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  • Cigarettes aren't good for us.

    香菸對我們不好

  • That's hardly news--we've known about the dangers of smoking for decades.

    這幾乎不是新聞了 -- 我們已經知道抽菸的危害有幾十年了

  • But how exactly do cigarettes harm us?

    但是抽菸究竟會如何傷害我們?

  • Let's look at what happens as their ingredients

    我們來看看當其中的成分

  • make their way through our bodies,

    進到我們體內時會發生什麼事

  • and how we benefit physically when we finally give up smoking.

    還有當我們戒菸時,身體又會得到哪些益處

  • With each inhalation,

    每吸一口

  • smoke brings its more than 5,000 chemical substances

    煙都會伴隨五千種以上的化學物質

  • into contact with the body's tissues.

    進入到體內和身體組織接觸

  • From the start, tar, a black, resinous material,

    最一開始,焦油,一種樹脂製的黑色物質

  • begins to coat the teeth and gums,

    開始附著牙齒和牙齦表層

  • damaging tooth enamel, and eventually causing decay.

    損及琺瑯質,最終導致腐爛

  • Over time, smoke also damages nerve-endings in the nose,

    隨著時間拉長,煙也會損毀鼻腔內的神經末梢

  • causing loss of smell.

    造成嗅覺喪失

  • Inside the airways and lungs,

    在器官和肺裡面

  • smoke increases the likelihood of infections,

    煙提高了傳染病的發生機率

  • as well as chronic diseases like bronchitis and emphysema.

    以及像是支氣管炎和肺氣腫這類慢性疾病

  • It does this by damaging the cilia,

    這都是因為它會損害纖毛

  • tiny hairlike structures whose job it is to keep the airways clean.

    這些長得像頭髮的微小組織負責保持氣管的乾淨

  • It then fills the alveoli,

    最後它會填滿肺泡

  • tiny air sacs that enable the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide

    這些小小的氣囊讓肺部和血液間得以傳遞

  • between the lungs and blood.

    氧氣和二氧化碳

  • A toxic gas called carbon monoxide crosses that membrane into the blood,

    一種稱為一氧化碳的有毒物質會透過這些薄膜進到血液中

  • binding to hemoglobin

    綁住血紅素

  • and displacing the oxygen

    然後取代氧氣

  • it would usually have transported around the body.

    它原先應該是載運氧氣循環身體

  • That's one of the reasons smoking can lead to oxygen deprivation

    這也是為什麼抽煙可以導致缺氧

  • and shortness of breath.

    和呼吸急促

  • Within about 10 seconds,

    在十秒內

  • the bloodstream carries a stimulant called nicotine to the brain,

    血液將一種稱為尼古丁的興奮劑帶到腦部

  • triggering the release of dopamine and other neurotransmitters

    觸發了多巴胺的釋放,以及其他種神經傳遞介質

  • including endorphins

    包含腦內啡

  • that create the pleasurable sensations which make smoking highly addictive.

    那會帶來愉悅感,使得抽煙非常容易上癮

  • Nicotine and other chemicals from the cigarette

    香菸中的尼古丁和其他化學物質

  • simultaneously cause constriction of blood vessels

    同時造成了血管的收縮

  • and damage their delicate endothelial lining,

    損害他們纖細的內皮表層

  • restricting blood flow.

    限制了血流

  • These vascular effects lead to thickening of blood vessel walls

    這些血管效果會導致血管壁厚化

  • and enhance blood platelet stickiness,

    並且增加血小板黏性

  • increasing the likelihood that clots will form

    增加了血塊發生機率

  • and trigger heart attacks and strokes.

    引發心臟病和中風

  • Many of the chemicals inside cigarettes can trigger dangerous mutations

    香煙中的多種化學物質都可以引起身體 DNA 中的危險變異

  • in the body's DNA that make cancers form.

    然後帶來癌症

  • Additionally, ingredients like arsenic and nickel

    另外,砷和鎳這類物質

  • may disrupt the process of DNA repair,

    可能打斷 DNA 的修復過程

  • thus compromising the body's ability to fight many cancers.

    因此使得身體擊敗癌症的能力大打折扣

  • In fact, about one of every three cancer deaths in the United States

    事實上,在美國每三起癌症死亡病例中,就有一例是

  • is caused by smoking.

    導因於抽菸

  • And it's not just lung cancer.

    而且還不止肺癌

  • Smoking can cause cancer in multiple tissues and organs,

    抽菸可以導致多種組織和器官的癌症

  • as well as damaged eyesight

    還會損壞視力、

  • and weakened bones.

    弱化骨骼

  • It makes it harder for women to get pregnant.

    它讓女性較難受孕

  • And in men, it can cause erectile dysfunction.

    而對於男性,它會導致勃起障礙

  • But for those who quit smoking,

    但是對於那些戒煙的人而言

  • there's a huge positive upside

    情況有大大好轉的一面

  • with almost immediate and long-lasting physical benefits.

    那會帶來幾乎是立即就有的長期生理益處

  • Just 20 minutes after a smoker's final cigarette,

    就在一個吸菸者戒菸二十分鐘後

  • their heart rate and blood pressure begin to return to normal.

    他的心率和血壓就會開始回歸正常

  • After 12 hours, carbon monoxide levels stabilize,

    十二小時後,一氧化碳的濃度平衡

  • increasing the blood's oxygen-carrying capacity.

    提升血液的氧氣承載力

  • A day after ceasing,

    戒菸後的一天

  • heart attack risk begins to decrease as blood pressure and heart rates normalize.

    隨著血壓和心率達到正常值,心臟病風險也開始降低

  • After two days,

    過了兩天

  • the nerve endings responsible for smell and taste start to recover.

    負責嗅覺的味覺的神經末梢開始恢復

  • Lungs become healthier after about one month,

    肺部在一個月後變得健康起來

  • with less coughing and shortness of breath.

    咳嗽和短促呼吸都較少發生了

  • The delicate hair-like cilia in the airways and lungs

    氣管和肺中的脆弱纖毛

  • start recovering within weeks,

    在幾週內開始復原

  • and are restored after 9 months, improving resistance to infection.

    九個月後會完全修復,提升抵禦傳染病的免疫力

  • By the one-year anniversary of quitting,

    戒菸後滿一年

  • heart disease risk plummets to half as blood vessel function improves.

    因為血管機能提升,心臟疾病風險大幅降低一半

  • Five years in,

    五年後

  • the chance of a clot forming dramatically declines,

    血塊發生機率劇烈降低

  • and the risk of stroke continues to reduce.

    中風的風險也持續減少

  • After ten years, the chances of developing fatal lung cancer

    十年後,發生致命肺癌的機率

  • go down by 50%,

    減少 50%

  • probably because the body's ability to repair DNA is once again restored.

    這可能是因為身體修復 DNA 的能力回歸了

  • Fifteen years in, the likelihood of developing coronary heart disease

    十五年後,發生冠狀心臟疾病的風險

  • is essentially the same as that of a non-smoker.

    基本上會和非吸菸者風險一樣

  • There's no point pretending this is all easy to achieve.

    沒必要裝作這很容易達成

  • Quitting can lead to anxiety and depression,

    抽離了尼古丁

  • resulting from nicotine withdrawal.

    戒菸可能導致焦慮和沮喪

  • But fortunately, such effects are usually temporary.

    但幸運的是,這些情況通常都是暫時的

  • And quitting is getting easier, thanks to a growing arsenal of tools.

    而且多虧於越來越多種的器具,戒菸變得比較容易

  • Nicotine replacement therapy through gum,

    透過口香糖的尼古丁替換療法

  • skin patches,

    或是皮膚貼片、

  • lozenges,

    喉糖、

  • and sprays

    和噴霧

  • may help wean smokers off cigarettes.

    都可能幫助戒菸者擺脫香菸

  • They work by stimulating nicotine receptors in the brain

    他們的運作機制是激發腦中的尼古丁受器

  • and thus preventing withdrawal symptoms,

    因此避免戒斷症狀

  • without the addition of other harmful chemicals.

    而且不需要添加其他的有害物質

  • Counselling and support groups,

    諮商和互助協會、

  • cognitive behavioral therapy,

    認知行為療法、

  • and moderate intensity exercise

    還有中強度的運動

  • also help smokers stay cigarette-free.

    同樣可以幫助吸菸者擺脫香煙

  • That's good news,

    這是好消息

  • since quitting puts you and your body on the path back to health.

    因為戒菸能夠將你和你的身體導回健康的道路

Cigarettes aren't good for us.

香菸對我們不好

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 尼古丁 物質 身體 氧氣 機率

【TED-Ed】吸菸如何影響你的身體?快快戒菸啊! (How do cigarettes affect the body? - Krishna Sudhir)

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    April Lu 發佈於 2018 年 10 月 21 日
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