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  • Public housing is often considered low in quality and high in crime.

    公共住宅經常被認為住房品質低落且犯罪率高。

  • But it's a totally different story in Singapore.

    但在新加坡,完全是另一回事。

  • Government-built apartments in Singapore are clean, safe, and well-maintained.

    在新加坡,政府興建的公寓非常乾淨、安全且保養的非常好。

  • And about 80% of Singaporean households live in them.

    而整個新加坡,有大約 80% 的家庭都定居在其中。

  • Singapore is also one of the few countries in the world to achieve almost full home-ownership status.

    新加坡也是世界上少數,房屋自有率接近 100% 的國家之一。

  • Over 90% of the city's households own their own homes.

    超過 90% 的城市家戶擁有自己的房屋。

  • But it wasn't always this way.

    但過去並非如此。

  • Here's how Singapore fixed its housing problem.

    以下是新加坡如何解決國家住宅問題的介紹。

  • In 1959, when Singapore obtained self-governance from the British, the city was having a severe housing crisis, struggling to accommodate its growing population.

    西元 1959 年,當新加坡從英國手中獲得自治權後,這個城市有著嚴重的住宅危機,為容納其成長的人口數傷透腦筋。

  • In 1960, Singapore's first Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew and his government set up the Housing and Development Board, or HDB, a public housing agency with a mission to build rental units for the poor.

    西元 1960 年,新加坡的首位總理,李光耀和他的行政單位設立了建屋發展局,簡稱 「HDB」,一個負責公共住宅的機構,主要任務是建造出租住宅給貧民。

  • At the time, many immigrants including those from Malaysia were living in unhygienic slums.

    當時,包括來自馬來西亞的許多移民,都住在衛生條件不佳的貧民窟。

  • Amid increasing racial tension between Chinese and Malays, the HDB had a hard time convincing them to leave their informal settlements for new high-rises.

    其中華人與馬來人之間攀升的種族緊張關係,建屋發展局耗費一番苦心才說服他們離開原本臨時性的住家,到新建的高樓住宅中。

  • Then came the still unexplained fire which broke out in the squatter settlement of Bukit Ho Swee on May 25, 1961.

    然後在西元 1961 年 5 月 25 日發生了一場到目前仍無法釐清案情的大火,摧毀了河水山的小棚屋。

  • An area of 400,000 square meters was razed.

    400,000 平方公尺的土地付之一炬。

  • Four people were killed and around 16,000 left homeless.

    其中有 4 個人罹難,大約 16,000 人流離失所。

  • The government successfully rehoused all of the fire victims within a year and built new housing on the site of the disaster in the next five years.

    當局在 1 年內就成功地讓火災受難者找到房屋居住,並在之後 5 年內於災害發生地點建造新的住宅。

  • Its speedy reaction won over the people and paved the way for future public housing projects.

    當局快速的反應贏得人民的支持,並為將來的公共住宅計畫鋪下道路。

  • Singapore must be one of the few places in the world where a statutory board satisfactorily completed everything it set out to do in its first five-year plan.

    新加坡的法令委員會,肯定是世界上少數幾個能圓滿完成在 5 年計畫中所規劃的所有項目的國家之一。

  • By 1965, the HDB managed to build over 51,000 apartments, rehousing 400,000 people, a quarter of the then population, solving the housing shortage.

    西元 1965 年,建屋發展局成功建造超過 51,000 個公寓單位,使當時全國人口的四分之一,約 400,000 人移居新居,解決房屋短缺問題。

  • Apart from renting out apartments, HDB also started to sell them in 1964.

    除了出租公寓外,建屋發展局也在西元 1964 年開始出售公寓。

  • Singaporeans are required to save part of their salaries in a state-managed plan called Central Provident Fund.

    政府也要求新加坡人把部份薪水存入由政府經營的公積金中。

  • At first the fund only provided for retirement.

    最初,這個公積金只適用於退休人員。

  • Then, in 1968, the government allowed the use of the fund for housing expenses, helping more people become homeowners.

    後來,西元 1968 年,當局允許公積金也用來供給住宅支出,幫助更多人成為有屋階級。

  • Unlike many other countries, Singapore's public housing is not only for the poor, instead, it caters to the masses.

    不像其他國家,新加坡的公共住宅不只提供給貧民,相反地,它滿足大多數人公民的需求。

  • Citizens within certain income ceilings can buy various types of property, from basic two-room apartments to up-market units in condominiums with a swimming pool and a gym.

    達到一定收入水準的公民便能購買各種類型的房產,從基本的兩房公寓,到內含游泳池跟健身房的高檔公寓單位都有。

  • Their prices are usually 20 to 30 percent cheaper than those in the private market.

    它們的價錢通常比市場建商的建案價格便宜約 20 至 30%

  • But you've got to apply and order the apartment first, then wait several years for it to be built.

    但你需要先申請公寓並排隊,然後等幾年後,建好了才能住。

  • Also, you can't sell it until you finish the five-year minimum occupation period.

    還有,在最短的五年居住期間內,你不能賣掉這間公寓。

  • Today HDB has planned, designed and built over 1 million apartments spreading over the city-state.

    今日,建屋發展局已在全國境內,設計並建造了超過 100 萬套公寓。

  • The percentage of people living in public housing has grown from 9% in 1960 to 82% in 2016, and the homeownership rate has also increased rapidly with the rise of Singapore's economy.

    國人居住在公共住宅的比例,已從西元 1960 年的 9% 成長至 西元 2016 年的 82%,房屋自有率也因為新加坡的經濟成長而快速攀升。

  • Singapore's public housing is considered as one of the world's best, but some see it as a way of social control.

    新加坡的公共住宅被認為是世界的頂尖之一,但有些人將之視為一種社會控制的手段。

  • For instance, quotas ensure a mix of Chinese, Indians and Malays in each HDB block, aiming to carefully integrate ethnic groups and prevent the formation of a volatile racial enclave.

    例如,定額制確保每個建屋發展局的街區都有華人、印度人與馬來人混居,目標是為了小心地結合不同種族族群,並避免不穩定的種族領域形成。

  • But still, a mighty agency with effective policies and strong political will has fixed Singapore's housing crisis and improved the living conditions of millions.

    但是,一個具備有效政策與強烈政治意願的有力當局,已經解決了新加坡的住宅危機並改善數百萬人的居住條件。

Public housing is often considered low in quality and high in crime.

公共住宅經常被認為住房品質低落且犯罪率高。

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公共住宅的利弊?看新加坡如何聰明解決住房問題 (How Singapore Fixed Its Housing Problem)

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    Vvn Chen 發佈於 2018 年 10 月 01 日
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