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  • We often hear that studying literature

    常言道:修讀文學

  • involves finding a deeper meaning to a text.

    是找尋篇章的深層意義

  • When writing about literary works,

    賞析文學作品的時候

  • we're expected to mentally dive below the surface

    我們常要窺探文字的底層

  • in order to come back up with big ideas.

    領會表層之下的大意念

  • But you may find yourself looking

    但更多時候,自己可能

  • at the flat page of a book,

    只是對著書本的頁發呆

  • wondering how deep it can really go?

    想著究竟可以發掘得有多深?

  • How do we reach those ideas that turn into great essays?

    究竟我們怎樣拈來好主意,寫成好文章?

  • Well, there are two crucial thinking steps

    其實有兩個重要的思考步驟

  • that can lead us in the right direction:

    引領我們走向正確的方向:

  • practicing insight

    訓練洞察力

  • and acknowledging complexity.

    和了解複雜性

  • Insight is the ability to arrive

    洞察力就是

  • at an intuitive understanding of a big idea

    沿著蛛絲馬跡

  • using only small clues to get there.

    邁向廣闊意念的直覺了解

  • If you're practicing insight,

    若你訓練洞察力

  • you'll able to use observations

    就能運用觀察

  • about character behavior to figure out

    窺看人物角色的表現和行為

  • their true emotions and motivations.

    發掘出他們真正的情感和動機

  • Pay attention to little things

    見微知著

  • because they add up to what is really meaningful.

    零碎的碎片,加起來就湊成有意義的圖畫

  • For example, if you consider a character

    例如,《傲慢與偏見》中的角色

  • like Mr. Darcy from Pride and Prejudice,

    達西先生(Mr. Darcy)公然表達

  • who openly declares his dislike for Miss Lizzy Bennet,

    對伊麗莎白(Miss Lizzy Bennet)的不滿

  • you might, at first, assume he's just a mean guy.

    起初,你可能以為達西先生只是個刻薄的人

  • But, using your powers of insight,

    不過,運用你的洞察力

  • you're noticing other smaller things -

    你會發現到其他微小的事

  • how Darcy's eyes linger on Lizzy's face

    達西先生怎樣凝望伊麗莎白的臉,雙眼流轉

  • and how he seems all flustered when she's around.

    伊麗莎白在身邊時,他怎樣侷促不安

  • Add to the mix your knowledge that Mr. Darcy

    加上你對達西先生的認識

  • is in a much higher social class than Lizzy,

    知道他的社會地位遠高於伊麗莎白

  • and your sense of insight should be telling you

    洞察得出的直覺會告訴你

  • that there's something more here.

    當中另有內文

  • In this case, it will tell you

    這個例子來說,洞察所見

  • that Darcy's surface behavior is in conflict

    達西先生的表現

  • with his true feelings of attraction

    與內心的愛慕之情自相矛盾

  • because the difference in wealth between himself and Lizzy

    因為兩人貧富懸殊

  • makes him feel that it'll never work.

    令他深信,兩人的愛情不會開花結果

  • Thinking about all those small clues

    思考著這些微小的痕跡

  • gives us insight about some of the big, abstract ideas

    讓我們洞察到較大較廣的意念

  • within the novel that we can approach in an essay:

    從而可以在文章中探討這本小說當中

  • appearances versus reality,

    表面與真實

  • the power of wealth and social stratification,

    財富與社會階層的影響力

  • and the unpredictable nature of love and attraction.

    以及傾慕與愛戀不可計算的本質

  • Look at that! Deeper meaning.

    看看!這就是深層意義

  • The second step to a sophisticated analysis

    深入分析的第二步驟

  • is acknowledging complexity.

    就是了解複雜性

  • Let's face it. In both life and literature,

    直認不諱吧:人生也好,文學也好

  • situations are complicated

    情景錯錝複雜

  • due to social forces like relationships,

    不同的社會拉力交戰:感情

  • moral codes,

    道德標準

  • personal desires,

    個人求慾

  • and power structures.

    及權力結構

  • This means that there are, at any given time,

    換句話說,任何時刻

  • multiple factors that shape what is true.

    甚麼是真的,都由多個因素左右

  • In order to acknowledge complexity in your writing,

    要在寫作中認識到複雜性

  • refrain from making broad generalizations about a text

    就要避免對作品作出 一概而論的空泛立論

  • or establishing quick, simple judgements about a character.

    或是對人物角色 作出膚淺簡單的判斷

  • Explore each facet of your subject carefully

    仔細探索人物不同的面

  • and make sure to consider multiple influences on events.

    並考慮事件中不同的因素影響

  • Explain the tension of multiple forces

    解釋不同影響力當中的交煎

  • that create the story.

    怎樣創造出整個故事

  • For example, a basic analysis of Toni Morrison's Beloved,

    例如,在托妮·莫里森(Toni Morrison)的小說 《寵兒》(Beloved)中

  • where the protagonist has killed her own child

    主角殺死了自己的親生女

  • rather than allow her to grow up in slavery,

    好讓她不必在奴隸制度中長大,終生成奴

  • might sound like this,

    簡單的分析可能會是:

  • "Sethe murdered her own daughter.

    「柴特(Sethe)謀殺了親女

  • This act was wrong,

    大錯特錯

  • and causes the ghost of the child

    以致女兒的靈魂

  • to haunt her throughout the novel."

    一直縈繞在她背後,陰魂不散」

  • These observations are simplistic.

    這些觀察太過簡單

  • They don't acknowledge all the different forces

    並不能充分考慮不同的影響力

  • that contribute to what the character has done.

    怎樣塑造人物角色所做的一切

  • Try something like this instead,

    試一下這樣說:

  • "A culture of slavery disturbs the ability

    「奴隸主義成風、根深柢固

  • to determine what is morally right.

    甚至蒙蔽了是非對錯的道德判斷

  • Sethe's past experiences with violence

    柴特過去慘受暴力的經歷,揮之不散

  • reinforce the fear she has for her child's fate,

    加深了她對自己孩子未來命運的恐懼

  • and transform the murder into a protective act.

    從而將殺害親兒的行為,視作愛子之切

  • As the novel progresses,

    隨著劇情發展

  • Sethe is haunted both by the angry spirit of her daughter

    不但她的女兒陰魂不散

  • and by the memories of everything else

    之後一直縈繞著柴特的,也是她自己

  • slavery took from her."

    過去被奴隸制度所奪走一切的回憶」

  • Here, we see those influential forces at work,

    這裏,我們見到不同的影響力怎樣糾纏

  • and we've shown off our ability to understand

    我們也展示了自己

  • the complicated nature of the human experience,

    了解人生經歷複雜多變的能力

  • which, again, allows us to access

    再一次讓我們接觸到較大的題材

  • those big ideas that reveal the deeper meaning of a story,

    浮現故事深層的意義

  • ideas, in this case, like the parameters of maternal instinct,

    關於這故事的意念 像是說:母子之情

  • the consequences of injustice,

    不公義的遺禍

  • and the question of whether or not

    以至思索

  • ethics can even exist in a corrupted moral system.

    禮崩樂壞的制度中 還能否談論道德的存在

  • It's impossible to sit down

    要寫出一篇賞析文學作品的絕世文章

  • and write an amazing essay about literature

    非要先透徹思考清楚

  • without first thinking about it.

    才能下筆

  • Before you hit the keys,

    敲下鍵盤之前

  • go back to the text

    不妨先將目光放回篇章上

  • and fish out the small moments,

    仔細蒐集微小的片段

  • the complicated moments in the story.

    故事中複雜的時刻

  • Line them up in your mind,

    在腦海中先羅列清楚

  • practice insight,

    洞察玄機

  • acknowledge complexity,

    認清交纏

  • arrive at some big ideas.

    理出些頭緒

  • Before you know it,

    柳暗花明

  • the deeper meaning will be close at hand.

    不知不覺間,深層意義就在前方

We often hear that studying literature

常言道:修讀文學

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 達西 意念 文學 伊麗莎白 影響力

【TED-Ed】簡單兩步驟!開發深度賞析文學作品的能力 (Mining literature for deeper meanings - Amy E. Harter)

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    陳劭杰 發佈於 2013 年 10 月 06 日
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