Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Translator: Krystian Aparta Reviewer: Camille Martínez

    我認為,在用鉛筆的體驗中, 聲音是很重要的一部分,

  • The sound is a really big part, I think, of the experience of using a pencil,

    它的刮擦聲是能清楚聽見的。

  • and it has this really audible scratchiness.

    (刮擦聲)

  • (Scratching)

    〔小東西。大點子。〕

  • [Small thing. Big idea.]

    〔卡羅琳韋弗談鉛筆〕

  • [Caroline Weaver on the Pencil]

    鉛筆是樣很簡單的東西。

  • The pencil is a very simple object.

    它是木製的,加上幾層的塗料、

  • It's made of wood with some layers of paint

    一個橡皮擦、和一條芯,

  • an eraser and a core,

    芯是用石墨、黏土,及水做成的。

  • which is made out of graphite, clay and water.

    但,花了數百人數世紀的時間,

  • Yeah, it took hundreds of people over centuries

    才提出這個設計。

  • to come to this design.

    對我來說,正是這漫長的合作史

  • And it's that long history of collaboration

    讓鉛筆成為非常完美的物品。

  • that, to me, makes it a very perfect object.

    鉛筆的故事始於石墨。

  • The story of the pencil starts with graphite.

    人們開始發現這種新物質

  • People started finding really useful applications

    有些很有用的應用。

  • for this new substance.

    他們把石墨切成小條狀,

  • They cut it into small sticks

    用繩子、羊皮,或紙張包起來,

  • and wrapped it in string or sheepskin or paper

    在倫敦街頭販售,

  • and sold it on the streets of London

    用來寫字或是繪圖,

  • to be used for writing or for drawing

    很多時候也會被農夫和牧人

  • or, a lot of times, by farmers and shepherds,

    用來標記他們的動物。

  • who used it to mark their animals.

    在法國,

  • Over in France,

    尼古拉斯雅克康特想出了 一種方式來磨石墨,

  • Nicolas-Jacques Conté figured out a method of grinding the graphite,

    把它和粉狀黏土及水 混合,做成膏狀。

  • mixing it with powdered clay and water to make a paste.

    接著,這膏狀物會被 填入模具中做窯燒,

  • From there, this paste was filled into a mold and fired in a kiln,

    結果會產出非常堅硬的石墨芯,

  • and the result was a really strong graphite core

    它不會斷,很滑順,很好用──

  • that wasn't breakable, that was smooth, usable --

    在那個時候,它比其他 所有既有的東西都好很多,

  • it was so much better than anything else that existed at the time,

    至今,鉛筆仍是用這個方式製造的。

  • and to this day, that's the method that's still used in making pencils.

    在這期間,在美國 馬薩諸塞州的康科特,

  • Meanwhile, over in America, in Concord, Massachusetts,

    亨利大衛梭羅想出了鉛筆的

  • it was Henry David Thoreau who came up with the grading scale

    軟硬度要有分級標準。

  • for different hardnesses of pencil.

    分級從一到四,

  • It was graded one through four,

    第二級是最適合一般用途的軟硬度。

  • number two being the ideal hardness for general use.

    越軟的鉛筆裡面就有越多的石墨,

  • The softer the pencil, the more graphite it had in it,

    畫出來的線會更黑也更滑順。

  • and the darker and smoother the line will be.

    越硬的鉛筆裡面有越多的泥土,

  • The firmer the pencil, the more clay it had in it

    線條會越淡且越精細。

  • and the lighter and finer it will be.

    最初,鉛筆是手工製的, 它們被做成圓形。

  • Originally, when pencils were handmade, they were made round.

    沒有簡單的製造方式,

  • There was no easy way to make them,

    是美國人將這項工藝機械化的。

  • and it was the Americans who really mechanized the craft.

    許多人認為約瑟迪克森是

  • A lot of people credit Joseph Dixon

    最先開始發展機器製造的人之一,

  • for being one of the first people to start developing actual machines

    機器可以切木板條、 在木頭上切出溝條、

  • to do things like cut wood slats, cut grooves into the wood,

    在它們上面上膠……

  • apply glue to them ...

    他們發現,做六角狀的鉛筆比較容易

  • And they figured out it was easier and less wasteful

    也比較不浪費,

  • to do a hexagonal pencil,

    所以六角狀就成了標準。

  • and so that became the standard.

    在鉛筆的早期,

  • Since the early days of pencils,

    人們很喜愛它可以被擦掉的特性。

  • people have loved that they can be erased.

    最早,是用麵包屑

  • Originally, it was bread crumbs

    來把鉛筆畫出的痕跡給刮掉,

  • that were used to scratch away pencil marks

    後來,改用橡膠和輕石。

  • and later, rubber and pumice.

    1858 年開始把橡皮擦附在鉛筆上,

  • The attached eraser happened in 1858,

    那年,美國的文具商海門利普曼

  • when American stationer Hymen Lipman patented the first pencil

    為第一枝附橡皮擦的鉛筆取得專利,

  • with an attached eraser,

    這真的改變了鉛筆的賽局。

  • which really changed the pencil game.

    世界上第一枝黃色鉛筆是 KOH-I-NOOR 1500。

  • The world's first yellow pencil was the KOH-I-NOOR 1500.

    KOH-I-NOOR 做了件瘋狂的事,

  • KOH-I-NOOR did this crazy thing

    他們把鉛筆塗上了十四層的黃顏料,

  • where they painted this pencil with 14 coats of yellow paint

    把末端浸在 14K 金中。

  • and dipped the end in 14-carat gold.

    每個人都有一枝鉛筆,

  • There is a pencil for everyone,

    每枝鉛筆都有一個故事。

  • and every pencil has a story.

    Blackwing 602 因為 被很多作家使用而聞名,

  • The Blackwing 602 is famous for being used by a lot of writers,

    特別是約翰史坦貝克 與弗拉基米爾納博科夫。

  • especially John Steinbeck and Vladimir Nabokov.

    接著,還有鉛筆公司 Dixon。

  • And then, you have the Dixon pencil company.

    Dixon Ticonderoga 是他們的產品。

  • They're responsible for the Dixon Ticonderoga.

    它很有代表性,

  • It's an icon,

    當人們想到鉛筆時就會想到它,

  • it's what people think of when they think of a pencil

    當他們想到學校時也會想到它。

  • and what they think of when they think of school.

    我認為,其實鉛筆這個東西,

  • And the pencil's really a thing that, I think,

    一般使用者不會去多想它的製造方式,

  • the average user has never thought twice about,

    以及為何要把鉛筆做成這個樣子,

  • how it's made or why it's made the way it is,

    因為鉛筆一直就是這樣的。

  • because it's just always been that way.

    在我看來,已經沒辦法能把

  • In my opinion, there's nothing that can be done

    鉛筆做得比現在更好了。

  • to make the pencil better than it is.

    它很完美。

  • It's perfect.

Translator: Krystian Aparta Reviewer: Camille Martínez

我認為,在用鉛筆的體驗中, 聲音是很重要的一部分,

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 鉛筆 黏土 製造 想到 想出

TED】Caroline Weaver:為什麼鉛筆是完美的(Why the pencil is perfect | 小事大意,TED系列)。 (【TED】Caroline Weaver: Why the pencil is perfect (Why the pencil is perfect | Small Thing Big Idea, a TED series))

  • 3624 150
    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字