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  • Catherine: Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English.

    凱薩琳:哈囉,歡迎收聽「六分鐘學英文」

  • I'm Catherine.

    我是凱薩琳

  • Rob: And hello, I'm Rob.

    勞勃:哈囉,我是勞勃

  • Catherine: Today we have another

    凱薩琳:今天我們有另一個

  • technology topic.

    科技相關的主題

  • Rob: Oh good! I love technology.

    勞勃:喔!太棒了!我愛科技。它讓

  • It makes things easier, it's fast and means I can

    事情變得更簡單,更快速,而且這意味著我能

  • have gadgets.

    擁有電子產品

  • Catherine: Do you think that technology

    凱薩琳:你認為科技

  • can actually do things better than humans?

    能比人類將事情做得更好嗎?

  • Rob: For some things, yes. I think

    勞勃:以某些事來說,是的,我覺得

  • cars that drive themselves will be safer than humans

    自駕車會比人類駕駛更安全

  • but that will take away some of

    但這也會剝奪一些

  • the pleasure of driving. So I guess it

    開車的樂趣。所以我猜這

  • depends on what you mean by better.

    取決於你所謂「更好」的定義是什麼

  • Catherine: Good point, Rob. And that

    凱薩琳:說得真好,勞勃。而這

  • actually ties in very closely with today's topic

    正好與今天的主題非常相關

  • which is technochauvinism.

    也就是「科技至上主義」

  • Rob: What's that?

    勞勃:那是什麼?

  • Catherine: We'll find out shortly, Rob, but

    凱薩琳:我們馬上就會知道,勞勃,但

  • before we do, today's quiz question.

    在那之前,先來今天的小測驗

  • Artificial Intelligence, or A.I., is an area of

    人工智慧,或縮寫 A.I. 是一個

  • computer science that develops the

    電腦科學的領域,在研發

  • ability of computers to learn to do things

    電腦的功能以學習執行事件

  • like solve problems or drive cars without crashing.

    像是問題解決或安全駕車不失事

  • But in what decade was the

    但在哪一個年代

  • term 'Artificial Intelligence' coined?

    「人工智慧」這個術語被創造出來?

  • Was it: a) the 1940s, b) the 1950s

    是 a) 1940年代、 b) 1950年代、

  • or c) the 1960s?

    或是 c) 1960年代?

  • Rob: I think it's quite a new expression

    勞勃:我覺得這是一個相當新的說法

  • so I'll go for c) the 1960s.

    所以我選 c) 1960年代

  • Catherine: Good luck with that, Rob,

    凱薩琳:祝你好運,勞勃

  • and we'll give you the answer later in the programme.

    我們會在節目尾聲給你答案

  • Now, let's get back to our

    現在,我們回到我們的

  • topic of technochauvinism.

    「科技至上主義」議題

  • Rob: I know what a chauvinist is.

    勞勃:我知道什麼是至上主義者

  • It's someone who thinks that their country or

    是那些認為他們的國家或

  • race or sex is better than others.

    種族或性別比其他人更好的人

  • But how does this relate to technology?

    但這跟科技有什麼相關呢?

  • Catherine: We're about to find out.

    凱薩琳:我們就快知道了

  • Meredith Broussard is Professor of Journalism at New York University

    Meredith Broussard 是紐約大學的新聞系教授

  • and she's written a book called Artificial Unintelligence.

    她曾寫過一本書叫《人工非智能》

  • She appeared on the BBC Radio 4 programme

    她在 BBC 廣播四台的

  • More or Lessto talk about it.

    「More or Less」節目中談論到這個

  • Listen carefully and find

    仔細聽並找出

  • out her definition of technochauvinism.

    她對科技至上主義的定義

  • Meredith Broussard: Technochauvinism is

    Meredith Broussard:科技至上主義指的是

  • the idea that technology is always the highest and best solution.

    「科技永遠是首要且最好的解決方法」這樣的想法

  • So somehow over the past couple of decades

    所以不知怎麼地,過去數十年以來

  • we got into the habit of

    我們逐漸習慣於

  • thinking that doing something with a computer

    認為用電腦來做某件事

  • is always the best and most

    一定是最好而且最

  • objective way to do something and

    客觀的方法,然而

  • that's simply not true.

    這完全不是事實

  • Computers are not objective, they are

    電腦並非是客觀的,它們是

  • proxies for the people who make them.

    製造者的代理人

  • Catherine: What is Meredith Broussard's

    凱薩琳:Meredith Broussard 對

  • definition of technochauvinism?

    科技至上主義的定義是什麼?

  • Rob: It's this idea that using technology

    勞勃:是「使用科技

  • is better than not using technology.

    比沒有使用科技來的好」這樣的想法

  • Catherine: She says that we have this idea

    凱薩琳:她說我們可能會覺得

  • that a computer is objective.

    電腦是客觀的

  • Something that is objective is neutral, it doesn't have

    客觀的事物表示它是中立的,它不具有

  • an opinion, it's fair and it's unbiased

    任何意見,是公平且不偏頗的

  • so it's the opposite of being a chauvinist.

    所以這是至上主義者的相反

  • But Meredith Broussard says this is not true.

    但是 Meredith Broussard 說這是錯的

  • Rob: She argues that computers are not

    勞勃:她主張電腦並不是

  • objective. They are proxies for the people that make them.

    客觀的。它們是製造者的代理人

  • You might know the

    你可能知道

  • word proxy when you are using your computer in one country

    proxy 這個字,當你在某個國家用你的電腦

  • and want to look at something

    但想瀏覽某些

  • that is only available in a different country.

    只在其他國家看得到的東西

  • You can use a piece of software

    你可以試用一款軟體

  • called a proxy to do that.

    叫做「代理伺服器」來達成

  • Catherine: But a proxy is also a person or

    凱薩琳:但 proxy 也指

  • a thing that carries out your wishes and

    一件完成你願望,以及

  • your instructions for you.

    指令的事物

  • So computers are only as smart or as

    所以電腦的聰明或

  • objective as the people that programme them.

    客觀,只跟設計它們的人相同而已

  • Computers are proxies for their programmers.

    電腦是程式設計師的代理者

  • Broussard says that believing too much in

    Broussard 說太過信任

  • Artificial Intelligence can make the world worse.

    人工智慧會對世界有不好的影響

  • Let's hear a bit more. This time find out

    讓我們繼續聽下去。這次來找出

  • what serious problems in society

    哪些社會上的嚴重問題

  • does she think may be reflected in AI?

    是她認為可能能歸咎於人工智慧的?

  • Meredith Broussard: It's a nuanced problem.

    Meredith Broussard:這是個微妙的問題

  • What we have is data on the world as it is

    我們所擁有的是存在這世上的資料

  • and we have serious problems with racism,

    同時我們也有嚴重的議題,關於種族主義、

  • sexism, classism, ageism,

    性別歧視、階級歧視、年齡歧視

  • in the world right now so there is

    在現今的世界中,所以

  • no such thing as perfect data.

    並沒有所謂完美的資料這回事

  • We also have a problem inside the tech world

    同時我們在科技的世界中也存在著問題

  • where the creators of algorithms do not

    演算程式的創造者並沒有

  • have sufficient awareness of social issues

    充分意識到這些社會議題

  • such that they can make good technology

    以製造出更好的科技產品

  • that gets us closer to a world as it should be.

    讓我們更貼近這個世界,如理想中的

  • Rob: She said that society has problems

    勞勃:她說我們的社會有

  • with racism, sexism, classism and ageism.

    種族主義、性別歧視、階級歧視、年齡歧視等問題

  • Catherine: And she says it's a nuanced problem.

    凱薩琳:而且她說這是一個微妙的問題

  • A nuanced problem is not simple,

    一個微妙的問題並不容易解決

  • but it does have small and important areas

    它存在著細微但重要的議題

  • which may be hard to spot,

    這可能是很難以察覺的

  • but they need to be considered.

    但卻值得慎思

  • Rob: And she also talked about

    勞勃:她還談論到

  • algorithms used to program these technological systems.

    這些用來設計科技系統的演算法

  • An algorithm is a set of instructions that

    一個演算法則是指一系列的指令

  • computers use to perform their tasks.

    電腦用來完成作業的

  • Essentially it's the rules that they use

    實質上,這就是它們用來

  • to come up with their answers and

    形成答案的法則,而且

  • Broussard believes that technology will

    Broussard 相信科技會

  • reflect the views of those who create the algorithms.

    反映出演算法創造者的觀點

  • Catherine: Next time you're using a piece

    凱薩琳:下一次你在使用

  • of software or your favourite app, you

    某個軟件或是你最喜歡的應用程式時,你

  • might find yourself wondering if it's a

    可能會開始好奇,這是否是一項

  • useful tool or does it contain these little

    實用的工具,以及這是否包含了一些

  • nuances that reflect the views of the developer.

    反映出研發者觀點的蛛絲馬跡

  • Rob: Right, Catherine.

    勞勃:沒錯,凱薩琳

  • How about the answer to this week's question then?

    那本週小測驗的答案是什麼呢?

  • Catherine: I asked in which decade was

    凱薩琳:我問,在哪個年代

  • the term 'Artificial Intelligence' coined.

    「人工智慧」這個詞被創造出來

  • Was it the 40s, the 50s or the 60s?

    是在 40 年代、50 年代,還是 60 年代?

  • Rob: And I said the 60s.

    勞勃:而我選 60 年代

  • Catherine: But it was actually the 1950s.

    凱薩琳:但事實上是在 1950 年代

  • Never mind, Rob. Let's review today's vocabulary.

    別在意,勞勃。我們來複習一下今天的單字

  • Rob: Well, we had a chauvinist - that's

    勞勃:我們的單字有「至上主義者」- 那是指

  • someone who believes their country, race

    某些認為他們自己的國家、種族

  • or sex is better than any others.

    或性別優於其他人的人

  • Catherine: And this gives us technochauvinism,

    凱薩琳:而這也引申出「科技至上主義」這個字

  • the belief that a technological solution is

    也就是相信以科技為解決方法

  • always a better solution to a problem.

    永遠是最好的問題解決方案

  • Rob: Next - someone or something that is

    勞勃:下一個 - 當某人或某事是

  • objective is neutral, fair and balanced.

    客觀的,是指他們是中立、公正且公平的

  • Catherine: A proxy is a piece of software

    凱薩琳:「代理人」這個字可以指一套軟體

  • but also someone who does something for you, on your behalf.

    但也指某人以你的名義為你做某事

  • A nuanced problem is a subtle

    一個微妙的問題是指敏感的、

  • one, it's not a simple case of right or wrong,

    不易分出對與錯的問題

  • in a nuanced problem there are small

    在微妙的問題中存在著細微

  • but important things that you need to consider.

    但重要的議題,值得你去省思

  • Rob: And an algorithm is a set of

    勞勃:一個演算法則是指一套

  • software instructions for a computer system.

    電腦系統的軟件指令

  • Catherine: Well, that's all we have time for today.

    凱薩琳:我們今天的時間要結束了

  • Goodbye for now.

    先說再見了

  • Rob: Bye bye!

    勞勃:掰掰!

Catherine: Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English.

凱薩琳:哈囉,歡迎收聽「六分鐘學英文」

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A2 初級 中文 英國腔 勞勃 凱薩琳 科技 電腦 主義 客觀

【BBC 英語】六分鐘學會談論科技的限制 (Learn to talk about the limitations of technology in 6 minutes!)

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    Evangeline 發佈於 2018 年 07 月 23 日
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