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  • I'm an artist.

    譯者: Dai-Yun Wu 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • Being an artist is the greatest job there is.

    我是一個藝術家

  • And I really pity each and every one of you

    藝術家是最棒的工作

  • who has to spend your days discovering new galaxies

    而我真的很憐憫你們每一個人

  • or saving humanity from global warming.

    你們必須花時間探索宇宙

  • (Laughter)

    或將人類從全球暖化中拯救出來

  • But being an artist is also a daunting job.

    (笑聲)

  • I spend every day, from nine to six, doing this.

    但其實藝術家也是份令人氣餒的工作

  • (Laughter)

    我每天從九點到六點都在做這個:

  • I even started a side career that consists entirely

    (笑聲)

  • of complaining about the difficulty of the creative process.

    我甚至開始一份副業

  • (Laughter)

    而這份副業都在抱怨創造過程的難處

  • But today, I don't want to talk about what makes my life difficult.

    (笑聲)

  • I want to talk about what makes it easy.

    但今天我不想討論那些 讓我的人生變得困難的事

  • And that is you

    我想談那些讓我的人生變得簡單的事

  • and the fact that you are fluent in a language

    而那就是你

  • that you're probably not even aware of.

    以及一個你可能從未發覺的事實:

  • You're fluent in the language of reading images.

    你的某種語言能力其實很流暢

  • Deciphering an image like that

    你其實很會解讀圖像語言

  • takes quite a bit of an intellectual effort.

    要解碼一個像這樣的圖像

  • But nobody ever taught you how this works,

    需要運用一些智力

  • you just know it.

    但沒有人曾教導過你怎麼做

  • College, shopping, music.

    你就是知道怎麼做

  • What makes a language powerful is that you can take a very complex idea

    大學、逛街、音樂

  • and communicate it in a very simple, efficient form.

    讓語言強大的關鍵是 你能將一個很複雜的想法

  • These images represent exactly the same ideas.

    以很簡單又有效率的形式傳達

  • But when you look, for example, at the college hat,

    這些圖像與文字代表完全相同的意思

  • you know that this doesn't represent the accessory you wear on your head

    舉例來說,當你看著那頂學士帽時

  • when you're being handed your diploma,

    你知道它不只是代表那個 你在接過你的文憑時

  • but rather the whole idea of college.

    頭上戴的裝飾品

  • Now, what drawings can do is they cannot only communicate images,

    而是「大學」這整個概念

  • they can even evoke emotions.

    圖畫不僅僅能夠傳遞圖像

  • Let's say you get to an unfamiliar place and you see this.

    也能激發情感

  • You feel happiness and relief.

    假設你去到不熟悉的地方看到這個:

  • (Laughter)

    你就覺得開心、鬆了口氣

  • Or a slight sense of unease or maybe downright panic.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    或許感到有些焦慮,或者極度恐慌

  • Or blissful peace and quiet.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    或幸福安詳

  • But visuals, they're of course more than just graphic icons.

    (笑聲)

  • You know, if I want to tell the story of modern-day struggle,

    但視覺當然不只是圖示

  • I would start with the armrest between two airplane seats

    如果我今天要講關於現代奮鬥的故事

  • and two sets of elbows fighting.

    我會從兩個飛機座位之間的扶手

  • What I love there is this universal law

    與兩組手肘之間的打鬥開始

  • that, you know, you have 30 seconds to fight it out

    這個例子迷人的是這個共同定律:

  • and once it's yours, you get to keep it for the rest of the flight.

    你有三十秒的時間爭奪

  • (Laughter)

    一旦搶到了,這個扶手的使用權 整個航程都屬於你

  • Now, commercial flight is full of these images.

    (笑聲)

  • If I want to illustrate the idea of discomfort,

    商業航班滿是這類意象

  • nothing better than these neck pillows.

    如果我要描述「不舒服」的概念

  • They're designed to make you more comfortable --

    沒有什麼比得上這些頸枕

  • (Laughter)

    它們是設計來讓你感到更舒適的

  • except they don't.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    可是它們沒有

  • So I never sleep on airplanes.

    (笑聲)

  • What I do occasionally is I fall into a sort of painful coma.

    所以我在飛機上從不睡覺

  • And when I wake up from that,

    我偶爾陷入一種類似痛苦的昏迷狀態

  • I have the most terrible taste in my mouth.

    然後當我醒來

  • It's a taste that's so bad, it cannot be described with words,

    我的嘴巴有股最可怕的味道

  • but it can be drawn.

    那股味道糟到我無法以言語形容

  • (Laughter)

    但可以畫出來

  • The thing is, you know, I love sleeping.

    (笑聲)

  • And when I sleep, I really prefer to do it while spooning.

    事情是這樣的,我愛睡覺

  • I've been spooning on almost a pro level for close to 20 years,

    當我要睡的時候 我真的比較喜歡在背後抱時睡著

  • but in all this time, I've never figured out

    二十年來以這個湯匙姿勢入睡 我可是專家級的

  • what to do with that bottom arm.

    但過了這麼多年,我還是不知道

  • (Laughter)

    壓在下面那隻手要怎麼辦

  • (Applause)

    (笑聲)

  • And the only thing --

    (掌聲)

  • the only thing that makes sleeping even more complicated

    而唯一一件

  • than trying to do it on an airplane

    唯一一件讓睡覺變得

  • is when you have small children.

    比在飛機上睡覺更複雜的事

  • They show up at your bed at around 4am

    就是當你有小小孩的時候

  • with some bogus excuse of, "I had a bad dream."

    他們會在凌晨四點左右出現在你床邊

  • (Laughter)

    告訴你一些假的藉口 像是「我做惡夢了」

  • And then, of course you feel sorry for them, they're your kids,

    (笑聲)

  • so you let them into your bed.

    然後你當然憐憫他們 他們是你的小孩

  • And I have to admit, at the beginning, they're really cute and warm and snugly.

    所以你讓他們過來跟你一起睡

  • The minute you fall back asleep, they inexplicably --

    我得承認,一開始他們真的 很可愛、很溫暖也很舒服

  • (Laughter)

    就在你要再度入睡的那一刻 他們不知為何開始

  • start rotating.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    開始轉動

  • We like to call this the helicopter mode.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    我們稱此為「直升機模式」

  • Now, the deeper something is etched into your consciousness,

    (笑聲)

  • the fewer details we need to have an emotional reaction.

    那更深層的東西已經嵌入你的意識中

  • (Laughter)

    少少的資訊就足夠引起情緒反應

  • So why does an image like this work?

    (笑聲)

  • It works, because we as readers

    為什麼像這樣的圖像可以達到效果?

  • are incredibly good at filling in the blanks.

    它能被看懂,因為身為讀者的我們

  • Now, when you draw, there's this concept of negative space.

    非常擅長填空

  • And the idea is, that instead of drawing the actual object,

    當你畫畫時,有一個概念 叫做「實體周圍的空間」

  • you draw the space around it.

    這概念是我們不畫物品的實體

  • So the bowls in this drawing are empty.

    而是畫它周圍的空間

  • But the black ink prompts your brain to project food into a void.

    所以這幅畫裡的碗是空的

  • What we see here is not a owl flying.

    但那黑色墨水促使你的腦 將食物投射至空白的區塊中

  • What we actually see is a pair of AA batteries

    我們在這幅圖中看到的 不是一隻在飛的貓頭鷹

  • standing on a nonsensical drawing,

    它其實是兩個 AA 電池

  • and I animate the scene by moving my desk lamp up and down.

    站在一幅荒謬的畫上

  • (Laughter)

    然後我藉著上下移動我的桌燈 讓畫面動起來

  • The image really only exists in your mind.

    (笑聲)

  • So, how much information do we need to trigger such an image?

    這圖像真的只存在於你的腦中

  • My goal as an artist is to use the smallest amount possible.

    那究竟需要多少資訊 才能激發這種圖像?

  • I try to achieve a level of simplicity

    身為藝術家 我的目標是使用越少資訊越好

  • where, if you were to take away one more element,

    我試著達到簡潔的境界

  • the whole concept would just collapse.

    簡潔到若你再抽掉一個元素

  • And that's why my personal favorite tool as an artist is abstraction.

    整個概念就會崩解

  • I've come up with this system which I call the abstract-o-meter,

    這也是為什麼身為藝術家 我最喜歡的工具是抽象

  • and this is how it works.

    我發明了一個系統 我叫它「抽象量計」

  • So you take a symbol, any symbol, for example the heart and the arrow,

    它是這樣使用的:

  • which most of us would read as the symbol for love,

    取任何一個符號,例如愛心與箭

  • and I'm an artist, so I can draw this

    大多數的人會將它們解讀為愛的象徵

  • in any given degree of realism or abstraction.

    而我是個藝術家,所以我可以

  • Now, if I go too realistic on it, it just grosses everybody out.

    決定用多少寫實 或多少抽象元素來畫它

  • (Laughter)

    如果我太寫實,大家就會覺得噁心

  • If I go too far on the other side and do very abstract,

    (笑聲)

  • nobody has any idea what they're looking at.

    如果我又畫得太抽象

  • So I have to find the perfect place on that scale,

    沒有人知道這是什麼

  • in this case it's somewhere in the middle.

    所以我必須在那量尺中 找到最完美的位置

  • Now, once we have reduced an image to a more simple form,

    以這個範例來說 大概是在中間的位置

  • all sorts of new connections become possible.

    當我們將一個圖像 簡化到更簡潔的形式

  • And that allows for totally new angles in storytelling.

    各種新連結開始變得可行

  • (Laughter)

    也可以用新的觀點說故事

  • And so, what I like to do is,

    (笑聲)

  • I like to take images from really remote cultural areas and bring them together.

    所以,我想做的是

  • Now, with more daring references --

    我希望能結合遙遠文化地區的圖像

  • (Laughter)

    運用更多大膽的引用

  • I can have more fun.

    (笑聲)

  • But of course, I know that eventually things become so obscure

    我就能創造更多樂趣

  • that I start losing some of you.

    但當然,我知道事情到最後變得很難懂

  • So as a designer, it's absolutely key to have a good understanding

    你們有些人會失去興趣

  • of the visual and cultural vocabulary of your audience.

    所以身為一個設計師

  • With this image here, a comment on the Olympics in Athens,

    充分了解觀眾的視覺 與文化詞彙是很關鍵的

  • I assumed that the reader of the "New Yorker"

    這個圖像:一篇關於雅典奧運的評論

  • would have some rudimentary idea of Greek art.

    我假設「紐約客」的讀者

  • If you don't, the image doesn't work.

    多少對於希臘藝術 會有一些初步的了解

  • But if you do, you might even appreciate the small detail,

    如果你不了解希臘藝術 這個圖像就不會達到它的效果

  • like the beer-can pattern here on the bottom of the vase.

    但如果你了解 你甚至會欣賞它的小細節

  • (Laughter)

    例如這個花瓶底部的 啤酒罐般的圖騰

  • A recurring discussion I have with magazine editors,

    (笑聲)

  • who are usually word people,

    我跟雜誌編輯反覆討論著一件事

  • is that their audience, you,

    而雜誌編輯們通常是很在意詞彙的人

  • are much better at making radical leaps with images

    我們討論的是觀眾們

  • than they're being given credit for.

    你們比起圖像原意

  • And the only thing I find frustrating is that they often seem to push me

    更會跳躍式解讀圖像意義

  • towards a small set of really tired visual clichés

    而唯一讓我覺得挫敗的是

  • that are considered safe.

    它們似乎總把我推向一系列老套

  • You know, it's the businessman climbing up a ladder,

    被認為保險的視覺效果

  • and then the ladder moves, morphs into a stock market graph,

    就像,有個商人正在爬梯

  • and anything with dollar signs; that's always good.

    然後梯子動了,變成股市趨勢圖

  • (Laughter)

    任何有錢幣符號的東西,總是很好

  • If there are editorial decision makers here in the audience,

    (笑聲)

  • I want to give you a piece of advice.

    如果今天的觀眾裡有編輯決策者

  • Every time a drawing like this is published,

    我想給你一個建議

  • a baby panda will die.

    每當這種圖被出版一次

  • (Laughter)

    就會死一隻熊貓寶寶

  • Literally.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    真的

  • (Applause)

    (笑聲)

  • When is a visual cliché good or bad?

    (掌聲)

  • It's a fine line.

    那老套的視覺效果什麼時候好 什麼時候不好?

  • And it really depends on the story.

    兩者差別很微妙

  • In 2011, during the earthquake and the tsunami in Japan,

    端看你的故事內容

  • I was thinking of a cover.

    2011 年,日本發生地震與海嘯時

  • And I went through the classic symbols:

    我正在籌劃一個封面

  • the Japanese flag,

    我把典型符號都想過了一遍:

  • "The Great Wave" by Hokusai, one of the greatest drawings ever.

    日本國旗

  • And then the story changed

    葛飾北齋的「神奈川沖浪裏」 史上最厲害的畫作之一

  • when the situation at the power plant in Fukushima got out of hand.

    然後故事就變了

  • And I remember these TV images of the workers in hazmat suits,

    在福島的電廠失控之後

  • just walking through the site,

    我記得電視裡 充滿穿著防護衣工人們的圖像

  • and what struck me was how quiet and serene it was.

    在現場穿梭

  • And so I wanted to create an image of a silent catastrophe.

    而讓我感到震撼的是 那畫面是如此平靜

  • And that's the image I came up with.

    因此我就想創造一幅 表達平靜災難的圖像

  • (Applause)

    這就是我當時的作品

  • Thank you.

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

    謝謝

  • What I want to do is create an aha moment, for you, for the reader.

    (掌聲)

  • And unfortunately, that does not mean

    我想為讀者創造 一個「啊哈!」的時刻

  • that I have an aha moment when I create these images.

    而不幸的是,這並不代表 我在創造這些圖像的時候

  • I never sit at my desk

    也有「啊哈」的時刻

  • with the proverbial light bulb going off in my head.

    我坐在書桌前時

  • What it takes is actually a very slow,

    腦中的那顆「燈泡」從不熄滅

  • unsexy process of minimal design decisions

    設計過程其實非常緩慢

  • that then, when I'm lucky, lead to a good idea.

    且是一點都不性感地 在做一些微小的設計決策

  • So one day, I'm on a train, and I'm trying to decode

    如果幸運,這些決策將會引出好的概念

  • the graphic rules for drops on a window.

    於是有一天,我在火車上試著解讀

  • And eventually I realize,

    窗戶上雨滴的圖像規則

  • "Oh, it's the background blurry upside-down,

    然後我終於瞭解到

  • contained in a sharp image."

    「噢,原來它是包含在清晰圖像裡的

  • And I thought, wow, that's really cool,

    模糊顛倒背景。」

  • and I have absolutely no idea what to do with that.

    然後我想,哇,那真的是很酷

  • A while later, I'm back in New York,

    而對於如何處理它我完全沒有想法

  • and I draw this image of being stuck on the Brooklyn bridge in a traffic jam.

    不久之後,我回到紐約

  • It's really annoying, but also kind of poetic.

    我畫了這個在布魯克林大橋上塞車的圖

  • And only later I realized,

    塞車很煩人,也有點詩意

  • I can take both of these ideas and put them together in this idea.

    直到後來我才想到

  • And what I want to do is not show a realistic scene.

    我可以同時採用這兩種概念 然後將它們結合呈現

  • But, maybe like poetry,

    而我想做的不是呈現實景

  • make you aware that you already had this image with you,

    而是,有點詩意的

  • but only now I've unearthed it

    讓你意識到其實這個圖像 已經存在你腦中

  • and made you realize that you were carrying it with you all along.

    而我現在將它挖掘出來

  • But like poetry, this is a very delicate process

    讓你了解到它其實一直都跟著你

  • that is neither efficient nor scalable, I think.

    但像詩一樣,它是個很細緻的過程

  • And maybe the most important skill for an artist

    我覺得這個過程 無法有效率也無法量化

  • is really empathy.

    或許對一個藝術家來說

  • You need craft and you need --

    最重要的技巧其實是同理心

  • (Laughter)

    你需要技術,你也需要

  • you need creativity --

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    你需要創造力

  • thank you --

    (笑聲)

  • to come up with an image like that.

    謝謝

  • But then you need to step back

    來創造出像這樣的圖像

  • and look at what you've done from the perspective of the reader.

    然而在那之後,你必須往後退一步

  • I've tried to become a better artist by becoming a better observer of images.

    以讀者的視角看你創造出來的東西

  • And for that, I started an exercise for myself

    藉由變成一個更好的圖像觀察者 我試著成為一個更好的藝術家

  • which I call Sunday sketching,

    為了這個目的,我開始了自己的練習

  • which meant, on a Sunday, I would take a random object I found around the house

    我將這個練習稱作「星期天速寫」

  • and try to see if that object could trigger an idea

    意思是,在星期天 我會取房子周邊的一個隨機物品

  • that had nothing to do with the original purpose of that item.

    然後試著想想看該物品 是否能激發點子

  • And it usually just means I'm blank for a long while.

    激發跟這個物品的 原始用途不同的點子

  • And the only trick that eventually works is if I open my mind

    這通常意味著 我會有很長的一段時間腦中空白

  • and run through every image I have stored up there,

    唯一能讓這件事成功的秘訣 是當我不持任何偏見地

  • and see if something clicks.

    掃描過每一個我存放在腦中的圖像

  • And if it does, just add a few lines of ink to connect --

    看看是否有東西讓我突然開竅

  • to preserve this very short moment of inspiration.

    如果有,就只要加上幾條線連結

  • And the great lesson there

    來保存這短暫的予人靈感的時刻

  • was that the real magic doesn't happen on paper.

    而這經驗中最寶貴的一課是

  • It happens in the mind of the viewer.

    魔法不是發生在紙上

  • When your expectations and your knowledge clash with my artistic intentions.

    而是在觀看者的腦中

  • Your interaction with an image,

    當你的期待與知識 和我的藝術撞擊時

  • your ability to read, question, be bothered or bored or inspired

    你和圖像的互動

  • by an image

    你能閱讀、質疑或覺得圖像

  • is as important as my artistic contribution.

    很惱人、無聊或發人深省

  • Because that's what turns an artistic statement

    這些都和我的藝術貢獻一樣重要

  • really, into a creative dialogue.

    因為那就是將藝術表現真正轉化成

  • And so, your skill at reading images

    創意對話的關鍵

  • is not only amazing,

    所以,你閱讀圖像的技巧

  • it is what makes my art possible.

    不僅是非常好

  • And for that, I thank you very much.

    更是讓我的藝術變得有可能性的關鍵

  • (Applause)

    針對這點,我非常感謝你們

  • (Cheers)

    (掌聲)

  • Thank you.

    (歡呼)

  • (Applause)

    謝謝

I'm an artist.

譯者: Dai-Yun Wu 審譯者: Helen Chang