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  • A portly miller, barely sober enough to sit on his horse,

    一個肥胖的磨坊主騎在他的馬上,醉到快要坐不住

  • rambles on about the flighty wife of a crotchety old carpenter

    他閒談著一個壞脾氣老木匠的輕浮妻子

  • and the scholar she takes as her lover.

    以及她的學者愛人

  • To get some time alone together,

    為了有一些時間可以獨處

  • the scholar and the wife play various tricks

    學者和妻子耍了許多花招

  • that involve feigning madness,

    包括裝瘋賣傻

  • staging a biblical flood,

    假冒一場聖經中的水災

  • and exposing themselves in public.

    以及公眾曝露裸體

  • But the parish clerk is also lusting after the wife,

    但是教區修道士也對妻子動了慾望

  • and comes by every night to sing outside her house.

    每一晚都來到她家窗外唱歌

  • This becomes so tiresome that she tries to scare him away

    這變得很折騰人,所以她試著把他嚇跑

  • by hanging her rear end out the window for him to kiss.

    方式是把屁股探出門外給他親

  • When this appears not to work,

    當這招看似不管用時

  • her scholar decides to try farting in the same position,

    她的學者決定用同一姿勢放屁

  • but this time, the clerk is waiting with a red-hot poker.

    但這一次,修道士早已準備好一根炙熱的撥火棍

  • This might all sound like a bawdy joke,

    這聽起來或許像個下流笑話

  • but it's part of one of the most esteemed works of English literature ever created:

    不過它其實來自其中一部最享譽盛名的英國文學著作:

  • The Canterbury Tales,

    《坎特伯里故事集》

  • which seamlessly blends the lofty and the lowly.

    它將高貴的和卑下的巧妙融合在一塊

  • The work consists of 24 stories,

    作品包含 24 個故事

  • each told by one of Chaucer's spirited characters.

    每一個都由喬叟的其中一個活靈活現的角色述說

  • Narrators include familiar Medieval figures

    故事包含了中世紀常見的角色

  • such as a Knight,

    像是騎士、

  • a Clerk,

    修道士、

  • and a Nun,

    修女、

  • and the less recognizable reeve,

    沒什麼名氣的地方長官、

  • and Manciple,

    伙食管理員

  • and others.

    以及其他

  • The Tales are written in Middle English,

    故事是以中世紀英語寫成

  • which often looks entirely different from the language spoken today.

    看起來往往和現今英語全然不同

  • It was used between the 12th and 15th centuries, and evolved from Old English

    它被使用於 12 至 15 世紀,源自於古英語

  • due to increased contact with European romantic languages after the Norman Conquest of 1066.

    起因是諾曼人於 1066 年的入侵,使得古英語與歐洲拉丁語系語言有更多的交流

  • Most of the Middle English alphabet is still familiar today,

    大多數中世紀英語的字母至今仍能夠被認得

  • with the inclusion of a few archaic symbols,

    其中含有幾個古老符號

  • such as "yogh", which denotes the "y",

    像是 yogh,指示了 y

  • j,

    j

  • or gh sound.

    或是 gh 音

  • The loquacious cast of the Tales first meet at the Tabard Inn in Southwark.

    故事集中多嘴的角色們最一開始在南華克的戰袍客棧會面

  • They have a journey in common:

    他們有一趟一樣的行程:

  • a pilgrimage to Canterbury to visit the shrine of St. Thomas Beckett,

    前去坎特伯里探訪聖托馬斯.貝克特聖地的朝聖之旅

  • a martyred archbishop who was murdered in his own Cathedral.

    他是一位在自己的教堂中遭謀殺殉職的大主教

  • Eager and nosy for some personal details, the host of the Inn proposes a competition:

    愛管閒事的客棧主人很想知道他們的個人身家背景,於是提議一場比賽:

  • whoever tells the best tale will be treated to dinner.

    誰講了最棒的故事,就會被招待晚餐

  • If not for their pilgrimage,

    若非為了朝聖之旅

  • many of these figures would never have had the chance to interact.

    許多這些角色本該不會有機會互相交談

  • This is because Medieval society followed a feudal system

    這是因為中世紀社會遵循一種封建系統

  • that divided the clergy and nobility from the working classes,

    將神職人員和貴族與勞動階層分開

  • made up of peasants and serfs.

    後者為農夫和苦役

  • By Chaucer's time,

    到了喬叟的年代 (喬叟生平 1343 - 1400)

  • a professional class of merchants and intellectuals had also emerged.

    由商人和知識分子組成的專業階級也已經出現了

  • Chaucer spent most of his life as a government official during the Hundred Years' War,

    喬叟大半輩子都在擔任百年戰爭期間的政府官員

  • traveling throughout Italy and France, as well as his native England.

    他遊走於義大利和法國各地,以及他的家鄉英格蘭

  • This may have influenced the panoramic vision of his work,

    這或許造就了他作品中的全景視野

  • and in the Tales, no level of society is above mockery.

    而在故事集中,任何一個階級都逃不出嘲弄

  • Chaucer uses the quirks of the characters' language

    喬叟善用了角色話語中的雙關 —

  • the ribald humor of the cook,

    廚師粗鄙的幽默

  • the solemn prose of the parson,

    郊區牧師莊嚴的散文

  • and the lofty notions of the squire

    以及鄉紳崇高的見解 —

  • to satirize their worldviews.

    這些都被用以諷刺他們的世界觀

  • The varied dialects, genres, and literary tropes

    多變的方言、類型以及文學修辭

  • also make the work a vivid record of the different ways Medieval audiences entertained themselves.

    也使得該作品成為中世紀聽眾如何娛樂自己的一項生動記錄

  • For instance, the Knight's tale of courtly love,

    舉例來說,有關宮廷愛情的騎士故事

  • chivalry,

    以及騎士精神、

  • and destiny

    命運、

  • riffs on romance,

    反反復復的羅曼史

  • while the tales of working-class narrators are generally comedies filled with scatological language,

    而勞動階層的敘事者多半陳述喜劇故事,其中包含情色言語、

  • sexual deviance,

    外遇發生性關係

  • and slapstick.

    以及鬧劇

  • This variation includes something for everyone,

    這些多變涵蓋了每個人的某些面向

  • and that's one reason why readers continue to delight in the work in both Middle English and translation.

    這也是為何無論在中世紀英語或是現今的翻譯中,讀者依然能夠享受閱讀這部作品

  • While the narrative runs to over 17,000 lines,

    即使故事多達一萬七千多行

  • it's apparently unfinished,

    它很顯然還是未完結

  • as the prologue ambitiously introduces 29 pilgrims

    因為序幕中模糊地介紹了 29 個朝聖者

  • and promises four stories apiece,

    承諾每個人會說四個故事

  • and the innkeeper never crowns a victor.

    而且客棧主人一直沒有選出優勝者

  • It's possible that Chaucer was so caught up in his sumptuous creations

    有可能喬叟太過埋頭於他華麗的創作中

  • that he delayed picking a winner -

    以至於延遲選出優勝者 —

  • or perhaps he was so fond of each character

    也或許他太喜歡每個角色了

  • that he just couldn't choose.

    所以他選不出來

  • Whatever the reason,

    無論是什麼原因

  • this means that every reader is free to judge;

    這意味著每個讀者都有得定奪;

  • the question of who wins is up to you.

    誰贏了說故事大賽,由你決定

A portly miller, barely sober enough to sit on his horse,

一個肥胖的磨坊主騎在他的馬上,醉到快要坐不住

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 故事 角色 英語 騎士 學者

【TED-Ed】關於《坎特伯里故事集》你應該要知曉的事 (Everything you need to know to read "The Canterbury Tales" - Iseult Gillespie)

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    April Lu 發佈於 2018 年 10 月 18 日
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