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  • The human being

    倫敦佛洛伊德博物館

  • that emerges from psychoanalysis

    從精神分析中浮現出來的人類

  • is not a human being

    與自己並不平和

  • that is at peace with itself.

    這種人類是被區隔的、分裂的、與自己衝突

  • It is a human being that is

    而且並不全然了解自己

  • divided,

    精神分析是什麼?

  • split,

    第四部:自我、本我與超我

  • that is in conflict with itself,

    透過精神分析 對於「人」產生全新的視野

  • and that doesn't know itself completely.

    精神分析把衝突視作基本現象

  • There is a kind of, in a way,

    佛洛伊德對於人的基本觀點是

  • a new vision of what it is to be human

    人的內心裡無止盡地跟自己處於戰爭狀態

  • that emerges through psychoanalysis

    這個衝突模型 以及內在的分裂、破碎的自我

  • which recognises conflict as fundamental.

    具有根本上的重要性

  • Freud's fundamental view of humans

    我們的心靈 恆常地受衝突所困擾

  • is that they are incessantly at war

    1917年佛洛伊德《精神分析引論》

  • with themselves, inside their own mind.

    佛洛伊德有兩個心靈模型

  • So that model of conflict

    第一個模型裡 佛洛伊德把心靈分為知覺-意識

  • and of division within,

    所謂的「前意識」,以及無意識

  • of a sort of fractured self,

    第二個模型裡 他則把心靈分為自我、本我與超我

  • is fundamentally important.

    本我指的是一群驅力

  • Freud has two models of the mind.

    被驅策著尋求立即的滿足

  • In the first model he distinguishes between

    它受到享樂原則的宰制

  • perception-consciousness,

    想要的東西就是 立刻與現在就要得到

  • what he calls the preconscious,

    不計任何後果

  • and the unconscious.

    如果得不到 它就尖叫或大發雷霆

  • In the second model he distinguishes between

    如果本我與驅力和尋求滿足有關

  • the ego, the id, and superego.

    不管用什麼方法、以什麼樣的型式就是要滿足

  • The id refers to the cluster of drives,

    那麼自我就得對付本我

  • that push for immediate satisfaction.

    告訴它:「你不能那樣,但也許可以這樣。」

  • It's governed by the pleasure principle.

    所以,自我扮演協商的角色

  • It wants things here and now,

    協調的另一方是超我

  • regardless of the consequences,

    超我與良心、律法有關

  • and if it doesn't get it then it screams

    超我會要求:「不可以,你不可以越雷池一步

  • or has a tantrum.

    你必須保持完美,你必須規規矩矩。」

  • So if the id's associated with the drives

    自我也必須處理這個部分

  • and with getting satisfaction

    自我必須讓本我以及超我 也就是驅力以及律法能夠共處共存

  • however, in whatever form,

    被潛抑的都進到無意識

  • then the ego has to deal with that

    但並非所有的無意識都被潛抑

  • and say: 'You can't do it that way,

    自我有一部分也是無意識的

  • but maybe you can do it this way'.

    1923年佛洛伊德《自我與本我》

  • It's a negotiating agency.

    為什麼佛洛伊德要發展新的模型?

  • And then you've got the superego

    後面這個自我、本我與超我的模型 有一個困難點

  • on the other side, which is to do with

    它之所以無法與前一個模型的 意識、無意識與前意識妥貼吻合

  • conscience and law, which says:

    是因為佛洛伊德認為

  • 'No, you can't try and do anything ever.

    自我有一部分對自己絲毫未覺 也是無意識的

  • You've got to be perfect.

    也就是說,自我內部可能有些事情上演

  • You've got to be all right.'

    某些思考被潛抑了

  • And so the ego's got to

    而這件事或這種過程

  • mediate that too.

    在自我內部是無意識的

  • It's about how to makes these two,

    他認為自我分裂為意識與潛意識兩個部分

  • the law and the drives,

    他後來也發現

  • how to make that liveable.

    認同父母的結果

  • One of the difficulties in the later model

    就是我們會形成理想

  • of ego, id, and superego,

    想要與之吻合、想要達到自己的理想

  • and one off the reason why it doesn't just

    這些心靈的運作絕非屬於意識層面

  • map onto the earlier model

    所以,無意識其實遍佈心靈的每個角落 (包含本我 自我 超我)

  • of conscious, unconscious, preconscious,

    本我是完全不道德的

  • is that Freud thought that a part of the ego

    自我非常努力試圖做到道德

  • was also unconscious to itself.

    而超我會過度講求道德

  • So there could be, as it were,

    到殘酷的程度

  • something going on in the ego

    這個殘酷的程度只有本我可以批敵

  • that's repressing thoughts

    1923年佛洛伊德《自我與本我》

  • and yet that very fact, or that very process,

    我認為有時候我們可以過於簡化地

  • might be unconscious within the ego.

    把本我、自我與超我視為三個小人

  • He thought of the ego as split

    在心靈裡跑來跑去

  • between a conscious and an unconscious part.

    本我代表的是正常、幼稚的慾望與享樂

  • And then he also realised that

    我不贊同把它叫做惡魔,將之妖魔化

  • when, as a result of identifications

    如果把超我當成天使,我認為這樣問題更大

  • with our parents, we form ideals

    因為很多來自超我的要求 都是相當專制且荒謬的

  • that we want to match, ideals of ourselves,

    大家把超我稱之為「道德良心」

  • these agencies are not all conscious.

    像是道德良心的內化版本

  • So that the unconscious is actually spread

    可是這樣讓它變得太淨化

  • over the whole area of the mind.

    超我的一個特質是

  • Sometimes I think we can oversimplify it

    它聽起來好像是道德良知的代言

  • by thinking about these

    但其實它是耳中一種狂熱的、暴虐的、仇恨的聲音

  • three little figures

    指使我該怎麼怎麼做

  • running about in our minds.

    超我其實基本上是有倒錯的傾向

  • The id represents normal, childish desires

    它是一個心裡的機構

  • and pleasures,

    可以從當事者的受苦

  • and to demonise those by calling it a devil,

    看著他的失敗,無法達到他的理想 ,而覺得愉快

  • I don't think is a good idea.

    佛洛伊德認為

  • And with the superego as an angel,

    由於道德理想的要求 人們因此而生病

  • I think that is even more problematic

    所以我們應該質疑他們的道德理想

  • because many of the demands of the superego

    和預期相反

  • are quite tyrannical and nonsensical.

    經驗往往顯示

  • People talk about it as conscience,

    就算父母溫和且寬容

  • a kind of, internalised version of conscience,

    培育出的超我卻有著不假辭色、嚴厲的性格

  • but that makes it sound rather sanitised.

    1933年佛洛伊德《精神分析新論》

  • So one of the features of the superego

    然而"超我"是從最初的照顧者所制定的 秩序、指示、與強迫式的命令與語言而來的

  • is that is seems to be the voice of

    照顧者會說:「你應該這樣、你不應該那樣

  • conscience and morality,

    你必須這樣、你絕不可以那樣,等等。」

  • but it's actually a passionately sadistic

    所有這些語言與信念、以及父母的理想

  • and hating

    就是奠定超我的基礎

  • voice in my ear, telling me what to do.

    舉個例子,有個人在路邊工作

  • You know, the idea of the superego being

    假設是市場攤商

  • something quite, potentially perverse.

    他工作時恐慌症發作 而且只在夏天發作

  • That it's an agency that can even get

    最後他夏天完全無法工作

  • enjoyment from making the person suffer,

    從分析中浮現的是

  • from watching them fail

    在他發育的過程中

  • to live up to an ideal, for instance.

    開始對女生產生好奇,想盯著女生看

  • What Freud was saying was that

    他就被告誡:「你絕對不可以盯著女生看。」

  • people fall ill of their moral ideals.

    夏天有許多穿著清涼、年輕美麗的女性來到他的攤位

  • And we ought to question their moral ideals.

    他發現不可能不看

  • But the superego is

    所以,為了達到超我的道德要求

  • built out of the orders,

    這個要求是他一開始沒有意識到的

  • and the instructions and the diktats

    他只能完全避免有女生來他攤位的情境

  • and the words of your primary carers:

    因此,他無法工作

  • and 'you should' and 'you shouldn't',

    原因就是他非常嚴厲的超我

  • and 'you must' and 'you mustn't', et cetera.

    如果道德理想讓人們難以生存

  • And so the exact words and beliefs

    那麼人們就會因此而受苦

  • and ideals of your parents

    進退失據被兩邊包夾的自我

  • are what your superego is built out of.

    一邊徒勞地對抗殘忍的本我

  • Let's take an example:

    另一邊則被受良心嚴厲的譴責

  • Take a person who,

    無怪乎自我經常失職

  • a man who,

    1923年佛洛伊德《自我與本我》

  • whose job was outside, in the street,

    某個角度來說

  • say he was a merchant at a market stall.

    任何症狀、任何心理症狀就是自我崩潰的例子

  • He developed panic attacks

    所以不管是恐懼症、不斷洗手的強迫症

  • when going into work,

    無法如常去工作、憂鬱症等等

  • and only in the summer,

    這些都是自我無法應對的徵兆

  • and in the end he couldn't go into work

    也就是自我無法找到合適的妥協辦法

  • at all in the summer.

    自我常常被迫用合理化的方式

  • What emerged in the analysis was that

    去偽裝本我的要求,及掩蓋衝突

  • he was told as a young boy,

    往往利用“現實的考慮”作為藉口

  • when he became interested in girls

    1923年佛洛伊德《自我與本我》

  • and used to look,

    佛洛伊德的第二個心靈模型

  • 'You mustn't stare at a woman.'

    也就是分為自我、本我與超我

  • Now, in the summer, lots of slightly clad,

    後來也變成最被大家接受的模型

  • very pretty young women, girls

    這個模型有其利弊

  • came to his market stall,

    其弊在於

  • and he found it impossible not to look.

    而且我認為佛洛伊德在他生命晚期 也注意到這弊端

  • So to fulfil this moral demand of the superego

    就是這個模型把首要之處給了自我

  • of which he wasn't aware, not initially,

    佛洛伊德把自我與本我比喻為騎士與馬

  • all he could do in the end was to

    本我是馬,一隻強健的動物 充滿能量

  • avoid the situation completely.

    騎士試圖駕馭這匹馬

  • So he was unable to work

    要牠走騎士所選擇的道路

  • because of his strict superego.

    騎士通常可以成功

  • If people have a moral ideal,

    然而,有些時候

  • that doesn't enable them to live,

    馬兒有自有打算 選擇自己的道路

  • then they're going to suffer.

    自我,也就是騎士 也就只能順著

  • In a way any symptom.

    然後假裝是往自己想去的地方前進

  • any psychological symptom,

    但其實是馬兒做的決定

  • would be an example of the ego breaking down,

    這會讓我們對自我產生疑惑

  • so, you know, whether it's a phobia,

    因為通常是自我讓我們自以為是

  • or an obsession with handwashing,

    以及決定了我們所見、所知的範圍

  • or an inability to go to work,

    自我多少有些假假的 有些愚蠢的感覺

  • or depression.

    自我一直努力想讓一切看起來都好,粉飾太平

  • All those things are signs

    就好像政客會說: 「我們不想被認定做了這件事或那件事等等。」

  • that the ego just isn't coping

    實際上,有沒有做並不重要

  • and isn't managing to find a suitable compromise.

    只要沒被看到就好

  • The second model of the mind

    自我就有點像那樣

  • that Freud came up with,

    當別人造訪時 自我會做的事就是講一套關於自己的故事

  • the one that distinguishes between

    典型的故事可能是

  • the ego, the id, and the superego,

    「我小時候很快樂。 爸爸媽媽處的很好。」

  • which also became the most popular one,

    這套故事經不起問,一問就會發現破綻

  • has advantages and disadvantages.

    自我的工作就是審查生命中黑暗的面向 不要輕易透露

  • The disadvantage is,

    精神分析並不是要去撐住自我

  • and I think Freud himself noticed that

    而是要讓自我不要那麼愚蠢,別再當個政客

  • towards the end of his life, is that

    要能正視現實

  • it gives pride of place to the ego.

    人可能想做點壞事 人可能達不到自己的理想

  • Freud draws the analogy between

    做人就是會有困難,接受這些

  • a horse and a rider

    別再當個無感的機器人

  • and the ego and the id.

    (中文字幕由臺灣 吾境思塾 楊明敏 校閱)

  • The id is a horse: a strong animal,

    Chinese subtitles are checked by Yang M.M. ,iAnalysis ,Taiwan

  • full of energy,

  • and the rider tries to rein in the horse,

  • to direct it along a pathway

  • that the rider chooses.

  • and, more often than not, that works.