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  • Germany, 1939

    1939年,德國。

  • In a secret bunker on the German-Polish border

    在德國和波蘭邊界的秘密碉堡,

  • Nazi agents were overseeing the production of a recently discovered chemical

    納粹當局正研究如何生產一種新發現的化學物質

  • they'd code-named "Substance N"

    秘密代號「N物質」。

  • It boiled when they exposed it to air,

    它遇空氣則沸騰,

  • It exploded when it touched water, it was lethal when inhaled,

    遇水則爆炸,吸入則致死,

  • and when it decomposed it spit out deadly hydrofluoric acid.

    分解時還會放出氟化氫毒氣。

  • When loaded into a flamethrower and ignited it could burn at

    當它加入火焰噴射器並點燃,

  • temperatures over 2400°C

    溫度超過2400°C。

  • The plan was to arm troops with "Substance N"

    這個計畫打算讓軍隊裝備「N物質」,

  • and use it to melt allied bunkers into hot porridge

    把同盟國碉堡熔得稀巴爛。

  • But then after studying it for a while even the German soldiers were like

    但研究了一會,連德軍士兵都張口結舌「哇~」

  • "Whoa." experiments with "Substance N" were discontinued because

    「N物質」的實驗沒有繼續,因為

  • the Nazis decided it was to dangerous to work with.

    納粹認為使用這種物質太危險。

  • Should give you some kind of sense of what we're dealing with

    稍微讓你對這些東西有點概念:

  • here when we talk about the most dangerous chemicals in the world.

    我們說的是世上最危險恐怖的化學物質,

  • I'm talking about things that explode when you touch them,

    你一碰它就爆炸的東西,

  • things so poisonous that if even a millionth of a gram went up your nose, it would end up killing you

    吸入百萬分之一克就回天乏術的東西,

  • things that could even disable you because of their totally, debilitatingly, horrifying smell,

    臭不可聞讓你動彈不得的東西,

  • and yes, chemicals so severe, that even the Nazis thought they were crazy.

    是的,還有狂到連納粹都會怕的東西。

  • Let's start with what the Germans had in that secret weapons bunker

    讓我們先來看德軍秘密武器庫中的東西,

  • They originally planned to produce 90 tons of the stuff every month

    原本打算每個月生產90公噸,

  • but only made about 30 tons throughout the whole war

    但整場戰爭中只製造了30公噸。

  • what they'd concocted was chlorine trifluoride,

    他們準備的是三氟化氯,

  • the most vigorous fluorinating agent known to humanity

    人類已知最活潑的氟化劑。

  • fluorinating agents rip other molecules apart to replace their hydrogen atoms with fluorine

    氟化劑會扯開其他原子,搶下他們的電子和氟結合,

  • the result is what chemists called a 'violently exothermic reaction',

    結論就是化學家所謂「劇烈放熱反應」,

  • in this case known as a fluorine fire

    在這裡相當於「氟火」。

  • it's much more dangerous to handle than even fluorine gas,

    要知道這種東西甚至比氟氣體還可怕,

  • which as anyone with a degree in chemistry could tell you

    任何有點化學概念的人都會告訴你

  • is not a sentence that you get to say very often

    這句話不是隨隨便便就能聽到的。

  • it's also a better oxidizer than oxygen

    它還是比氧還強的氧化劑,

  • oxidizers are compounds that steal electrons from other chemicals in a reaction

    氧化劑是在化學反應中,掠奪其他化合物電子

  • and they are what make combustion possible.

    的物質,讓燃燒反應得以進行。

  • chlorine trifluoride is so good at this, that it can burn stuff that sane people might think of as non flammable, like

    三氟化氯在氧化方面太專業了, 甚至能燒毀一些正常人都認為不可燃的物品,

  • bricks or asbestos or things that have already been burned

    好比磚塊或石棉,甚至燒過的灰燼。

  • oxidizers are also used to ignite rocket fuel and in

    氧化劑也被用作火箭燃料

  • the very short time that us rocket scientists thought about using this stuff as a propellant,

    美國火箭科學家曾經動過用三氟化氯推進火箭的念頭,

  • they quickly learned that this idea was bad

    但他們很快就知道這是個餿主意。

  • and the early 1950s, the first time that US scientists tried to ship chlorine trifluoride in bulk

    1950年代早期,美國科學家試圖運送大批三氟化氯,

  • the steel tank cracked and a full ton of it spilled out

    當鋼桶破裂,將近一噸三氟化氯漏出,

  • it burned so hot that the chemical ate through an entire concrete floor

    把整個混凝土地板連同一公尺礫石燒得一乾二淨。

  • and then a meter of dirt and gravel beneath that

    把整個混凝土地板連同一公尺礫石燒得一乾二淨。

  • One eye-witness described the spill only by saying

    一位目擊者對此事件的描述僅止於

  • "The concrete...was on fire!"

    「混凝土......燒起來啦!!......」

  • Chlorine trifluoride is still manufactured and is used by semi-conductor companies to clean their equipment

    現在仍有三氟化氯製造,半導體製造商冒著生命危險

  • to within an inch of its life.

    用它來清理設備。

  • The good news is that you can store it safely in a regular steel drum

    好消息是你可以用普通鋼桶儲存它,

  • as long as it's air-tight and you're really, really careful,

    只要確保氣密,而且非常、非常小心。

  • because, it instantly scorches the inside lining of the container

    因為它會立即與容器內壁反應,

  • leaving behind a nonreactive plating of metallic fluoride.

    形成一層不會反應的金屬氟化物。

  • Nonreactive is not a word that we're gonna need when discussing the next chemical on our list

    名單上下一個化學物質絕對和「不反應」三個字無緣,

  • "Azidoazide azide", the most explosive chemical compound ever created

    「疊氮化碳」,史上爆炸性最強的化學物質。

  • This twitchy little compound is a part of a class of chemicals known as

    這種不安定的化學物質屬於

  • "High nitrogen energetic materials"

    「高氮含能化合物」的一員,

  • And it does what it does because nitrogen just wants to be left alone

    一如其名,因為氮原子非常想分離出去。

  • A nitrogen atom bonded with another nitrogen atom is one of the most stable molecules on earth

    兩個氮原子的鍵結形成地球上最穩定的分子之一,

  • Their electrons form an extremely strong triple bond with each other,

    兩者的電子以固若金湯的三鍵結合,

  • which, in nature can usually only be broken by a molecule being hit by lightning

    在自然狀況下只有被閃電打到才會分離。

  • The strength of that bond means that when two nitrogen atoms snap together,

    強固的鍵結意味著當氮原子碰在一起,

  • they release a tremendous amount of energy.

    便會釋放莫大的能量。

  • So if you look in a molecule of AA.. We're gonna call it AA cause Azidoazide Azide is hard

    當你細看AA分子(因為疊氮化碳的學名太饒舌)

  • You can see how it gets its bang.

    你就知道它會什麼會爆炸。

  • It has 14 nitrogen atoms and because of the way the molecule was structured,

    裡頭有14個氮原子,但受限於分子結構,

  • None of them are in a triple bond.

    彼此的連結都不是三鍵

  • Instead, they're stuck in a loosely bound high-energy state

    而是以高能狀態的鬆散鍵結結合,

  • and are dying to move to a more stable lower energy state

    隨時渴望回到穩定的低能量狀態。

  • which means releasing a lot of pent-up energy in the process.

    這反應就會釋放出積蓄已久的能量,

  • As a result, AA is both highly reactive and heck-a explosive.

    因此AA反應活性和爆炸性都非常高。

  • How sensitive is this stuff? Well, it's actually hard to say, because it's too sensitive

    很難形容它到底有多敏感,因為它敏感到

  • even to measure how sensitive it is.

    連測量都有困難。

  • A team of German chemists created it in 2010 with the help of the US army,

    2010年,德國一組化學家在美軍支援下製造出這種物質

  • in an effort to develop more energetic compounds.

    以便研發更具爆破力的化合物。

  • And their first report on the discovery,

    他們在《discovery》上發表的的第一篇結果指出:

  • they said, and I quote, "The sensitivity of C2N14 is beyond our capabilities of measurement...

    「C2N14的敏感度已經超越了我們的測量極限......

  • ...even the smallest possible loadings in shock & friction-tests led to explosive decomposition."

    連最微小的撞擊與摩擦測試都會導致爆炸性分解。」

  • To give you a list of how touchy this stuff is,

    給你一份清單看看這玩意多敏感,

  • here's a list of things that make Azidoazide explode:

    以下情況能引爆疊氮化碳:

  • moving it, touching it,

    「移動它」「碰觸它」

  • dispersing it in solution, leaving it undisturbed on a glass plate,

    「放入溶液中」「平放在玻璃片上」

  • exposing it to bright light, exposing it to x-rays,

    「暴露在強光下」「暴露在X光下」

  • putting it in a spectrometer, turning on the spectrometer,

    「放進光譜儀」「打開光譜儀」

  • and my favourite: ABSOLUTELY NOTHING!!!

    還有我最喜歡的「毫無理由」!

  • They had it in a shock-proof explosive case, in a dark climate controlled room...

    他們把它放進防震箱,在一間無光、氣溫受控的房間,

  • and it blew up!

    然後它就爆炸惹。

  • I think somebody said something mean about it somewhere, and it was like:

    我猜是不是有人在背後說它壞話,然後它表示

  • (Censored Bleep)

    「@#(!^$5%%#$/[email protected]$1?」

  • The lead scientists on the team that synthesized it called it: "A very exciting discovery."

    合成疊氮化碳的主持科學家稱之為 「非常興奮的發現」。

  • If I worked with Azidoazide Azide, waking up every morning,

    如果我在工作時用到疊氮化碳,每天早上醒來

  • and seeing that I still had all my fingers would be a very exciting discovery.

    發現手指還在,也是一種非常興奮的發現。

  • Next up, let's talk about Dimethylcadmium

    接下來要討論的是二甲基鎘,

  • This is an organometallic compound,

    這是一種有機金屬化合物,

  • which means it it has a molecule in which carbon has bonded with a metal

    也就是說它的份子內有碳與金屬連接,

  • In this case, that metal is Cadmium,

    在此狀況下,金屬是鎘,

  • a pretty nasty customer all on its own

    本身就是一種相當難纏的奧客。

  • So far we've talked about chemicals that explode

    目前我們講過會爆炸

  • or cover everything in unquenchable fire

    或讓萬物燃起不滅之火的化學物質,

  • And don't get me wrong; Dimethylcadmium, it does that too

    不要誤會,二甲基鎘也會這樣,

  • But that is not what makes it so dangerous

    但這還不是它最要命的地方。

  • It is, in all likelihood, gram-for-gram the most toxic chemical in the world

    它幾乎是相同重量下世界最毒的化學物質,

  • It has both acute and chronic effects

    包含急性和慢性效果,

  • Which means it will kill you now AND later

    意思就是它能馬上或是之後殺死你。

  • It was first prepared by a pioneer of metal organic chemistry

    二甲基鎘首先由一位有機金屬化學先鋒

  • A fellow named Erich Krause who was from, yes, Germany

    名叫埃里希,‧克勞斯的老兄(沒錯又是德國人)

  • It was 1917

    在1917年合成。

  • To give you a sense of how Krause rolled

    00:05:50,760 --> 00:05:55,300 他僅37歲就死在實驗室,死因是意外吸入氯氣,

  • he died in his lab at the age of 37 after accidentally inhaling a bunch of chlorine

    但在那之前他發表了一篇二甲基鎘的發現報告:

  • but before that happened he managed to report his discovery of Dimethylcadmium

    當你吸入,它會立刻溶入血液,

  • When you breathe it in it is absorbed instantly into your bloodstream,

    然後血液就會帶著有毒的鎘化物

  • where it basically serves as a kind of chemical chauffeur for toxic compounds of cadmium

    運送到全身各處,

  • to travel all around your body

    因此它們會利用血流迅速影響你最需要血液的器官--例如肺,腎和肝--藉由製造奪取細胞內電子的物質造成破壞。

  • Because it's so effective at exploiting your bloodstream it quickly effects your most blood-infused organs

    因此它們會利用血流迅速影響你最需要血液的器官--例如肺,腎和肝--藉由製造奪取細胞內電子的物質造成破壞。

  • Like lungs and your kidneys and liver, creating compounds that rip electrons off the atoms of your cells

    但如果你能在受到二甲基鎘的初步摧殘之後倖存下來,別抱太大希望,這物質同時具有高度致癌性,

  • But if you manage to survive your first few hours after Dimethylcadmium exposure,

    但如果你能在受到二甲基鎘的初步摧殘之後倖存下來,別抱太大希望,這物質同時具有高度致癌性,

  • don't get your hopes up. It's also extremely carcinogenic,

    因此你最後仍然會死於癌症。

  • So it will take you down with cancer just to spite you

    這東西毒到在做為空氣中的蒸汽時,僅需每立方公尺幾微克(百萬分之一克)就能達到安全上限。

  • This stuff is so potent that, as an airborne vapor

    這東西毒到在做為空氣中的蒸汽時,僅需每立方公尺幾微克(百萬分之一克)就能達到安全上限。

  • just a few millionths of a gram per cubic meter of air meets the legal safety limits

    但假設你不小心把它打翻了,你要怎麼清乾淨?

  • But if you spill it, how are you going to clean it up?

    拖地?

  • Water?

    這個嘛,當它碰到水會與之反應產生氫氣和高熱,

  • Well, when it reacts with water it produces both lots of heat and lots of hydrogen gas

    也因此會燒起來--對沒錯它碰到水會爆炸。

  • Which is flammable so, yeah, it explodes in water

    那或許我能把它掃起來?

  • Maybe you could sweep it up?

    痾...震動會使它自燃。

  • Eeuhh friction makes it ignite

    那我放著讓它自己分解總可以了吧?

  • Might wanna just try waiting for it to decompose?

    它是會自己分解啦,

  • Well, it will do that

    它會分解成一層二氧化鎘過氧化物--一種對震動十分敏感的爆裂物。

  • It'll form a crust of dimethyl cadmium peroxide, which is a friction-sensitive explosive

    於是實驗室的地板就變成踩地雷真人版。

  • So you're just one shoe-scuff away from "KABLAMMO"

    我們剛剛所提到的物質

  • And on top of it all

    都極度令人厭惡、惡名昭彰或是使人不快,

  • the chemical has an odor that has been described as foul, unpleasant, metallic, and disagreeable

    然而這跟我們接下來要講的物質--丙硫酮--相比實在是小巫見大巫。

  • But that's nothing compared to our next chemical:

    然而這跟我們接下來要講的物質--丙硫酮--相比實在是小巫見大巫。

  • Thioacetone

    這東西不會爆炸、突然起火,或是讓你致癌,

  • It won't explode, or start fires, or even give you cancer

    相比之下這東西就好像是隻毛茸茸可愛小兔兔,

  • Compared to other chemicals on the list it's like a cute little fluffy bunny

    只不過這隻小兔兔有著你最難以想像的恐怖惡臭!!!

  • If that cute little fluffy bunny had the MOST UNGODLY STINK YOU CAN IMAGINE

    誠如我所說,丙硫酮贏得世界上最臭物質的名號。

  • That's right, Thioacetone takes the prize for The World's Smelliest Chemical

    它是種硫酮,也就是有個碳接在硫對鍵合上。

  • It's a thiol, an organic compound in which a carbon atom is bonded to a sulfur-hydrogen pair

    它們都不太好聞。

  • They're all gross

    像是臭鼬的臭氣就使用了兩種硫醇來使人眼花撩亂。

  • A skunk's spray uses two different thiols to eye-watering effect

    而大多數含硫的有機氣體通常都是由腐肉所散發出來,這就是為什麼我們想要明確地辨認它們的原因,

  • Most sulfur-containing compounds are released by rotting meat

    而大多數含硫的有機氣體通常都是由腐肉所散發出來,這就是為什麼我們想要明確地辨認它們的原因,

  • which is a reason why we would want to be very good at being able to detect them

    而且也不會認為他們很好聞。

  • and also not think that it smells...Good

    但提到難聞的味道時,丙硫酮絕對是地獄等級的存在。

  • But when it comes to bad smells

    但提到難聞的味道時,丙硫酮絕對是地獄等級的存在。

  • Thioacetone takes the stinky, seriously unappetizing cake

    只要滴一滴,在半公里外的你就能馬上聞到這個東西的味道。

  • You can smell one drop of this substance, almost instantly, from half a kilometer away

    在1960年代,有一瓶丙硫酮從實驗室的架子上掉下來,

  • In the 1960s a vial of the stuff fell off a shelf in a research lab

    當時200公尺外的人們正在悠閒地吃著餅乾。(之後他們便片刻不得安寧)

  • People were chucking their cookies in buildings 200 meters away

    然而展現丙硫酮安靜但恐怖的力量最好的例子是在1889年德國的弗萊堡市。

  • But the greatest example of thioacetone's silent-but-deadly strength comes from the German city of Freiburg

    當時肥皂工廠的化學家正在研究較大的分子--三丙硫酮--用來調製香味。

  • where in 1889 chemists at a soap factory were, reportedly, working on a larger molecule

    當時肥皂工廠的化學家正在研究較大的分子--三丙硫酮--用來調製香味。

  • known as tri-thioacetone, which is used as a flavoring and a fragrance

    然而當三丙硫酮分解成丙硫酮時,工人們開始感到不適,同時附近的地區也傳出嘔吐的案例,

  • But, when they broke it apart into thioacetone workers started falling ill

    然而當三丙硫酮分解成丙硫酮時,工人們開始感到不適,同時附近的地區也傳出嘔吐的案例,

  • Spontaneous outbreaks of vomiting were reported in the surrounding neighborhoods

    最終導致所有人被迫撤離弗萊堡市。

  • It led to the evacuation of the whole city

    我們對於丙硫酮和硫酮類的認識有待進一步的研究,但同時我們也不難了解科學家們其實並不是很想要去研究它。

  • There might be a lot to learn about thioacetone and thiols in general

    我們對於丙硫酮和硫酮類的認識有待進一步的研究,但同時我們也不難了解科學家們其實並不是很想要去研究它。

  • but, understandably, scientists are not really rushing to look into it

    最後,我們要介紹世界上最強的腐蝕性物質。

  • And finally, there's the strongest corrosive agent in the world

    人類到目前為止發現過最危險的酸--氟銻酸。

  • The most dangerous acid ever devised by humanity

    人類到目前發現過最危險的酸--氟銻酸。

  • Fluoroantimonic acid

    畢竟一個列舉世界上最危險物質的列表怎麼能把最強的酸拒於門外呢?

  • Because what list of dangerous chemicals would be complete

    畢竟一個列舉世界上最危險物質的列表怎麼能把最強的酸拒於門外呢?

  • without a super acid

    酸之所以為酸是來自於它釋出質子到周遭環境的能力。

  • What makes an acid an acid is its ability to donate a proton to another molecule nearby it

    而質子說穿了就是顆失去電子的氫原子,

  • And a proton is just a hydrogen atom that's lost its electron

    這個過程叫做「質子化」。

  • This process is called Protonation

    而一個酸的酸度是由該酸願意把質子釋出的能力來決定。

  • And an acid's strength is determined by how willing it is to give up that proton

    拿醋酸,一種弱酸,來當例子,它基本上只是醋的濃縮精華版。

  • A weak acid, acetic acid for example

    拿醋酸,一種弱酸,來當例子,它基本上只是醋的濃縮精華版。

  • Which is just the undiluted form of vinegar

    它不太願意把它的質子丟出去,大多數醋酸分子就只會安安靜靜地待在那裏。

  • will drag its feet about protonating other molecules

    它不太願意把它的質子丟出去,大多數醋酸分子就只會安安靜靜地待在那裏。

  • Most of it will just sit there doing nothing

    然而像硫酸這類的強酸會把自己的質子像打沙灘排球般往其他分子直接砸上去。

  • But a strong acid like sulfuric acid'll punch that proton in the air like a beach volleyball at spring break

    而別忘了從剛剛的N物質中提到氟是非常可怕的物質。

  • And remember from Substance N how crazy fluorine is

    這個嘛,氟銻酸的酸度是硫酸的十兆倍,也因此這個可怕的小惡魔十分渴望把自己的質子轟在別人臉上。

  • Well, fluoroantimonic acid is ten quadrillion times stronger than sulfuric acid

    這個嘛,氟銻酸的酸度是硫酸的十兆倍,也因此這個可怕的小惡魔十分渴望把自己的質子轟在別人臉上。

  • This molecule is begging for an excuse to fly apart

    一旦它丟出質子

  • Once it's lost its hydrogen atoms

    剩下的氟和銻就會將周圍分子的電子搶走,把周遭一切的東西破壞殆盡,

  • the remaining atoms of fluorine and another element, antimony

    剩下的氟和銻就會將周圍分子的電子搶走,把周遭一切的東西破壞殆盡,

  • tear through everything else around them, ripping electrons off nearby molecules

    留下一團軟趴趴的有機漿糊。

  • and leaving just organic goo in their wake

    更刺激的是氟非常喜歡跟鈣鍵結,

  • Especially exciting is that fluorine really likes to bond with calcium

    所以一旦這物質融穿了你的脂肪和肌肉組織,氟就會跟你的骨頭產生愛的「火」花。

  • So once the acid tears through the fatty organic tissues of your skin and muscles

    所以一旦這物質融穿了你的脂肪和肌肉組織,氟就會跟你的骨頭產生愛的「火」花。

  • the fluorine will burn through your bones

    儲存氟銻酸的唯一方法是儲存在鐵氟龍容器中。

  • The only way to store fluoroantimonic acid is in Teflon containers

    順帶一提,鐵氟龍是由碳-氟鍵所構成

  • Teflon, by the way, is held together by carbon-fluorine bonds

    也是有機化學裡鍵能最強的組合。

  • which are the single strongest bond in organic chemistry

    我們對於氟銻酸的認識並不多,因為要做相關的實驗實在不簡單。

  • We don't actually know a lot about this acid because it's so hard to do experiments with it

    你不能將它放在滴管裡或是玻片上,

  • You can't put it in a syringe or on a slide

    它腐蝕玻璃跟你吃棉花糖一樣容易,

  • It eats through glass like it's cotton candy

    通風櫥也一樣甭談--會被融掉。

  • You can't put it under a fume hood - it'll eat the fume hood

    而你唯一能做的就是,觀賞...純觀賞

  • All you can really do is, just like, look at it

    而且是從...

  • Ideally from...

    ...千里之外。

  • ...very far away

    00:10:21,820 --> 00:10:26,220

  • Thank you for watching this particularly dangerous SciShow infusion

    00:10:26,380 --> 00:10:30,300

  • Thank you especially to our Subbable subscribers who help us make this show for them

    00:10:30,300 --> 00:10:32,040

  • And for everyone else, to find our how you can support us you can go to subbable.com

    00:10:32,040 --> 00:10:34,120

  • And if you want to keep getting smarter with us?

  • Just go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe

Germany, 1939

1939年,德國。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 物質 質子 化學 分子 鍵結 爆炸

世界上最危險的5種化學品 (5 of the World's Most Dangerous Chemicals)

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    黎芷伶 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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