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  • Take a look at this work of art.

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: congmei Han

  • What is it that you see?

    看看這件藝術作品。

  • At first glance, it looks to be a grandfather clock

    你看到的是什麼?

  • with a sheet thrown over it

    第一眼,看起來是祖父時代的鐘,

  • and a rope tied around the center.

    上面蓋著一塊布,

  • But a first look always warrants a second.

    中間用一條繩子綁住。

  • Look again.

    但,有第一眼就有第二眼。

  • What do you see now?

    再看一次。

  • If you look more closely,

    現在你看到什麼?

  • you'll realize that this entire work of art

    如果你更近距離看,

  • is made from one piece of sculpture.

    你會發現,這整件藝術作品

  • There is no clock,

    其實完全是一件雕塑。

  • there is no rope,

    沒有鐘,

  • and there is no sheet.

    沒有繩子,

  • It is one piece of bleached Honduras mahogany.

    沒有布。

  • Now let me be clear:

    它是用一塊漂白的 宏都拉斯桃花心木做成。

  • this exercise was not about looking at sculpture.

    讓我說清楚:

  • It's about looking

    這個練習的重點不是要看雕塑。

  • and understanding that looking closely can save a life,

    重點是「看」,

  • change your company

    以及了解到,靠近一點看 可能可以拯救生命、

  • and even help you understand why your children behave the way they do.

    改變你的公司,

  • It's a skill that I call visual intelligence,

    甚至協助你了解為什麼你的孩子 會做出他們做出的行為。

  • and I use works of art to teach everybody,

    我把這項技能稱為視覺智慧,

  • from everyday people to those for whom looking is the job,

    我用藝術作品來教大家,

  • like Navy SEALs and homicide detectives and trauma nurses.

    從一般人到以「看」 為職業的人都有,

  • The fact is that no matter how skilled you might be at looking,

    比如海豹部隊、調查凶殺案的 警探,以及外傷科護士。

  • you still have so much to learn about seeing.

    不論你多麼擅長「看」,

  • Because we all think we get it in a first glance and a sudden flash,

    對於「看」, 你仍然有很多要學的。

  • but the real skill is in understanding how to look slowly

    因為,我們都認為只要 看第一眼或驚鴻一瞥就可以了解,

  • and how to look more carefully.

    但真正的技巧在於 要了解如何緩慢地看,

  • The talent is in remembering --

    以及如何更仔細地看。

  • in the crush of the daily urgencies that demand our attention --

    這項才能是在於記得——

  • to step back and look through those lenses to help us see

    在每天日常需要我們注意的 急事不斷壓榨中——

  • what we've been missing all along.

    要退後一步,透過那些能幫助 我們看清楚的透鏡來看見

  • So how can looking at painting and sculpture help?

    我們一直忽略的東西。

  • Because art is a powerful tool.

    所以,看畫作和雕塑 能有什麼幫助?

  • It's a powerful tool that engages both sight and insight

    因為藝術是非常強大的工具。

  • and reframes our understanding of where we are and what we see.

    這種強大的工具 會用到視力以及洞察,

  • Here's an example of a work of art

    且會重新構造我們對自己 身處何處及所見為何的理解。

  • that reminded me that visual intelligence --

    這件藝術作品就是一個例子,

  • it's an ongoing learning process

    它提醒我視覺智慧——

  • and one that really is never mastered.

    它是一個持續不斷的學習過程, 且我們永遠無法精通它。

  • I came across this quiet, seemingly abstract painting,

    我偶然看到這幅 似乎很抽象的畫作,

  • and I had to step up to it twice,

    我得要朝它走近兩次,

  • even three times,

    甚至三次,

  • to understand why it resonated so deeply.

    才能了解為什麼 它的回響這麼深刻。

  • Now, I've seen the Washington Monument in person thousands of times,

    我親自去看華盛頓 紀念碑不下數千次,

  • well aware of the change in the color of marble a third of the way up,

    非常清楚在上方三分之一的地方, 大理石的顏色有所改變,

  • but I had never really looked at it out of context

    但我從來沒有把它 跟背景分離來看,

  • or truly as a work of art.

    或是真正當成藝術作品來看。

  • And here, Georgia O'Keeffe's painting of this architectural icon made me realize

    喬治亞歐姬芙針對這個建築地標

  • that if we put our mind to it,

    所創作的這幅畫讓我了解到:

  • it's possible to see everyday things

    如果我們專心致力,

  • in a wholly new and eye-opening perspective.

    是有可能用一種全新

  • Now, there are some skeptics that believe that art just belongs in an art museum.

    且讓人開眼界的觀點 來看待日常事物的。

  • They believe that it has no practical use beyond its aesthetic value.

    有些懷疑論者相信 藝術只屬於藝術博物館。

  • I know who they are in every audience I teach.

    他們相信,藝術只有美學價值, 沒有實際用途。

  • Their arms are crossed, their legs are crossed,

    在我教導的每批觀眾中, 我都知道誰是這種人。

  • their body language is saying,

    他們會雙手抱胸,翹著二郎腿,

  • "What am I going to learn from this lady who talks fast

    他們的肢體語言在說:

  • about painting and sculpture?"

    「我能從這位用很快的 說話速度在談論畫作

  • So how do I make it relevant for them?

    和雕塑的女士身上學到什麼?」

  • I ask them to look at this work of art,

    我要如何讓這些人 感受到藝術的重要性?

  • like this portrait by Kumi Yamashita.

    我請他們看這件藝術作品,

  • And I ask them to step in close,

    比如山下工美的這幅畫像。

  • and even closer still,

    我請他們靠近一些,

  • and while they're looking at the work of art,

    甚至再更靠近,

  • they need to be asking questions about what they see.

    當他們在看著這件藝術作品時,

  • And if they ask the right questions,

    他們需要問一些關於 他們看到什麼的問題。

  • like, "What is this work of art?

    如果他們問對了問題,

  • Is it a painting? Is it a sculpture?

    如「這件藝術作品 是什麼?是一幅畫嗎?

  • What is it made of?" ...

    它是一座雕塑嗎? 它是什麼做的?」……

  • they will find out that this entire work of art

    他們會發現, 這件藝術作品完完全全

  • is made of a wooden board,

    是由木板、

  • 10,000 nails

    一萬個釘子,

  • and one unbroken piece of sewing thread.

    和一條沒有斷的縫紉紗線所做成的。

  • Now that might be interesting to some of you,

    有些人可能會覺得有趣,

  • but what does it have to do with the work that these people do?

    但這和這些人所做的 工作有什麼關係?

  • And the answer is everything.

    答案是,通通都有關。

  • Because we all interact with people multiple times on a daily basis,

    因為我們每天都要 和人互動很多次,

  • and we need to get better at asking questions

    我們需要更擅長 針對我們的所見來問問題。

  • about what it is that we see.

    學習用這種方式來構想問題,

  • Learning to frame the question in such a way

    以引導出我們工作時 所需要的資訊,

  • as to elicit the information that we need to do our jobs,

    這是一種很重要的人生技能。

  • is a critical life skill.

    就像有位放射學家告訴我,

  • Like the radiologist who told me

    去看一幅畫中的負空間

  • that looking at the negative spaces in a painting

    能協助她辨別出磁共振造影中 不引人注意的異常之處。

  • helped her discern more discreet abnormalities in an MRI.

    或是有位警員說,

  • Or the police officer who said that understanding the emotional dynamic

    了解一幅畫中 人與人的情緒動態,

  • between people in a painting

    能幫助他在家庭暴力 犯罪現場解讀肢體語言,

  • helped him to read body language at a domestic violence crime scene,

    並讓他能多想一下

  • and it enabled him to think twice before drawing and firing his weapon.

    再拔槍、開槍。

  • And even parents can look to see absences of color in paintings

    連父母都能透過看著 畫作中缺少的顏色,

  • to understand that what their children say to them

    來了解到,他們的孩子 想對他們說的話,

  • is as important as what they don't say.

    和他們不想說的話是同樣重要的。

  • So how do I --

    所以,我要如何——

  • how do I train to be more visually intelligent?

    我要如何鍛鍊才能 變得更有視覺智慧?

  • It comes down to four As.

    可以整理成四個「A」。

  • Every new situation, every new problem --

    在每個新情境、每個新問題中——

  • we practice four As.

    我們要練習四個「A」。

  • First, we assess our situation.

    首先,評估(assess) 我們的情況。

  • We ask, "What do we have in front of us?"

    我們要問: 「我們面前的是什麼?」

  • Then, we analyze it.

    接著,我們去 分析(analyze)它。

  • We say, "What's important?

    我們說:「重點是什麼? 我需要什麼?我不需要什麼?」

  • What do I need? What don't I need?"

    接著,我們在對話、備忘錄、

  • Then, we articulate it in a conversation, in a memo, in a text, in an email.

    文字、信件中明確 表達(articulate )它。

  • And then, we act: we make a decision.

    接著,我們採取行動(act): 我們做決策。

  • We all do this multiple times a day,

    這個過程我們每天都會做好多次,

  • but we don't realize what a role seeing and looking plays

    但我們不知道, 在所有這些步驟當中,

  • in all of those actions,

    「看」所扮演的角色,

  • and how visual intelligence can really improve everything.

    也不知道視覺智慧 如何能改善一切。

  • So recently, I had a group of counterterrorism officials

    所以,最近,我讓一群 反恐怖主義的官員

  • at a museum in front of this painting.

    到博物館來看這幅畫。

  • El Greco's painting, "The Purification of the Temple,"

    這是艾爾葛雷柯的 畫作《神殿淨化》,

  • in which Christ, in the center, in a sweeping and violent gesture,

    在畫中,中間的是基督, 做出一種要趕人的暴力姿勢,

  • is expelling the sinners from the temple of prayer.

    把罪人從禱告者的寺廟驅逐出去。

  • The group of counterterrorism officials had five minutes with that painting,

    這群反恐怖主義的官員 有五分鐘能看這幅畫,

  • and in that short amount of time, they had to assess the situation,

    在那短短的時間中, 他們得要評估情況,

  • analyze the details,

    分析細節,

  • articulate what, if anything,

    明確表達出——

  • they would do if they were in that painting.

    如果他們在那幅畫中, 他們會怎麼做。

  • As you can imagine, observations and insights differed.

    不難想像,每個人的 觀察和洞察都不同。

  • Who would they talk to?

    他們會和誰說話? 誰會是最好的目擊證人?

  • Who would be the best witness?

    誰是好的潛在證人?

  • Who was a good potential witness?

    誰在偷偷摸摸? 誰有最多資訊?

  • Who was lurking?

    但我最喜歡的意見是一位 經驗豐富的警察所提的,

  • Who had the most information?

    他看著中央的角色,說:

  • But my favorite comment came from a seasoned cop

    「有看到穿粉紅色的傢伙?」——

  • who looked at the central figure and said,

    指的是基督——

  • "You see that guy in the pink?" --

    他說:「我會抓住他的領口, 所有的問題都是他造成的。」

  • referring to Christ --

    (笑聲)

  • he said, "I'd collar him, he's causing all the trouble."

    觀看藝術作品是一種很好的方法,

  • (Laughter)

    可以讓我們重新思考 要如何解決問題,

  • So looking at art gives us a perfect vehicle to rethink how we solve problems

    而不需要科技的協助。

  • without the aid of technology.

    看著菲利克斯·岡薩雷斯-托雷斯的 這件作品,

  • Looking at the work of Felix Gonzalez-Torres,

    你會看見兩個時鐘完美地同步。

  • you see two clocks in perfect synchronicity.

    時針、分針、秒針都完美地對齊。

  • The hour, minute and second hand perfectly aligned.

    它們被緊連著並排放置,

  • They are installed side by side and they're touching,

    它們被取名為「無題 (完美的愛人)」。

  • and they are entitled "'Untitled' (Perfect Lovers)."

    但,更仔細地分析會讓你發現,

  • But closer analysis makes you realize

    這兩個時鐘都是靠電池來運轉的,

  • that these are two battery-operated clocks,

    這就會讓你接著了解到—— 「嘿,等等……

  • which in turn makes you understand --

    兩個電池之中有一個 會比另一個更早用盡。

  • "Hey, wait a minute ...

    其中一個鐘會比另一個 先慢下來並停止,

  • One of those batteries is going to stop before the other.

    那將會改變這件作品的對稱性。」

  • One of those clocks is going to slow down and die before the other

    光是明確表達出那個思想過程,

  • and it's going to alter the symmetry of the artwork."

    就會需要預防計畫。

  • Just articulating that thought process

    你需要有所準備, 可能會有未預見的事、

  • includes the necessity of a contingency plan.

    未預期的事,和未知的事發生,

  • You need to have contingencies for the unforeseen,

    可能會在任何時候 以任何方式發生。

  • the unexpected and the unknown,

    用藝術來增加我們的視覺智慧,

  • whenever and however they may happen.

    會涉及到應急計畫,

  • Now, using art to increase our visual intelligence

    要了解大局以及小細節,

  • involves planning for contingencies,

    並注意到少了什麼。

  • understanding the big picture and the small details

    在這幅馬格利特的畫作中,

  • and noticing what's not there.

    注意到火車底下並沒有鐵軌,

  • So in this painting by Magritte,

    火爐中沒有火,

  • noticing that there are no tracks under the train,

    蠟燭上也沒有燭火,

  • there is no fire in the fireplace

    這樣是比較正確地描述這幅畫作,

  • and there are no candles in the candlesticks

    而不是只說:「嗯, 有一列火車從火爐中駛出來,

  • actually more accurately describes the painting

    且壁爐上有蠟燭。」

  • than if you were to say, "Well, there's a train coming out of a fireplace,

    說出「沒有什麼」 似乎是反直覺的,

  • and there are candlesticks on the mantle."

    但它是一項非常有價值的工具。

  • It may sound counterintuitive to say what isn't there,

    在北卡羅萊納有位 曾學過視覺智慧的警探,

  • but it's really a very valuable tool.

    他被呼叫到犯罪現場,

  • When a detective who had learned about visual intelligence

    那是一場船難,