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  • The world feels pretty divided, currently 81% of both liberals and conservatives have

    這個世界感覺相當對立,目前 81% 的自由主義與保守主義

  • unfavorable views towards those on the other side.

    都對另一方抱有相反觀點。

  • But is there actually a fundamental biological difference between liberals and conservatives?

    但實際自由主義與保守主義之間是否真的存在一個根本上的生物差異?

  • On the surface we can see some funny differences like

    表面上我們可以看到一些有趣的差異

  • conservatives like meat and potatoes more while liberals tend to like trying food from other cultures more.

    像保守主義者比較喜歡肉類跟馬鈴薯,而自由主義者傾向多嘗試異國美食。

  • In general conservatives prefer purebred dogs while liberals prefer mixed breeds and liberals are ok with free verse poetry while conservatives prefer it to rhyme.

    一般來說保守主義者偏好純種狗,而自由主義者喜歡混種狗,自由主義者喜歡自由詩歌,而保守主義者喜歡押韻。

  • But as we study more we realize that the differences are much deeper. When put through MRI brain scans,

    但當我們研究得越多,我們發覺兩者的差異其實更深層。在核磁共振成像的腦部掃描下(Magnetic Resonance Imaging,簡稱MRI)

  • it turns out that liberals are more likely to have a larger anterior cingulate cortex

    結果顯示自由主義者擁有較大的前扣帶皮層

  • which is associated with understanding and monitoring conflict, while conservatives have a larger right amygdala

    這部位是與理解及監測衝突有關,而保守主義者的右杏仁體比較大

  • which helps process fear and anxiety. And that makes sense given the years of research that have shown people tend to become a more conservative

    這部位有助於處理恐懼與焦慮。那是有道理的,因為多年的研究顯示

  • when they feel threatened or afraid.

    當人們感到被威脅或害怕時,他們會變得更保守。

  • After 9/11, for example, the u.s. became politically more conservative with studies showing increased support for issues

    例如 911 事件之後,美國政治上變得更加保守,研究顯示美國

  • like national security and military spending. But studies have also found that conservatives and liberals employ different cognitive styles.

    對國家安全與軍事經費上花費的支援有所增加。但研究也發現,保守主義者與自由主義者採用不同的認知類型。

  • Conservatives excel when it comes to more structured and organized problems or questions

    當涉及結構與組織問題時,保守主義者較為擅長

  • whereas liberals tend to be more flexible and less likely to commit errors with questions involving conflicting information and requiring fast reaction times.

    反之,自由主義者往往更有彈性,也比較不會在涉及訊息衝突與需要快速反應時間的問題上犯錯。

  • One study looking at dorm rooms even found that on average

    一個關於宿舍的研究甚至發現

  • conservative students rooms were less messy than liberals.

    平均來說,保守主義學生的房間會比自由主義者乾淨。

  • But they also experienced pain in different ways. So much so that one study was able to predict who is liberal or conservative

    但他們在感受疼痛上也不同。因此,有個研究只是透過他們觀看包含斷肢的圖片時的腦部掃描

  • just by viewing brain scans of them looking at graphic photos containing mutilations.

    就能夠猜測誰是保守主義者、誰是自由主義者。

  • In this instance liberal brains were more active in the s2 or somatosensory two region

    在這個情況下,自由主義者的大腦在 S2 就是所謂的次級體感覺皮質會更活躍

  • which is normally activated when you're in pain, but also when you see someone else suffering.

    這部位通常在你感到疼痛時會變的活躍,但當你看到某人正在承受苦痛時也會。

  • It's essentially scientific evidence for the bleeding-heart liberal stereotype

    這是實質科學證據證明自由主義者的刻板印象:他們有個好心腸

  • which doesn't mean conservatives are uncaring but that their minds just respond to graphic images differently.

    這不代表保守主義者不關心別人,只是他們的腦袋對圖片的反應有所不同。

  • In America this can explain how Democrats and Republicans perceive the world in fundamentally different ways.

    在美國,這可以解釋民主黨與共和黨從根本上就是站在不同的觀點看世界。

  • It's difficult to grasp how someone on the other side of politics thinks because we tend to overestimate the extent to which our opinions believe some values are normal.

    因為我們高估某些我們認為很普遍的價值觀,我們就很難理解政治上另一派的人在想甚麼。

  • Psychologies refer to this as false consensus bias. For example, if you heard Yanni in Yanni vs

    心理學將這樣的情況稱為錯誤共識效應。舉例來說,如果你在「究竟是 Yanni 還是 Laurel」的辯論中聽到的是 Yanni

  • Laurel debate it may have felt that you were the normal one and it was

    你可能會覺得自己是正常人

  • insane that anyone could be hearing Laurel. Apply this logic to politics and you can see why people have such

    但任何聽到 Laurel 的人,你會覺得他瘋了。這個邏輯應用到政治也是一樣,你可以看到

  • polarizing ideas on issues like immigration,

    為什麼人們在一些如移民

  • abortion, gun rights etc.

    墮胎、槍枝權等議題上非常兩極化。

  • But where do these differences come from? One study revealed that genetics can account for around thirty to forty percent of a person's

    但這些差異是從何而來的?一個研究顯示遺傳學可以解釋一個人大約 30 到 40 百分比的政治傾向

  • political leanings, which may seem like a lot but there are still many other important factors like your environment and

    看起來似乎很多,但還有許多其他重要因素,像是你的環境

  • personal experiences which play massive roles in your politics.

    個人經歷在你的政治信仰也扮演了重要角色。

  • Political neuroscience is a relatively new field of study with fascinating results and in a world that's being increasingly characterized by its divisions

    政治神經學是個相對較新但有些令人著迷的結果的研究領域,並且在一個逐漸以分歧為特點的世界中

  • perhaps an important aspect of unity involves using neuroscience to better understand each other's differences.

    或許需要神經科學來讓我們更好的了解互相的差異是團結的重要觀點。

  • On a lighter note space is a place for liberals and conservatives and nations all over the world come together.

    講點輕鬆的,太空是個讓世界上自由主義者、保守主義者與國家聚在一起的地方。

  • And we actually just made a video where we tried out the latest

    其實我們才剛做了一支影片試吃太空人現在正在吃的

  • space food that astronauts are eating right now. Click here or the description to check it out.

    最新的太空食物。點這裡或資訊欄的連結去看看。

  • Also, if you want even more science, we have a weekly science podcast, so subscribe to it.

    還有,如果你想要更多科學知識,我們有個每周播出的科學 podcast,所以去訂閱吧。

  • The link is like down there I think and it's called sidenote.

    連結在下面這裡,我想它應該叫 sidenote。

The world feels pretty divided, currently 81% of both liberals and conservatives have

這個世界感覺相當對立,目前 81% 的自由主義與保守主義

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自由主義 vs 保守主義,哪一種比較好?(Liberals vs Conservatives - Which Brain is Better?)

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    Samuel 發佈於 2018 年 10 月 26 日
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