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  • Women and men face double standards.

    女性和男性面臨到雙重標準

  • No, I don't mean just the gender pay gap,

    不只是只說男女薪資的差異

  • I'm also talking about the different words we use

    也有我們形容有同樣特質的男性和女性時

  • to describe men and women with the same characteristics.

    會使用不同的字

  • While he is described as charismatic,

    這個男人有魅力

  • she's often described as bubbly or vivacious.

    而這個女性很活潑、使人愉快

  • You wouldn't describe him as an airhead, he's just simple.

    我們不太會用說他愚笨,只是單純而已

  • She's an airhead.

    但會這樣說她

  • She's bossy.

    她很專橫

  • He's assertive.

    他頗果斷

  • Women are far more likely than men

    女性比男性更有可能

  • to be described as gossiping.

    被說很愛說長道短

  • If you don't believe me, after this film,

    如果你不信,看完影片之後

  • try a Google images search for gossip.

    可以試試看在Google圖片搜尋「八卦」

  • Unlike French, German, Spanish, Polish,

    不像法語、德語、西班牙語、波蘭語、

  • practically any other European language,

    和幾乎所有歐洲的語言

  • English doesn't have gender inherent in most of its words.

    英文文字沒有性別之分

  • But some of those words become gendered anyway when choose

    但當我們選擇不同的字形容男性和女性時

  • different words to describe men and women.

    有些字會被賦予性別

  • Feisty is a classic example.

    Feisty (易怒敏感的) 是經典的例子

  • It's rare to hear a man described as feisty.

    很少會聽到男人被說脾氣不好

  • Sure, you could hear about a feisty boxer

    當然你可能聽過別人說拳擊手脾氣不好

  • but it's a lot more likely to describe a flyweight

    不過通常這會用來形容輕量級拳擊手

  • than a heavyweight.

    而非重量級拳擊手

  • That's why some women hear feisty

    這就是為什麼女性把 feisty

  • as applying a kind of figurative or literal smallness

    當作小氣的比喻、

  • in them and hence a note of condescension.

    有點高傲的意涵

  • Academics from the University of Illinois

    伊利諾大學的學術界

  • and the University of California analyzed over 100,000 works

    和加州大學分析超過十萬本

  • of fiction written between 1800 and 2010.

    1800~2010年之間寫成的小說

  • They identified words connecting to male or female

    尋找與男性及女性角色

  • characters and the actions they performed.

    連結的字詞與行動

  • The study showed that the word house used to be a strongly

    研究顯示「住宅」在1800年代

  • male term in the 1800s.

    和男性有強烈連結

  • House was associated with the landed gentry

    「住宅」在維多利亞時代

  • in Victorian era.

    與擁有土地的紳士有關

  • But as the 20th century wore on,

    不過在二十世紀,

  • house became a slightly more female term

    這個字稍微變成跟女性有關的字,

  • associated with domesticity.

    和家務事有關

  • The writer Ben Blatt found that the verbs

    作家班布萊特認為在古典小說裡

  • most associated with the pronoun she in classic fiction are:

    與女性「她」有關的動詞有:

  • shivered, wept, murmured, screamed, and married.

    顫抖、啜泣、低語、尖叫、結婚

  • The most commonly associated with he are:

    跟男性他最普遍相關的動詞有:

  • muttered, grinned, shouted, chuckled, and killed.

    嘀咕、開口笑、大喊、咯咯笑、殺害

  • An algorithm used by those academics who studied house

    一些研究機構的學者嘗試用演算法

  • tries to determine a character's gender based only

    只以描寫角色和對話所用的語言為基礎,

  • on the language used in descriptions and dialogue.

    判斷角色的性別

  • These predictions were right 75% of the time

    有鑑於 1800 年代的書籍,那些預測有百分之七十五的準確率

  • for books written around 1800 but that falls to just about

    但在 2000 年左右的書籍

  • 65% of the time in books written around 2000.

    準確度降至百分之六十五

  • In other words, the vocabulary used to describe

    也就是說男性與女性用字

  • women and men is becoming more blurred.

    界線變得比較模糊

  • So the gender stereotypes like feisty are less common

    所以像是「脾氣差的」性別刻板印象

  • than they used to be.

    沒有過去那麼普遍了

  • Nearly all words have different shades of meaning.

    幾乎全部的字都有不同意義

  • While the speaker intends the positive one,

    也許說話者是指正向的意涵,

  • the hearer often hears the negative.

    但聽者通常會曲解為有負面意義

  • And that's a good reason to avoid compliments that convey

    這是避免有驚訝情緒讚美的

  • a note of surprise.

    好理由

  • Lane, you are so articulate.

    藍恩,你好會說話

  • Really?

    是嗎?

  • Scouring your mind for a vocative language isn't easy

    在心中回想稱呼語並不容易

  • but working hard to be original and to avoid giving

    但請努力貼近原意,

  • unwanted offense can only be a good thing.

    避免不必要的冒犯是很好的

Women and men face double standards.

女性和男性面臨到雙重標準

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 女性 男性 性別 拳擊手 脾氣 形容

英語中的性別歧視有哪些? (Sexism and the English language | The Economist)

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    Priscilla 發佈於 2018 年 11 月 02 日
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