！ – a cousin of Anne Boleyn – before having her executed too. 總之，亨利又娶了凱薩琳帕爾， 這最後一次婚姻是非常成功的。 Defense: She was engaged in adultery to which she confessed! 控方：他的第六次！這只顯示出 他是個不懂節制的國王， Regardless, Henry's final marriage to Catherine Parr 允許他的朝廷中 有派系鬥爭和陰謀策劃， was actually very successful. 只關心他自己的享樂和浮誇。 Prosecutor: His sixth! It only goes to show he was an intemperate king 辯方：國王要扮演人民的模範， 而那浮誇只是角色的一部分。 who allowed faction and intrigue to rule his court, 他是位有學問的學者和音樂家， 大方地贊助藝術， concerned only with his own pleasure and grandiosity. 同時還是位氣勢宏偉的 戰士和運動員。 Defense: That grandiosity was part of the king's role as a model for his people. 而他非常慷慨主辦的競賽， 讓英國在世界舞台的名聲更響亮。 He was a learned scholar and musician who generously patronized the arts, 控方：可是他的國外 和國內政策都是一塌糊塗。 as well as being an imposing warrior and sportsman. 他在法國的戰役及對蘇格蘭的 野蠻入侵，讓國庫透支， And the lavish tournaments he hosted 他嘗試圖支付債務的方式是 讓貨幣貶值，導致常態性通貨膨脹。 enhanced England's reputation on the world stage. 領主和地主的因應方式是 不再開放公有牧地， Prosecutor: And yet both his foreign and domestic policies were a disaster. 讓農夫變成乞丐。 His campaigns in France and his brutal invasion of Scotland drained the treasury, 辯方：乞丐很快就會變成自耕農。 and his attempt to pay for it by debasing the coinage led to constant inflation. 圈圍的做法讓農耕變得 更有效，勞動力有剩餘， The lords and landowners responded by removing access to common pastures 為工業革命奠定了基礎。 and turning the peasant population into beggars. 英國之所以能變成後來那樣的強權， Defense: Beggars who would soon become yeomen farmers. 靠的就是他們以及亨利。 The enclosures made farming more efficient, and created a labor surplus 法官：嗯，我想， 不論如何，我們都能同意 that laid the foundation for the Industrial Revolution. 他在畫像上十分好看。 England would never have become the great power that it did without them 和教廷分離的虔誠信徒。 …and without Henry. 處決學者的知識分子。 Judge: Well, I think no matter what, 讓王位穩定下來， we can all agree he looks great in that portrait. 卻用它來促成自身榮耀的國王， A devout believer who broke with the Church. 在現代的邊緣，亨利八世體現了 A man of learning who executed scholars. 君主政治的所有矛盾。 A king who brought stability to the throne, 但將統治者和神話分開來， but used it to promote his own glory, 本來就是讓歷史接受審判的一部分。 Henry VIII embodied all the contradictions of monarchy on the verge of the modern era. But separating the ruler from the myth is all part of putting history on trial.