## 字幕列表 影片播放

• These are my assistants, Coleman and Phil.

這兩位是我的助理：Coleman 和 Phil

• They're both around the same height, weight, and consequently, they have the same Body Mass Indexor BMI.

他們兩位有著相似的身高、體重，所以，他們有著相同的身體質量指數－簡稱 BMI

• But if you split them open Damien Hirst style

但如果你利用達米恩·赫斯特風格來區別他們

• or just compare the results of their body scans you can see a slight difference.

或是比較他們全身檢查的結果，你可以發現些微的不同處

• Phil has more body fat than Coleman, and Coleman has more muscle than Phil.

Phil 的體脂肪比 Coleman 多，而 Coleman 的肌肉比 Phil 多

• Although BMI is a popular measure to assess if a person's weight might be putting them at risk for obesity-related diseases, its results can be pretty misleading and less nuanced than we'd like.

雖然身體質量指數是一個常見的測量方式，來衡量是否人類的體重是否過胖，會不會引起肥胖相關的疾病，但身體質量指數的結果會很容易讓人誤會，而且不夠準確性

• So the BMI is an index that looks at somebody's body weight divided by their height.

所以身體質量指數是指一個人的身高除以體重所得的指數

• So the formula is the body weight in kilograms divided by the height in square meters.

所以公式就是體重 (公斤) 除以身高 (公尺) 的平方

• 18.5 and below is underweight, 18.5 to 24.9 is your healthy range, 25 to 29.9 is overweight, and a BMI over 30 is classified as obese.

小於 18.5 為過輕，18.5 至 24.9 是標準體重，25 至 29.9 為過重，而 BMI 超過 30 為過胖

• With the idea being that the taller somebody is, the more they should weigh.

我們都以為一個人越高，他們就應該會比較重

• Kinda weird how a single decimal point can separate being overweight from being obese.

過重和肥胖之間就只差一個小數點是有點不合理的

• The major problem with using BMI as a marker of health when it comes to body weight, because it penalizes you if you have a lot of muscle and you're healthier.

用身體質量指數作為健康依據的最大問題是，當我們提到體重時，如果你強壯又健康，對你是不利的

• Let"s use professional athlete Marshawn Lyncwh as an example.

我們舉職業運動員馬孝恩·林奇為例

• He's 5'11, 215 lbs, and his BMI is 30.

他 180 公分 、96 公斤，而他的身體質量指數為 30

• He'd be categorized as obese.

所以他被歸類為肥胖型

• That is because BMI doesn't distinguish muscle from fat.

這是因為身體質量指數並未區分脂肪中所含的肌肉指數

• We are really concentrating on how much muscle does somebody have, because muscle it's the metabolic engine.

我們就只專注那個人有多少肌肉，因為肌肉是新陳代謝的幫浦

• It's the thing that burns calories and the more muscle you have

它能夠燃燒卡路里，所以你體內的肌肉組織越多，

• the easier it is for you to stay at a lower and

越是能燃燒更多熱量，並能保持一個較低和

• more healthy body fat percentage not necessarily a BMI.

健康的體脂肪指數，不一定要以身體質量指數為依據

• In this way, BMI's reliability as an indicator of health breaks down for athletes like Lynch.

這樣的方式，對於運動員馬孝恩·林奇而言，以健康為依據的身體質量指數失去了信服力

• There are several more variables that can influence the interpretation of BMI.

還有許多變數會影響身體質量指數的結果

• Things like age, gender, and ethnicity.

像是年齡、性別、和種族

• While BMI is a useful measure for a large population study, for example,

對絕大數的研究而言，身體質量指數是個實用的測量方式，例如

• to compare relative obesity rates from state to state;

比較城市和城市之間的肥胖比率

• it becomes more problematic when you use it to determine an individual's health.

尤其當你用來測量一個人健康時會變得更有問題

• The body mass index was introduced in the early 19th century.

身體質量指標是在早期 19 世紀提出的

• This guy who created the formula — I'm so sorry, I'm gonna butcher his name,

一個傢伙創造這個公式－對不起，我不會唸他的名字

• Lambert Adolphe Jacques Queteletwasn't even a physician.

朗伯·阿道夫·雅克·凱特勒－根本不能算是一位醫生

• Quetelet was a Belgian mathematician.

凱特勒是一位比利時數學家

• And his reason for creating the formula was to study thenormal man”, not obesity.

而他創造了這公式來研究「普通的人」，而沒考慮到肥胖

• Its use shifted to study obesity because of Ancel Keys.

因為安賽・基斯，他則轉而研究肥胖

• In 1972, Keys used the formula in his "Indices of Relative Weight and Obesitystudy, renamed

在 1972 年，基斯運用他在「體重和肥胖的相關指數」一書提到的運算方式，重新命名

• the formula to body mass index, and from there thenewmeasure caught on among researchers.

身體質量指數，而之後這樣「新的」測量方式則被其他研究者運用

• Over the years, its use in the health professional field grew and it's pretty much stuck around since.

多年下來，這計算方式在健康專業領域上蓬勃發展

• It's easy to use, cheap, fast, and its right about 80% of the time.

計算方式很簡單、便宜、又快，並且有 80 百分比的正確性

• So even though BMI has stuck around for more than 200 years,

即使身體質量指數流傳長達了 200 多年，

• it's not the be-all and end-all indicator.

並不能算是一個完完全全的依據

• There are more effective ways to assess to body composition, and overall health.

還有其他有效的方式可以來評估身體的組成，以及身體健康狀況

• Hydrostatic weighing, or underwater weighing, is an option.

水中量重法，或是水底秤量法是個選擇

• Along with MRI scans, and waist-to-hip ratio.

和核磁共振成像、以及腰臀比例

• Medical tests like checking blood pressure, your glucose levels, resting metabolic rate,

檢康檢查像是血壓檢查、葡萄糖指數、基礎代謝率，

• can further give a picture of overall health.

可以讓我們更了解整個身體的健康狀況

• I went to George Washington University, and lab director Todd Miller showed me another way,

我去了一趟喬治·華盛頓大學，而實驗室的主管托德·米勒介紹我另一個方法，

• using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry or DEXA image.

運用雙能量 X 光吸光式測定儀或簡稱為 DXA影像

• It measures total body composition, including fat mass, lean body mass, and bone density.

它可以測量出身體的總組合，包刮了脂肪重量、去脂肪體重、以及骨頭密度

• So the green is the areas where the body is very lean.

所以綠色部分是身體過瘦的地方

• The yellow areas of moderate fat.

黃色部分是身體有著適當脂肪的地方

• And the red areas of high fat.

而紅色地方指的是身體有過多脂肪的地方

• So this person was here July 3rd she had 72 pounds of fat and 109 pounds of muscle.

這個人是 7 月 3 號來檢查的，她有 33 公斤的脂肪和 49 公斤的肌肉

• And in December 27th of this year she had at thirty seven pounds of fat in 115 pounds of muscle.

而在今年 12 月27 號，她有 17 公斤的脂肪，而有著 52 公斤的肌肉

• Using this chart you can see if this person stepped on a scale, they'd only see they lost 29 pounds.

用這個表格，你可以發現這個人量體重，會發現他們只瘦了 29 公斤

• What the scale wouldn't say is that they gained six pounds of muscles,

而這個體重機並不會指出他們實際上長了 3 公斤的肌肉

• and BMI wouldn't say that either.

身體質量指數的算法也是如此

• So even if two people have similar BMIs,

所以就算兩個人有著相似的身體質量指數，

• that one number will never truly give either of them

但這指數並無法明確指出他們任何一個人

• the full picture of their overall wellbeing.

整體的身體健康狀況

• BMI is an indirect measurement of one aspect of an individual's health.

身體質量指數是個參考性的測量一個人的健康方式

• So while it can be helpful, it shouldn't be the only way to understand the human body.

雖然身體質量指數是有助於人，但還是有其他的計算方式可以運用來了解人體狀況

These are my assistants, Coleman and Phil.