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  • Cheetahs are the fastest land animal in the world.

    獵豹是世界上跑得最快的陸地生物。

  • But did you know that humans can leave them in the dust?

    但你知道其實人類跑起步來連獵豹都望塵莫及嗎?

  • At least in the long run.

    至少以長跑來說。

  • That's right, when it comes to endurance.

    沒錯!以長跑來看。

  • We can outrun wolves, cheetahs, and even horses.

    我們可以跑贏狼、獵豹,甚至馬!

  • Now in the beginning, humans fall short because we're lousy sprinters.

    起跑不久時,人類根本達不到標準,誰叫我們不是跑短跑的料呢?

  • Case in point, Usain Bolt couldn't outrun a cheetah in the 100-meter dash if he wanted to. And he tried.

    最佳例子像是短跑運動員 Usain Bolt,他在一百米短跑中絕對跑不贏獵豹,就算他費盡功夫。而且他試過了。

  • But marathons and ultra-marathons are a whole other ball game.

    但馬拉松與超級馬拉松和這完全是兩碼子的事。

  • Each year, a small town in Wales holds the Man Versus Horse Marathon.

    在威爾斯有個小鎮每年會舉辦人馬之間的馬拉松。

  • It's a 22-mile race between riders on horseback and runners.

    比賽全長二十二英里,比的是跑者與騎馬者騎在馬上的速度。

  • And while horses often win, humans will sometimes prevail.

    雖然馬經常獲勝,但有時候人類也會勝出。

  • So what makes humans such endurance running superstars?

    所以人類到底是如何成為長跑巨星的?

  • The secret weapon is our sweat.

    我們的祕密武器是汗!

  • We have two to four million sweat glands all over our body, which means we can run and cool ourselves at the same time.

    我們全身上下大概有二到四百萬條汗腺遍佈,也就是說我們可以在跑步的同時讓身體降溫。

  • Having no fur is also a huge plus.

    沒有皮毛也是一大利多。

  • In contrast, dogs rely on panting to cool down.

    狗正好相反,牠們仰賴喘氣來降溫。

  • And other animals, like horses and camels, also sweat, but less effectively.

    其他動物像是馬、駱駝等也會流汗,但比較沒那麼有效。

  • As a result, they overheat faster and must slow down sooner.

    因此,牠們很快就體溫過高,而必須盡快放慢速度。

  • The mechanics of our running stride also makes us particularly well-suited for endurance running.

    人類跑步時的步伐機制也是使我們特別適合長跑的因素之一。

  • A human's running gait has two main phases.

    人類跑步的步伐分成兩個主要階段。

  • Aerial, when both feet are off the ground.

    空中階段,意即兩隻腳皆離開地面。

  • And stance, when at least one foot touches the ground.

    還有擊球準備姿勢階段,即至少一隻腳觸地。

  • While in the air, gravity pulls us down, which generates a lot of kinetic energy.

    在空中時,地吸引力將我們往地面拉,因此大量動能產生。

  • However, the second we hit the ground, we instantly decelerate, losing that kinetic energy in the process.

    然而,觸地那瞬間我們馬上就會減速,過程中動能就消失了。

  • Some of it goes into vibrations and sound as we strike the ground.

    有些動能會在觸地時轉換成震動和聲響

  • But most of it actually goes straight to our tendons.

    但其實大部分都直接進入肌腱。

  • Here's where our special adaptations come in.

    接下來人體特別的適應作用就登場了。

  • The tendons and muscles in our legs are very springy.

    腿部的肌腱和肌肉非常有彈性。

  • They act like a pogo stick.

    它們如同彈跳桿一般。

  • Converting kinetic energy from the aerial phase into elastic potential energy, which we can use later.

    可將空中階段的動能轉換成彈性位能,以便之後使用。

  • In fact, our IT Band can store 15 to 20 times more elastic energy than a chimpanzee's similar body part: the fascia lata.

    事實上,人類的髂脛束比黑猩猩相似的器官儲存了多十五到二十倍的彈性能,這相似的器官便是闊筋膜張肌。

  • When it comes time to step off, those springy tendons can turn 50% of that elastic pogo stick energy back into kinetic, making it easier to propel forward.

    跨步時,這些彈性肌腱可將百分之五十的「彈跳桿」能量轉回動能,讓 (步伐) 前進更順利。

  • Without that extra energy, we'd have to exert that much more effort just to take a step.

    若是沒有這些額外的能量,我們就必須費這麼多力量才能跨出一步。

  • So how did humans get to be such great endurance runners?

    所以人類到底如何成為這麼優秀的長跑選手?

  • Some anthropologists believe this became important around two to three million years ago, when we started hunting and scavenging.

    部分人類學家認為這項能力大約在二到三百萬年前變得重要,當時人類開始狩獵覓食。

  • Because we couldn't chase down a gazelle like a cheetah, early humans learned persistence hunting.

    由於我們無法像獵豹一樣追到瞪羚,所以早期人類學習了不屈不撓的狩獵法。

  • Where they would track prey over long distances until the prey either overheated, or was driven into a trap.

    即他們會從遠處就一路追蹤獵物,直到獵物不是跑到過熱,就是被逼到陷阱裡。

  • In fact, persistence hunting remained in use until 2014, such as with the San people of the Kalahari Desert.

    其實我們直到 2014 年都還在使用不屈不撓的狩獵法,像是喀拉哈里沙漠的薩恩人。

  • But distance running can still help you, even if you're not interested in running down your next meal.

    即使你對求溫飽沒興趣,長跑仍然有幫助。

  • Studies show running can lower body weight, body fat, and cholesterol levels.

    研究顯示跑步可減重、減脂,還有降低膽固醇。

  • And the longer you train, the greater the health benefits.

    且訓練得越久,身體就越健康。

  • Just one year of training has been shown to reduce body weight by about seven pounds, lower body fat by 2.7%, and decrease resting heart rate by 2.7%.

    已證實一年的訓練便足以減輕大約七磅的重量、降低 2.7% 的體脂以及靜止心率。

  • It may seem really hard, or maybe even impossible to run a mile or a marathon.

    即使跑一英里或馬拉松感覺很難,或是說根本不可能。

  • But in fact, you were born to go on that run.

    但真相是--你天生就是跑者。

  • We all were.

    我們都是!

  • (upbeat music)

    (歡快的配樂)

Cheetahs are the fastest land animal in the world.

獵豹是世界上跑得最快的陸地生物。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 動能 獵豹 人類 馬拉松 階段 彈性

我們其實跑得比動物還快?人類如何進化成星球最強跑者? (How Humans Evolved to Become the Best Runners on the Planet)

  • 19821 825
    Liang Chen 發佈於 2019 年 01 月 28 日
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