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  • When Homer's Iliad was first written down in the 8th century BCE,

    荷馬史詩《伊利亞特》於西元前八世紀著作完成之時,

  • the story of the Trojan war was already an old one.

    特洛伊戰爭早已是個流傳已久的故事。

  • From existing oral tradition,

    經口耳相傳,

  • audiences knew the tales of the long siege, the epic duels outside the city walls,

    大家得以知曉這個圍城故事,城牆外長年壯烈的鬥爭,

  • and the cunning trick that finally won the war.

    還有最後終結這場戰役的狡詐騙局。

  • In the end, the magnificent city was burned to the ground,

    最終,這座輝煌的城市被徹底燒毀,

  • never to rise again.

    永無東山再起之日。

  • But had it ever existed?

    但它真的存在過嗎?

  • By the time the field of archaeology began to take shape in the 19th century,

    於十九世紀,考古學領域發展之際,

  • many were skeptical, considering the epic to be pure fiction,

    許多人持懷疑態度,認為這部史詩鉅作純屬虛構。

  • a founding myth imagining a bygone heroic era.

    如創世神話般,是對永不復存英雄年代的想像。

  • But some scholars believed

    但一些學者相信

  • that behind the superhuman feats and divine miracles there must have been a grain of historical truth -

    這些非凡戰績和神聖奇蹟的背後,定有歷史根據。

  • a war that was really fought and a place where it happened.

    一場真實發生過的戰爭和戰場。

  • Frank Calvert was one such believer.

    Frank Calvert 就是這麼一位信仰者。

  • He had spent his youth traveling and learning about ancient civilizations

    他花費年輕歲月,遊歷並研究古老文明。

  • before accompanying his brother Frederick on a diplomatic mission to the northwest Anatolian region of Çanakkale.

    那是他陪同兄長 Frederick 與外交代表團一同前往恰納卡萊,安那托利亞西北區之前的事。

  • It was here that Homer described the Greek encampment at the mouth of the Scamander river.

    據荷馬描述,希臘人在斯卡曼德河口的營帳正是在此。

  • And it was here that fate brought Frank into contact with a journalist and geologist named Charles Maclaren.

    也正是在此,命運讓 Frank 與記者兼地質學家 Charles Maclaren 相遇。

  • Locals and travelers had long speculated that Troy might've stood on one of the surrounding hilltops.

    當地人和旅行者早推測特洛伊很可能坐落於附近其中一座山丘上 。

  • But Maclaren had been one of the first to publish a detailed topographical study of the area.

    但 Maclaren 是前幾名發表關於此地詳盡地形研究的人。

  • He believed he had found the site,

    他相信他已找到了遺址—

  • a 32-meter mound known by the name Hisarlık, derived from the Turkish word for "fortress."

    一個 32 米長,名為希沙利克的土丘,此名源於土耳其語的堡壘。

  • Soon after meeting with him in 1847,

    在 1847 年與他會面後不久,

  • the Calverts bought 2,000 acres of farmland that included part of the hill.

    Calvert 家族買下了 2000 英畝的農田,包括這座土丘。

  • Before they could explore any further,

    但在他們準備進一步探究時,

  • the Crimean War broke out and forestalled their archaeological ambitions for several years.

    克里米亞戰爭爆發,阻礙了他們考古挖掘的雄心數年。

  • After the war's end,

    戰爭結束後,

  • Frank Calvert began to survey the site,

    Frank Calvert 開始勘查遺址,

  • but lacked the funds for a full excavation.

    但他缺少全面挖掘所需的經費。

  • This was where the wealthy German businessman and amateur archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann came in.

    此時,富有的德國生意人兼業餘考古學家 Heinrich Schliemann 加入了這項計畫。

  • At Calvert's invitation, Schliemann visited the grounds in 1868, and decided to excavate.

    在 Calvert 的邀請下,Schliemann 於 1868 年造訪此地,並決定挖掘。

  • Eager to find the ancient city, Schliemann tore massive trenches all the way to the base of the hill.

    尋找古城心切,Schliemann 挖了幾條直通土丘底部的巨大溝渠。

  • There, he uncovered a hoard of precious artifacts, jewelry, and metalwork,

    在那裡,他發掘了一大批珍貴文物、珠寶和金屬物件,

  • including two diadems and a copper shield.

    其中包括兩頂帶狀皇冠和一個銅製盾牌。

  • Schliemann took full credit for the discovery, announcing that he had found Troy and the treasure of its king Priam.

    Schliemann 將一切歸功於己,宣布他已找到特洛伊遺址及特洛伊國王的寶藏。

  • But the real treasure was elsewhere.

    但真正的寶藏其實在別處。

  • When later archaeologists studied the site,

    後來,考古學家們研究此遺址時,

  • they realized that the mound consisted of no less than nine cities,

    發現這土丘是由超過九座城所組成,

  • each built atop the ruins of the last.

    每一座都建造在前者之上。

  • The layer Schliemann had uncovered dated back to the Bronze Age,

    Schliemann 發掘的那一層可回溯至邁錫尼文明時期,

  • more than 1,000 years too early for Homer.

    早於荷馬時期一千多年。

  • But inside the mound was indeed evidence for a city that had thrived during the Mycenaean Age,

    但在土丘深處,的確有個曾經蓬勃發展於青銅器時代城市的證明,

  • with charred stone, broken arrowheads, and damaged human skeletons suggesting a violent end.

    焦黑的石頭、斷羽殘箭、破損的人骨都指出,這裡曾有場戰爭以慘烈暴力的場面收場。

  • It was Troy VII, contained in the middle layers and now ravaged for a second time by Schliemann's careless excavation.

    那是特洛伊VII,位在中層,因 Schliemann 粗心的挖掘遭到二次破壞。

  • The settlement, spanning some 200,000 square meters and home to as many as 10,000 people,

    此占地 20 萬平方公尺的居住地曾是約一萬人的家園,

  • thrived until around 1180 BCE.

    蓬勃發展至西元前 1180 年。

  • Its position at the southern entrance of the Dardanelles strait would've made a formidable strategic location for both defense and trade.

    此城位於達達尼爾海峽南部入口,位處攻掠不易且便於貿易的戰略之地。

  • Most importantly, there are the remains of a massive fortification wall

    更重要的,那裡有巨大防禦城牆的遺跡。

  • perhaps the very same one from which Priam and Hector once watched the Greeks approach.

    或許正是特洛伊國王和王子眺望希臘進軍之處。

  • Of course, it's difficult to be certain that these ruins are the true remains of ancient Troy,

    當然,很難確定這些殘垣斷壁真的是古老特洛伊的遺址。

  • and scholars still dispute whether the Trojan War as described by Homer ever happened.

    學者們仍在爭論荷馬所描述的特洛伊戰爭是否真的存在過。

  • Yet the evidence is strong enough that UNESCO has labelled Hisarlik the archeological site of Troy.

    但這些證據已足以說服聯合國教育、科學及文化組織,將希沙利克列為特洛伊遺址。

  • Regardless of its identity,

    即使此遺址仍存在認可爭議,

  • thanks to persistence, a bit of faith, and a lot of research,

    還是要感謝考古學家的堅持、一點信念和大量研究,

  • archaeologists are bringing the long-buried secrets of an ancient, lost city to light.

    讓長埋地底的秘密,被遺忘的古老城市得以重見天日。

When Homer's Iliad was first written down in the 8th century BCE,

荷馬史詩《伊利亞特》於西元前八世紀著作完成之時,

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