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  • Public housing is often considered low in quality and high in crime.


  • But it's a totally different story in Singapore.


  • Government-built apartments in Singapore are clean, safe, and well-maintained.


  • And about 80% of Singaporean households live in them.

    而整個新加坡,有大約 80% 的家庭都定居在其中。

  • Singapore is also one of the few countries in the world to achieve almost full home-ownership status.

    新加坡也是世界上少數,房屋自有率接近 100% 的國家之一。

  • Over 90% of the city's households own their own homes.

    超過 90% 的城市家戶擁有自己的房屋。

  • But it wasn't always this way.


  • Here's how Singapore fixed its housing problem.


  • In 1959, when Singapore obtained self-governance from the British, the city was having a severe housing crisis, struggling to accommodate its growing population.

    西元 1959 年,當新加坡從英國手中獲得自治權後,這個城市有著嚴重的住宅危機,為容納其成長的人口數傷透腦筋。

  • In 1960, Singapore's first Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew and his government set up the Housing and Development Board, or HDB, a public housing agency with a mission to build rental units for the poor.

    西元 1960 年,新加坡的首位總理,李光耀和他的行政單位設立了建屋發展局,簡稱 「HDB」,一個負責公共住宅的機構,主要任務是建造出租住宅給貧民。

  • At the time, many immigrants including those from Malaysia were living in unhygienic slums.


  • Amid increasing racial tension between Chinese and Malays, the HDB had a hard time convincing them to leave their informal settlements for new high-rises.


  • Then came the still unexplained fire which broke out in the squatter settlement of Bukit Ho Swee on May 25, 1961.

    然後在西元 1961 年 5 月 25 日發生了一場到目前仍無法釐清案情的大火,摧毀了河水山的小棚屋。

  • An area of 400,000 square meters was razed.

    400,000 平方公尺的土地付之一炬。

  • Four people were killed and around 16,000 left homeless.

    其中有 4 個人罹難,大約 16,000 人流離失所。

  • The government successfully rehoused all of the fire victims within a year and built new housing on the site of the disaster in the next five years.

    當局在 1 年內就成功地讓火災受難者找到房屋居住,並在之後 5 年內於災害發生地點建造新的住宅。

  • Its speedy reaction won over the people and paved the way for future public housing projects.


  • Singapore must be one of the few places in the world where a statutory board satisfactorily completed everything it set out to do in its first five-year plan.

    新加坡的法令委員會,肯定是世界上少數幾個能圓滿完成在 5 年計畫中所規劃的所有項目的國家之一。

  • By 1965, the HDB managed to build over 51,000 apartments, rehousing 400,000 people, a quarter of the then population, solving the housing shortage.

    西元 1965 年,建屋發展局成功建造超過 51,000 個公寓單位,使當時全國人口的四分之一,約 400,000 人移居新居,解決房屋短缺問題。

  • Apart from renting out apartments, HDB also started to sell them in 1964.

    除了出租公寓外,建屋發展局也在西元 1964 年開始出售公寓。

  • Singaporeans are required to save part of their salaries in a state-managed plan called Central Provident Fund.


  • At first the fund only provided for retirement.


  • Then, in 1968, the government allowed the use of the fund for housing expenses, helping more people become homeowners.

    後來,西元 1968 年,當局允許公積金也用來供給住宅支出,幫助更多人成為有屋階級。

  • Unlike many other countries, Singapore's public housing is not only for the poor, instead, it caters to the masses.


  • Citizens within certain income ceilings can buy various types of property, from basic two-room apartments to up-market units in condominiums with a swimming pool and a gym.


  • Their prices are usually 20 to 30 percent cheaper than those in the private market.

    它們的價錢通常比市場建商的建案價格便宜約 20 至 30%

  • But you've got to apply and order the apartment first, then wait several years for it to be built.


  • Also, you can't sell it until you finish the five-year minimum occupation period.


  • Today HDB has planned, designed and built over 1 million apartments spreading over the city-state.

    今日,建屋發展局已在全國境內,設計並建造了超過 100 萬套公寓。

  • The percentage of people living in public housing has grown from 9% in 1960 to 82% in 2016, and the homeownership rate has also increased rapidly with the rise of Singapore's economy.

    國人居住在公共住宅的比例,已從西元 1960 年的 9% 成長至 西元 2016 年的 82%,房屋自有率也因為新加坡的經濟成長而快速攀升。

  • Singapore's public housing is considered as one of the world's best, but some see it as a way of social control.


  • For instance, quotas ensure a mix of Chinese, Indians and Malays in each HDB block, aiming to carefully integrate ethnic groups and prevent the formation of a volatile racial enclave.


  • But still, a mighty agency with effective policies and strong political will has fixed Singapore's housing crisis and improved the living conditions of millions.


Public housing is often considered low in quality and high in crime.


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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 住宅 新加坡 公寓 房屋 當局 建造

公共住宅的利弊?看新加坡如何聰明解決住房問題 (How Singapore Fixed Its Housing Problem)

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    Vvn Chen 發佈於 2018 年 10 月 01 日