Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

由 AI 自動生成
  • This is Odin, also known as the All-father.

    這個 是奧丁,又稱萬能之父。

  • He will become the wisest and most powerful of the Norse gods, but not yet.

    他將成為最聰明、最強大的人。 的北歐諸神,但還沒有。

  • For now, he hangs from Yggdrasil, the world tree that holds all nine worlds together,

    現在,他被掛在世界的Yggdrasil上。 撐起九大世界的樹。

  • with a spear lodged in his chest.


  • He will hang there for nine days, and nine nights, on the border between life and death.

    他要在那裡掛九天,九天... 夜,在生與死的邊界上。

  • All the while, he peers down into the magical waters of the well below, calling out for

    同時,他還窺視著神奇的。 井下之水,呼之欲出

  • the godly knowledge of the runes.


  • Satisfied with his sacrifice, they emerge, revealing to him their wisdom and bestowing

    滿意他的犧牲,他們出現了。 啟迪他的智慧,賜予他

  • him with great power.


  • Odin had given himself to himself.


  • Or, more specifically, he sacrificed his present-self for his future-self.

    或者說,更具體地說,他犧牲了他的現在的自己。 為他未來的自己。

  • It's no coincidence that he had to perform the greatest sacrifice for the greatest reward.

    這不是巧合,他要表演的是 以最大的犧牲換取最大的回報。

  • This story is, at the least, a metaphor for self-sacrifice or self-discipline.

    這個故事至少是一個隱喻。 自我犧牲或自我約束;

  • And, it's one that we have been telling for generations.

    而且,這是一個我們一直在講的。 幾代人。

  • Humanity has held the virtue of self-control in such high regards that it's a staple in

    人類一直秉持著自律的美德。 崇高的敬意,以至於它成為主打的

  • most religions and the moral of many myths.


  • In Christianity, the first sin - eating the forbidden fruit - was a lapse in self-control.

    在基督教中,第一宗罪------------------------------------------------------------------------吃了 禁果--是自控能力的失誤。

  • In Greek mythology, evil entered the world when Pandora could not control her curiosity

    在希臘神話中,邪惡進入了這個世界。 當潘多拉無法控制自己的好奇心時。

  • and opened the box.


  • This myth, in particular, has even entered our everyday language.

    尤其是這個神話,甚至已經進入了 我們的日常語言。

  • If I want you to avoid a temptation, for fear of causing disastrous consequences, I might

    如果我想讓你避開誘惑,因為害怕。 貽誤戰機

  • warn you against "opening Pandora's box".

    警告你不要 "打開潘多拉的盒子"。

  • The elevation of this virtue to religious and mythic proportions highlights a commonly

    將這一美德提升到了宗教的高度。 和神話的比例,突出了一個普遍的

  • held belief: self-discipline plays a huge role in leading you to your best future, as

    堅信:自律發揮了巨大的作用。 的作用,引領你走向最好的未來。

  • in the case of Odin, or your worst one, as with Pandora.

    在奧丁的情況下,或你的最壞的一個,作為。 與潘多拉。

  • If this is true, it seems like it would be great if we could all have some more self-discipline.

    如果這是真的,那就好像是 如果我們都能有更多的自律,那就太好了。

  • But, what is self-discipline?


  • People often use the term to describe someone who makes "good" long-term decisions by overcoming

    人們經常用這個詞來形容某人 誰能通過克服 "好 "的長期決定,做出 "好 "的決定?

  • short-term temptations and that's reasonable.


  • But, when you ask them how they overcome these short-term temptations, they often invoke

    但是,當你問他們是如何克服這些的時候 短期的誘惑,他們往往會招致

  • some sort of *will* or *willpower*.


  • What *will* actually means isn't really obvious.


  • But, before we get to that, let's start at the beginning: the decision.

    但是,在我們討論這個問題之前,讓我們先來看看 開始:決定;

  • At any point in time, you're making a decision on how to act.

    在任何時候,你都在做一個決定。 如何行動的問題。

  • The difficulty arises when you have to make a decision between what's immediately gratifying

    困難的是,當你必須做出 欲速則不達

  • versus what is not gratifying now, but will be in the future.

    相對於現在的不如意,但會有 是在未來。

  • In other words, the difficulty lies in delaying gratification.

    換句話說,難點在於延緩 滿意。

  • But, what causes you to not act impulsively?


  • The reason for any single decision you make is multivariate: genes, hormones, evolution,

    你所做的任何一個決定的原因 是多變量的:基因、激素、進化。

  • social environment, physical environment, past experience, context of the situation,

    社會環境、物理環境。 過去的經驗、情況的背景。

  • and a multitude of other factors all play a role.

    和其他眾多因素都在 一個角色。

  • But, the most immediate cause of any of your actions can be traced back to your brain activity.

    但是,最直接的原因是你的任何一個。 行動可以追溯到你的大腦活動。

  • When discussing self-discipline, one of the best places to start is with the neurotransmitter

    在討論自律的時候,其中一個 最好的地方開始是與神經遞質。

  • dopamine.


  • In his book *Behave*, Robert Sapolsky puts forth an example that clarifies at least one

    羅伯特-薩波爾斯基在他的《*行為》一書中把 提出了一個例子,澄清了至少一個

  • of the primary roles of dopamine in our brains.


  • Let's say that I take a monkey and stick him in a cage.

    比方說,我拿著一隻猴子,把它插在... 在一個籠子裡。

  • Now, I put a lever in there that, if he pushes it 10 times, rewards him with a raisin.

    現在,我在那裡放了一個槓桿,如果他按下... 它10次,獎勵他一個葡萄乾。

  • Next, I turn on a light that comes on before the lever enters the cage.

    下一步,我打開一盞燈,它在 槓桿進入籠子。

  • In other words, the light signals that the lever will be entering the cage which, in

    換句話說,光信號的 槓桿將進入籠子,而籠子中的

  • turn, signals that the monkey will be able to get a raisin.

    轉,信號,猴子將能夠 以獲得一顆葡萄乾。

  • As a result, the monkey learns to associate the cue (a light) with the reward (a raisin).

    結果,猴子學會了聯想到 提示(一盞燈)與獎勵(一顆葡萄乾)。

  • Interestingly, the monkey will begin to release more dopamine in response to the light than

    有趣的是,猴子會開始釋放出 在光照的作用下,多巴胺的含量比

  • he does when consuming his reward.


  • Contrary to popular belief, *dopamine is about anticipation more than it is about reward

    與一般人的想法相反,*多巴胺是關於。 欲速則不達

  • [8]*.


  • Certain cues in our environment hint at a potential reward and dopamine starts to rise

    我們環境中的某些線索暗示著 潛在獎勵和多巴胺開始上升

  • in anticipation.


  • *Dopamine is what gets us to take action with respect to a goal [8].* So, how does this

    *多巴胺是讓我們採取行動的動力* 那麼,這又是怎樣的呢?

  • relate to self-discipline?


  • Let's say that you're deciding between an immediate reward and a delayed reward.

    比方說,你在決定是否要買一個。 即時獎勵和延遲獎勵。

  • When you think about the immediate reward, dopamine is sent to certain parts of the brain

    當你想到眼前的回報。 多巴胺被送到大腦的某些部位。

  • known as limbic targets [8].


  • When you think of the delayed reward, dopamine is sent to a different part of the brain known

    當你想到延遲獎勵時,多巴胺。 被髮送到大腦的另一個部分,被稱為

  • as frontocortical targets [8].


  • If the part of the brain associated with delayed reward is more stimulated, you're more likely

    如果大腦中與延遲相關的部分。 獎賞更刺激,你更有可能是

  • to delay gratification [8].


  • Again, dopamine plays a role in *driving* our action.

    同樣,多巴胺在*駕駛中也起到了一定的作用。 我們的行動。

  • So, how does your brain decide how much dopamine is sent to each part?

    那麼,你的大腦是如何決定多少多巴胺? 被髮送到每個部分?

  • Again, this comes down to several complex factors such as past experiences, genes, hormones,

    同樣,這歸結於幾個複雜的 過去的經歷、基因、荷爾蒙等因素。

  • social environment, physical environment, the context of the situation and so on.

    社會環境、物理環境。 的背景等。

  • But, pragmatically, the brains decision is affected by how pleasurable the reward is

    但是,實事求是地講,大腦的決定是 受報酬的影響

  • and how much time it takes to get that reward [8].

    以及需要多少時間才能得到回報。 [8].

  • Here's an example to help you understand it intuitively.

    下面是一個例子,幫助你理解它。 直覺上。

  • Let's say that I make you an offer: you can have $100 today or $100 tomorrow.

    比方說,我給你開個價:你可以。 今天有100元或明天有100元。

  • The reward is the same but the time delay is greater in the second scenario.

    獎勵是一樣的,但時間上會有延遲 在第二種情況下更大。

  • You'll probably take the $100 today because there's no point in waiting until tomorrow.

    你今天可能會拿100塊錢,因為 沒必要等到明天了

  • But, what if I said that you could get $100 today or $200 tomorrow?

    但是,如果我說,你可以得到100美元的 今天還是明天200元?

  • It's more likely that you'll be willing to wait, if an extra $100 is pleasurable enough.

    更有可能讓你願意。 等等,如果多出100元就夠爽了。

  • But, what if I said that if you wait until tomorrow, you could get $101.

    但是,如果我說,如果你等到... 明天,你可以得到101美元。

  • You'll probably revert back to taking the $100 today.

    你很可能會恢復到採取的 今天100美元。

  • Your brain does multiple calculations like this every time you decide.

    你的大腦會進行多重計算,比如 每當你決定時,這。

  • It creates a sense of wanting or reward seeking based on the speed and size of a reward.

    它使人產生一種想要或尋求回報的感覺。 根據獎勵的速度和規模。

  • So, how do you end up determining what rewards to seek?

    那麼,你最終如何確定哪些獎勵呢? 去尋找?

  • To live life is to have desires.


  • The world fills you up with needs and wants, inviting you to come and interact with it.

    這個世界讓你充滿了需求和慾望。 邀請你來與它互動。

  • Every time you satisfy a desire, you receive an internal reward and a belief forms about

    每當你滿足一個慾望,你就會得到 獎賞,並形成一種關於

  • how you did it.


  • When that desire re-emerges, your brain activates the corresponding belief circuitry and dopamine

    當這種慾望再次出現時,你的大腦會激活 相應的信念迴路和多巴胺

  • releases, in anticipation of the reward, which motivates you to repeat the same action as

    釋放,以期待獎勵,其中 激勵你重複同樣的動作,因為

  • before.


  • In other words, you begin to form a habit.


  • With each repetition, the neural pathway strengthens and you solidify the habit's role as the solution

    每重複一次,神經通路就會加強。 而你鞏固了習慣作為解決方案的作用。

  • to your desire.


  • Here's the punchline: habits mediate the relationship between an individual's desires and their

    這裡有一個衝破口:習慣調解關係 個人的慾望和他們的

  • environment.


  • To change the habit, the individual, the environment, or both have to change, and that's why self-discipline

    要改變習慣、個人、環境。 或兩者都要改變,這就是為什麼自律的原因

  • is so hard.


  • We have little control over the biology that determines our desires.

    我們幾乎無法控制生物學的發展 決定了我們的慾望。

  • According to Sapolsky, individuals with ADHD have abnormal dopamine responses when thinking

    根據Sapolsky的說法,患有多動症的人。 思考時有異常的多巴胺反應

  • about immediate rewards vs delayed ones: they're biased towards impulsive action [8].

    關於即時獎勵與延遲獎勵:它們是。 偏向於衝動行動[8]。

  • Individuals who experience a childhood adversity are more likely to have an underdeveloped

    經歷過童年逆境的個人 更有可能是不發達的。

  • frontal cortex, making delayed gratification more difficult [8].

    額葉皮層,使延遲滿足 比較困難[8]。

  • Eventually, we may be able to change an individuals biology using science, but the morality and

    最終,我們也許能改變一個人的命運 生物學利用科學,但道德和。

  • long-term consequences of this are questionable.


  • There is a part of our biology that *is* more malleable: the brain.

    我們的生物學中,有一部分是*的。 可塑性:大腦。

  • An individual can be changed with education.


  • As people learn more about the world, they can test out new beliefs and reinforce new

    隨著人們對世界瞭解的增多,他們 可以檢驗新的信念,強化新的信念。

  • behaviors.


  • But, this leads me to the heart of the issue.


  • Self-discipline is much more of an environmental problem than it is an individual one.

    自律是更多的環境 比是個別問題。

  • While an individual can change their beliefs and behaviors through education, the resources

    雖然個人可以改變自己的信仰 教育、資源和行為

  • available for education are presented by the environment.


  • Furthermore, the habits an individual builds to meet their desires are, in large part,

    此外,個人養成的習慣 以滿足他們的慾望,在很大程度上是。

  • a product of what's available in the environment.


  • A study done by neuroscientist Carl Hart found that when meth addicts were given a choice

    神經科學家卡爾-哈特做的一項研究發現 當安非他命成癮者有選擇的時候;

  • between $5 and 50mg of meth, the addicts took the $5 half of the time [11].

    5美元到50毫克的安非他命,吸毒者服用了。 5元的一半時間[11]。

  • When he increased the value of the cash reward to $20, they almost never took the drug [11].

    當他增加了現金獎勵的價值 到20元,他們幾乎從不吃藥[11]。

  • He found similar results with crack cocaine addicts [11].

    他發現快克可卡因也有類似的結果 癮者[11]。

  • Hart suggests that addicts are actually rational decision makers, and will choose not to take

    哈特認為,吸毒者其實是理性的 決策者,並將選擇不採取。

  • a drug when there are "alternative reinforcers" [11].

    補藥 [11].

  • It seems that drug habits are more likely to be formed when individuals are in an environment

    看來,吸毒的可能性更大 當個體處於一個環境中時,將形成

  • that offers no alternative or competing ways to meet their desires.

    不提供任何替代或競爭性方法的 以滿足他們的慾望。

  • Bruce Alexander found similar results when he conducted his now-famous study: *Rat Park*

    布魯斯-亞歷山大發現類似的結果,當 他進行了他現在著名的研究。*"老鼠公園

  • [12].


  • Prior to Alexander's study, it was commonly believed that addiction was caused primarily

    在亞歷山大的研究之前,人們普遍認為 認為成癮主要是由於

  • by drugs.


  • When you take a drug, you get addicted.


  • That's how the story went.


  • But, Alexander noticed that most drug-related studies occurring at the time placed rats

    但是,亞歷山大注意到,大多數與毒品有關的 當時的研究將大鼠

  • in isolation.


  • He wondered if this played a role in the rats deciding to take the drug.

    他想知道這是否在老鼠身上起了作用。 決定服用該藥物。

  • It turns out that it did [12].


  • When rats were in isolation, it wouldn't be a surprise to see them consume a drug until

    當老鼠被隔離的時候,它不會是 驚訝地看到他們服用藥物,直到。

  • they died.


  • But, when Alexander constructed a "Rat Park" complete with friends, sexual partners, toys,

    但是,當亞歷山大建造了一個 "老鼠公園" 完整的朋友,性伴侶,玩具。

  • and so on, rats were much less likely to take the drugs.

    等,大鼠更不可能採取。 藥品。

  • Both of these studies present an interesting idea: addiction is much less likely to occur

    這兩項研究提出了一個有趣的 想法:發生成癮的可能性更小了

  • when you have greater access to alternative ways to meet your own desires.

    當你有更多機會獲得其他選擇時 方式來滿足自己的慾望。

  • In his *Meditations,* Marcus Aurelius said that,

    馬庫斯-奧勒留在他的《沉思錄》中說道 那。

  • We were born to work together like feet, hands and eyes, like the two rows of teeth, upper

    我們生來就是要一起工作的,就像腳,手一樣。 和眼睛,像兩排牙齒,上

  • and lower.


  • To obstruct each other is unnatural.


  • To feel anger at someone, to turn your back on him: these are unnatural.

    對某人感到憤怒,背對著你。 在他身上:這些都是不自然的。

  • People are a product of their environments a lot more than we like to think.

    人是環境的產物 比我們想象的要多很多。

  • By acknowledging this, we can have more compassion for one another but, more importantly, we

    承認這一點,我們就可以有更多的同情心。 但是,更重要的是,我們...

  • can begin helping one another.


  • By providing people with as many opportunities as possible for learning and alternative ways

    通過為人們提供儘可能多的機會 儘可能的學習和替代方法

  • to meet their needs, we can eradicate the problem of self-discipline.

    以滿足他們的需求,我們就可以根除。 自律問題。

This is Odin, also known as the All-father.

這個 是奧丁,又稱萬能之父。

由 AI 自動生成

單字即點即查 點擊單字可以查詢單字解釋

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 中華 共和國 獎勵 多巴胺 人民 實施

自我規律怎麼這麼難?(Why Self-Discipline is so Hard)

  • 1717 89
    Samuel 發佈於 2018 年 08 月 02 日