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  • The world feels pretty divided, currently 81% of both liberals and conservatives have

    這個世界感覺相當對立,目前 81% 的自由主義與保守主義

  • unfavorable views towards those on the other side.


  • But is there actually a fundamental biological difference between liberals and conservatives?


  • On the surface we can see some funny differences like


  • conservatives like meat and potatoes more while liberals tend to like trying food from other cultures more.


  • In general conservatives prefer purebred dogs while liberals prefer mixed breeds and liberals are ok with free verse poetry while conservatives prefer it to rhyme.


  • But as we study more we realize that the differences are much deeper. When put through MRI brain scans,

    但當我們研究得越多,我們發覺兩者的差異其實更深層。在核磁共振成像的腦部掃描下(Magnetic Resonance Imaging,簡稱MRI)

  • it turns out that liberals are more likely to have a larger anterior cingulate cortex


  • which is associated with understanding and monitoring conflict, while conservatives have a larger right amygdala


  • which helps process fear and anxiety. And that makes sense given the years of research that have shown people tend to become a more conservative


  • when they feel threatened or afraid.


  • After 9/11, for example, the u.s. became politically more conservative with studies showing increased support for issues

    例如 911 事件之後,美國政治上變得更加保守,研究顯示美國

  • like national security and military spending. But studies have also found that conservatives and liberals employ different cognitive styles.


  • Conservatives excel when it comes to more structured and organized problems or questions


  • whereas liberals tend to be more flexible and less likely to commit errors with questions involving conflicting information and requiring fast reaction times.


  • One study looking at dorm rooms even found that on average


  • conservative students rooms were less messy than liberals.


  • But they also experienced pain in different ways. So much so that one study was able to predict who is liberal or conservative


  • just by viewing brain scans of them looking at graphic photos containing mutilations.


  • In this instance liberal brains were more active in the s2 or somatosensory two region

    在這個情況下,自由主義者的大腦在 S2 就是所謂的次級體感覺皮質會更活躍

  • which is normally activated when you're in pain, but also when you see someone else suffering.


  • It's essentially scientific evidence for the bleeding-heart liberal stereotype


  • which doesn't mean conservatives are uncaring but that their minds just respond to graphic images differently.


  • In America this can explain how Democrats and Republicans perceive the world in fundamentally different ways.


  • It's difficult to grasp how someone on the other side of politics thinks because we tend to overestimate the extent to which our opinions believe some values are normal.


  • Psychologies refer to this as false consensus bias. For example, if you heard Yanni in Yanni vs

    心理學將這樣的情況稱為錯誤共識效應。舉例來說,如果你在「究竟是 Yanni 還是 Laurel」的辯論中聽到的是 Yanni

  • Laurel debate it may have felt that you were the normal one and it was


  • insane that anyone could be hearing Laurel. Apply this logic to politics and you can see why people have such

    但任何聽到 Laurel 的人,你會覺得他瘋了。這個邏輯應用到政治也是一樣,你可以看到

  • polarizing ideas on issues like immigration,


  • abortion, gun rights etc.


  • But where do these differences come from? One study revealed that genetics can account for around thirty to forty percent of a person's

    但這些差異是從何而來的?一個研究顯示遺傳學可以解釋一個人大約 30 到 40 百分比的政治傾向

  • political leanings, which may seem like a lot but there are still many other important factors like your environment and


  • personal experiences which play massive roles in your politics.


  • Political neuroscience is a relatively new field of study with fascinating results and in a world that's being increasingly characterized by its divisions


  • perhaps an important aspect of unity involves using neuroscience to better understand each other's differences.


  • On a lighter note space is a place for liberals and conservatives and nations all over the world come together.


  • And we actually just made a video where we tried out the latest


  • space food that astronauts are eating right now. Click here or the description to check it out.


  • Also, if you want even more science, we have a weekly science podcast, so subscribe to it.

    還有,如果你想要更多科學知識,我們有個每周播出的科學 podcast,所以去訂閱吧。

  • The link is like down there I think and it's called sidenote.

    連結在下面這裡,我想它應該叫 sidenote。

The world feels pretty divided, currently 81% of both liberals and conservatives have

這個世界感覺相當對立,目前 81% 的自由主義與保守主義


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