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  • Translator: Camille Martínez Reviewer: Krystian Aparta

    我記得當時心想,

  • I remember thinking to myself,

    「這將完全改變我們溝通的方式。」

  • "This is going to change everything about how we communicate."

    〔小事情〕

  • [Small thing.]

    〔大點子〕

  • [Big idea.]

    〔瑪格麗特.古爾德.斯圖爾特 談超連結〕

  • [Margaret Gould Stewart on the Hyperlink]

    超連結是軟體界面上的元件,

  • A hyperlink is an interface element,

    我想說的是,

  • and what I mean by that is,

    當你使用手機或電腦的軟體時,

  • when you're using software on your phone or your computer,

    界面背後有很多程式碼,

  • there's a lot of code behind the interface

    它給電腦指令來運作。

  • that's giving all the instructions for the computer on how to manage it,

    界面也是人和機器互動的媒介,

  • but that interface is the thing that humans interact with:

    當我們點一下,就會啟動某個東西。

  • when we press on this, then something happens.

    它剛問世時看起來很陽春,

  • When they first came around, they were pretty simple

    沒有什麼魅力;

  • and not particularly glamorous.

    如今,設計者有了很多選項。

  • Designers today have a huge range of options.

    超連結使用一種稱為 HTML 的標記語言。

  • The hyperlink uses what's called a markup language -- HTML.

    這是一小串程式碼,

  • There's a little string of code.

    你在這輸入想分享給別人的網址。

  • And then you put the address of where you want to send the person.

    學會怎麼做就是這麼簡單。

  • It's actually remarkably easy to learn how to do.

    所有網路上提供站外資訊的參考資料

  • And so, the whole range of references to information elsewhere on the internet

    都屬於超連結的一部分。

  • is the domain of the hyperlink.

    當我還在學校時──

  • Back when I was in school --

    這是人們還不能 廣泛使用網路的時代──

  • this is before people had wide access to the internet --

    如果我想查詢一篇論文,

  • if I was going to do a research paper,

    我必須親自去圖書館,

  • I would have to physically walk to the library,

    如果有你要的書,很好。

  • and if they had the book that you needed, great.

    有時你必須先通知,

  • You sometimes had to send out for it,

    而這流程可能耗費數週。

  • so the process could take weeks.

    現在回想,當時的情況 讓人難以置信。

  • And it's kind of crazy to think about that now,

    就像所有偉大的創新,

  • because, like all great innovations,

    我們開始使用不久,

  • it's not long after we get access to something

    就將創新視為理所當然。

  • that we start to take it for granted.

    1945 年,

  • Back in 1945,

    這個人,凡內瓦.布什,

  • there was this guy, Vannevar Bush.

    他為美國政府工作。

  • He was working for the US government,

    他提出一個想法:

  • and one of the ideas that he put forth was,

    「哇,人類製造這麼多資訊,

  • "Wow, humans are creating so much information,

    而我們卻沒辦法記錄讀過的書

  • and we can't keep track of all the books that we've read

    或重要想法間的連結。」

  • or the connections between important ideas."

    這想法他稱為「記憶擴展」,

  • And he had this idea called the "memex,"

    你能將有權限閱讀的書和文章 放進個人圖書館中整合。

  • where you could put together a personal library

    這種資源互相連結的概念 激發人們的想像。

  • of all of the books and articles that you have access to.

    接著,在 60 年代,

  • And that idea of connecting sources captured people's imaginations.

    泰德.尼爾森推出仙那度計畫,

  • Later, in the 1960s,

    他說:

  • Ted Nelson launches Project Xanadu,

    「如果不限制在個人的東西呢?

  • and he said,

    如果我能連結 大量工作中的想法會如何?」

  • "Well, what if it wasn't just limited to the things that I have?

    1982 年,馬里蘭大學的學者

  • What if I could connect ideas across a larger body of work?"

    開發稱為 HyperTIES 的 超媒體系統。

  • In 1982, researchers at the University of Maryland

    他們是第一批將文字本身

  • developed a system they called HyperTIES.

    當成連結標記的。

  • They were the first to use text itself as a link marker.

    他們發現,藍色連結配灰色背景 作為對比的效果很好,

  • They figured out that this blue link on a gray background

    人們可以清楚看見。

  • was going to work really well in terms of contrast,

    蘋果電腦在 1987 年發明 超媒體系統 HyperCard。

  • and people would be able to see it.

    這是一堆卡片,

  • Apple invented HyperCard in 1987.

    你可以在卡片間創建連結。

  • You had these stacks of cards,

    HyperCard 讓人可以 在一則故事裡跳來跳去。

  • and you could create links in between the cards.

    這類非線性敘事的概念

  • HyperCard actually created the ability to jump around in a story.

    在超連結問世後有爆發性的應用,

  • These kinds of notions of nonlinear storytelling

    因為它給人影響敘事的機會。

  • got a huge boost when the hyperlink came along,

    剛剛提到的想法和發明,

  • because it gave people the opportunity to influence the narrative.

    啟發提姆.柏納-李, 發明全球資訊網路的人。

  • These ideas and inventions, among others,

    超連結就像樂高積木,

  • inspired Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web.

    從最基礎的元件到 存在各地的複雜連結網。

  • The hyperlink almost feels like a LEGO block,

    由於一開始設立超連結的方式

  • this very basic building block to a very complex web of connections

    不只是為了讓許多人使用,

  • that exists all around the world.

    也為了讓許多人創造,

  • Because of the way that hyperlinks were first constructed,

    因此我認為,超連結是史上 數一數二民主的設計了。

  • they were intended to be not only used by many people,

  • but created by many people.

  • To me, it's one of the most democratic designs ever created.

Translator: Camille Martínez Reviewer: Krystian Aparta

我記得當時心想,

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A2 初級 中文 美國腔 TED 界面 想法 程式碼 發明 元件

【TED】瑪格麗特-古爾德-斯圖爾特:超鏈接是如何改變一切的(超鏈接是如何改變一切的|小事情大創意,TED系列)。 (【TED】Margaret Gould Stewart: How the hyperlink changed everything (How the hyperlink changed everything | Small Thing Big Idea, a TED series))

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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