字幕列表 影片播放 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 Hello this is Ray, today let's learn the subjunctive mood 哈囉我是阿滴，今天我們要來搞懂假設語氣 Welcome back to RD Youtube channel, and today's lesson is of the grammar series 歡迎回到阿滴英文的 YouTube 頻道，那今天我們要進行的是文法學堂系列。 I remember the last episode of grammar was about perfect tense, and it's pretty popular. The second most popular grammar topic you've asked us to do is the subjunctive mood 我還記得我上一次文法學堂是講到關於完成式的教學，還受到蠻多人的喜歡的。那第二個最多人要求要看的文法教學就是假設語氣。 So today let us learn how to use i & f, which is "if" 所以今天我們就來搞懂 i 跟 f 也就是 if 這個字的用法。 But first of all, can you see the differences between these 3 sentences? 首先考考你，你知道這三句話的差別嗎？ If you don't, it's fine. If you carefully watch my teaching, you will understand. See? I'm using the subjunctive mood. 你現在不懂沒關係，如果你有好好看我的教學的話，你就會懂了。 有沒有發現，我這邊用假設語氣。 The first type is to make a possible assumption, using present tense 第一類型假設是有可能發生的假設，使用現在式。 So the example here, "If Ray has time, he will make a video." This is something possible 所以剛剛的例句，If Ray has time, he will make a video，「如果Ray有時間的話，他就會做影片」，這個是有可能發生的事。 Assumptions for possible things should be used like this: 有可能發生的假設應該要這樣子用： If you want to live, eat everything 如果你想活，就把東西都吃完 If you don't finish your food, grandma will murder you 如果你不吃完，阿嬤就會謀殺你 Most cases would fit this situation, and in Chinese this is the only kind of subjunctive mood, which talks about possible things. "If this, then it will..." 大多數的假設都是這種假設，中文也是只有這種假設，他都是在講可能會發生的事，如果有這個狀況，就會發生這樣子的事。 But in English there's a different form, which is when your assumption is the opposite of the truth and thus needs to be marked. And that makes the second and the third type. 不過英文的假設還另外開了一個新天地，就是當你的假設分明與事實相反時，就要特別標記，那也就是我們類型二以及類型三的假設。 The second type is the assumption opposite to the present truth, using past tense 第二類型假設是與現在事實相反的假設，使用過去式。 So the example "If Ray had time, he would make a video." implies that Ray doesn't have time now, but if he has, he will make a video 所以剛剛的例句，If Ray had time, he would make a video 就是「Ray 現在是沒有時間的，不過如果他有時間的話，他會做影片」 The assumption that is opposite to the present truth would be like: 與事實相反的假設應該要這樣子用： If I were you, I would try to finish the food 如果我是你，我會試著把東西都吃完 Apparently I am not YOU. This is opposite to the truth, so you should use the past tense "were" to assume that 我明顯不是你，與事實相反，所以就要用 were 過去式來假設。 And there's a topic frequently used for composition test: "What would you do if you were the president?" 還有另外一個很常用來當作作文題目的 What would you do if you were the president？ Obviously, you're not the president, so in this situation opposite to the truth, we will say "If you were the president" 你明顯不是總統，所以假設一個與現在相反的狀況，就要用 If you were the president. But recently the US is going to have their election, the candidate Trump usually says "If I'm the president, I will blah blah blah" 不過最近美國就要選舉了，候選人 Trump 他常常會說 If I’m the president, I will blah blah blah， This is what may happen in the future, so he's using the first type of assumption, which is present tense: If I am the president 這是在未來可能會發生的假設，所以他用的是第一類型的假設，也就是用現在式：If I am the president。 But it's probably okay if you say "If I'm the president" in the article. If the teacher thinks it's wrong, you can tell the teacher: 不過如果你在作文裡面要寫 If I’m the president，應該也是可以啦，如果老師幫你改錯，說一定要用 if I were the president ，你就跟老師說： You're trampling on my dream! I think it's possible that I'll be the presodent 老師你踐踏我的夢想，我覺得我是有可能當上總統的。 The third type is the assumption opposite to the past truth, using past perfect tense 第三類型假設是與過去事實相反的假設，使用過去完成式。 So the example then, "If Ray had had time, he would have made a video" 所以我們剛剛的例句，If Ray had had time, he would have made a video means that "Ray didn't have time then, so he didn't make a video, but if he had had time at that moment, he would have made a video then" 意思就是「Ray 那時候就是沒有時間，所以沒有做影片，但是如果說那時候有時間的話，那那時候就會做影片了」。 I didn't say it wrong. It is indeed that complicated in Chinese. It's not because I'm bad in Chinese, I swear 我沒有講錯，他中文意思就是真的這麼複雜。不是我中文太拙劣，真的。 The assumption that is opposite to the past truth would be like: 與過去事實相反的假設應該要這樣子用： If he had eaten everything, he would not have been murdered 如果他有把東西都吃完，他就不會被謀殺了 My video about perfect tense has mentioned that tense is comparative in English, so the previous time of present tense is past tense, and the previous time of past tense is then past perfect tense 我在完成式文法教學的影片裡面就有提到，英文的時態是看參照點的喔，所以比現在更過去就是過去式、那比過去式更過去就是過去完成式。 Thus, if we use past tense in the assumption opposite to the present truth, then we should use past perfect tense in assumption opposite to the past truth, right? 那既然在現在與現在事實相反的假設要用過去式的話，那與過去事實相反的假設是不是就要用過去完成式。 Okay...some of you may understand 好，應該會有人聽得懂。 So you see that the subjunctive mood really is complicated, but I hope you get to know more about it after my explanation 所以說假設語氣就是有這麼多不必要的複雜，不過呢，希望今天講解之後大家會比較清楚一點。 Lastly, let's make a sentence: If you think this video was helpful, will you please share it? 那最後我們來造個句子，If you think this video was helpful, will you please share it? You see, I'm using the first type, the possible assumption. Uh-hum 注意喔，我是使用類型一，有可能會發生的假設。嗯哼。 If you like this video, please give us a thumbs-up. If you wanna see more new English teaching videos, click the button here and subscribe 如果你喜歡這個影片，請幫我按個讚。如果你想要看到每個禮拜更多新的英文教學影片，你可以點這邊的按鈕，訂閱我的 YouTube 頻道。 I also have Facebook and Instagram accounts, so you can type "Ray Du English" and find me. Here's the previous video, and this is the next one 那我在 Facebook 跟 Instagram 也都有帳號，都可以使用 Ray Du English 來找到我。那這裡的話是我的上一部影片，這裡是我的下一部影片。 Right here is my blog in which you can see some of my articels 那這邊的話是我的網站部落格，可以看到我寫的一些文章。 And that is a wrap, thank you guys, for watching as always, and I'll catch you guys next time! See ya! And that is a wrap, thank you guys, for watching as always, and I’ll catch you guys next time! See ya!