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  • Giant gold-digging ants,

    巨大採金蟻、

  • a furious king who orders the sea to be whipped 300 times,

    命令手下鞭打海浪三百下的憤怒國王、

  • and a dolphin that saves a famous poet from drowning.

    和一隻救了一位著名詩人的海豚

  • These are just some of the stories from The Histories by Herodotus,

    這些小故事來自於希羅多德的《歷史》

  • an Ancient Greek writer from the 5th century BCE.

    希羅多德是位古希臘作家, 生於西元前五世紀

  • Not all the events in the text may have happened

    雖然他的著作中所提到的事件

  • exactly as Herodotus reported them,

    事實不全然如他所描述

  • but this work revolutionized the way the past was recorded.

    但這部作品重大改變了 人們記載歷史事件的方式

  • Before Herodotus, the past was documented as a list of events

    在希羅多德之前, 人們多以條列事件記載史實

  • with little or no attempt to explain their causes

    通常很少,或沒有敘述事件的因果關係

  • beyond accepting things as the will of the gods.

    人們普遍接受事物為上天所操控

  • Herodotus wanted a deeper, more rational understanding,

    然而希羅多德希望 以更深入且理性的方法瞭解事物

  • so he took a new approach:

    於是他採用新方法:

  • looking at events from both sides to understand the reasons for them.

    從正反兩方看待事物, 以了解其發生原因

  • Though he was Greek, Herodotus's hometown of Halicarnassus

    他雖身為希臘人, 希羅多德的故鄉-哈利卡那索斯

  • was part of the Persian Empire.

    卻曾是波斯王朝的一部分

  • He grew up during a series of wars between the powerful Persians

    他生在強大波斯人與弱小希臘人之間

  • and the smaller Greeks,

    頻繁打仗的時期

  • and decided to find out all he could about the subject.

    於是他決定要盡力找出 關於這些紛爭的所有資訊

  • In Herodotus's telling, the Persian Wars began in 499 BCE,

    就希羅多德的說法, 波斯戰爭始於西元前 499 年

  • when the Athenians assisted a rebellion by Greeks living under Persian rule.

    這一年,雅典人協助了 在波斯統治下的希臘人策動叛亂

  • In 490, the Persian King, Darius, sent his army to take revenge on Athens.

    波斯國王大流士大帝於西元前 490 年出兵報復雅典人

  • But at the Battle of Marathon, the Athenians won an unexpected victory.

    但雅典人卻在馬拉松戰役時出奇致勝

  • Ten years later, the Persians returned, planning to conquer the whole of Greece

    十年後波斯人捲土重來, 計畫征服希臘領土

  • under the leadership of Darius's son, Xerxes.

    由大流士大帝的兒子-薛西斯帶領

  • According to Herodotus, when Xerxes arrived,

    根據希羅多德的說詞, 當薛西斯來到時

  • his million man army was initially opposed by a Greek force

    他的百萬軍隊先在溫泉關峽谷

  • led by 300 Spartans at the mountain pass of Thermopylae.

    遭遇到由三百個 斯巴達人率領的希臘軍

  • At great cost to the Persians,

    波斯人為此付出極大的代價

  • the Spartans and their king, Leonidas, were killed.

    斯巴達軍與他們的列奧尼達王 全為此喪命

  • This heroic defeat has been an inspiration to underdogs ever since.

    這場英雄般的戰役自那時起 一直鼓舞著弱勢族群們

  • A few weeks later, the Greek navy tricked the Persian fleet

    數周之後,希臘海軍引誘波斯船隊

  • into fighting in a narrow sea channel near Athens.

    進入靠近雅典的狹長海峽作戰

  • The Persians were defeated and Xerxes fled, never to return.

    波斯戰敗,薛西斯落荒而逃, 不曾再來

  • To explain how these wars broke out and why the Greeks triumphed,

    為了解釋這些戰爭爆發的原因 以及希臘最後勝利的緣由

  • Herodotus collected stories from all around the Mediterranean.

    希羅多德自地中海一帶蒐集故事

  • He recorded the achievements of both Greeks and non-Greeks

    在這些軼事隨著時間消逝之前

  • before they were lost to the passage of time.

    他將希臘人與非希臘人的成就記錄下來

  • The Histories opens with the famous sentence:

    《歷史》一書以這膾炙人口的 佳句揭開序幕:

  • "Herodotus, of Halicarnassus, here displays his inquiries."

    「哈利卡那索斯的希羅多德 在此呈現他的調查結果」

  • By framing the book as aninquiry,”

    藉著將此書定位為「調查報告」

  • Herodotus allowed it to contain many different stories,

    希羅多德就能在此書中收錄各種故事

  • some serious, others less so.

    有嚴肅認真的故事, 也有不太正經的故事

  • He recorded the internal debates of the Persian court

    其中他收錄了波斯宮廷中的內部辯論

  • but also tales of Egyptian flying snakes

    卻也收錄關於埃及飛蛇的故事、

  • and practical advice on how to catch a crocodile.

    還有如何捕捉鱷魚的實用建議

  • The Greek word for this method of research is "autopsy,"

    這種研究方法對應的希臘詞為「解剖」

  • meaning "seeing for oneself."

    意思是「自行發現」

  • Herodotus was the first writer to examine the past

    希羅多德是第一位

  • by combining the different kinds of evidence he collected:

    以結合不同種類的證據 來檢視過去的作家:

  • opsis, or eyewitness accounts,

    目擊者證詞、

  • akoe, or hearsay,

    聽來的傳聞、

  • and ta legomena, or tradition.

    以及傳統

  • He then used gnome, or reason,

    於是他利用格言或理性

  • to reach conclusions about what actually happened.

    來推論真實發生的事件

  • Many of the book's early readers were actually listeners.

    許多這本書早期的讀者 事實上是「聽者」

  • The Histories was originally written in 28 sections,

    《歷史》一書原分為 28 個部分

  • each of which took about four hours to read aloud.

    朗讀每一個部分各需約四小時

  • As the Greeks increased in influence and power,

    伴隨希臘人的影響力與勢力增長

  • Herodotus's writing and the idea of history spread across the Mediterranean.

    希羅多德的作品與對歷史的想法 傳遍地中海地區

  • As the first proper historian, Herodotus wasn't perfect.

    作為第一位正統的歷史學家, 希羅多德並不完美

  • On occasions, he favored the Greeks over the Persians

    有時候,與波斯人相比, 他會偏袒希臘人

  • and was too quick to believe some of the stories that he heard,

    以及他總是太快相信他所聽到的故事

  • which made for inaccuracies.

    因而造成一些不精確之處

  • However, modern evidence has actually explained

    然而,現代證據也為

  • some of his apparently extreme claims.

    他的一些明顯誇大的論述提供解釋

  • For instance, there's a species of marmot in the Himalayas

    舉例來說,喜馬拉雅山上有一種土撥鼠

  • that spreads gold dust while digging.

    在挖土時會散布金塵

  • The ancient Persian word for marmot is quite close to the word for ant,

    古波斯文中「marmot」 這個字與「螞蟻」非常相近

  • so Herodotus may have just fallen prey to a translation error.

    因此希羅多德可能是 犯了翻譯上的錯誤

  • All in all, for someone who was writing in an entirely new style,

    總而言之,就一個 以嶄新的寫作風格創作的人來說

  • Herodotus did remarkably well.

    希羅多德表現十分傑出

  • History, right down to the present day, has always suffered from the partiality

    歷史,時至今日

  • and mistakes of historians.

    總是受到歷史學家的偏頗與誤解

  • Herodotus's method and creativity earned him the title

    希羅多德的寫作方法與創造力

  • that the Roman author Cicero gave him several hundred years later:

    使他贏得之後的羅馬作家 西賽羅給予他的頭銜:

  • "The Father of History."

    「歷史之父」

Giant gold-digging ants,

巨大採金蟻、

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為什麼希羅多德被稱為 "歷史之父"?- 馬克-羅賓遜 (Why is Herodotus called "The Father of History"? - Mark Robinson)

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    April Lu 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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