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  • The 40 or so muscles in the human face can be activated in different combinations

    人臉的40多塊肌肉可以通過不同的組合來激活。

  • to create thousands of expressions.

    以創建成千上萬的表達式。

  • But do these expressions look the same

    但這些表達方式看起來一樣嗎?

  • and communicate the same meaning around the world,

    並在全世界範圍內傳達同樣的意義。

  • regardless of culture?

    不分文化?

  • Is one person's smile another's grimace?

    一個人的微笑就是另一個人的笑臉嗎?

  • Charles Darwin theorized that emotional expression was a common human feature.

    查爾斯-達爾文理論上認為,情感表達是人類的共同特徵。

  • But he was in the minority.

    但他是少數。

  • Until the mid-20th century,

    直到20世紀中葉。

  • many researchers believed that the specific ways we show emotion

    許多研究者認為,我們表現情感的具體方式是什麼?

  • were learned behaviors that varied across cultures.

    是在不同文化中學習的行為。

  • Personality theorist Silvan Tomkins was one of the few to insist otherwise.

    人格理論家西爾萬-湯姆金斯是少數堅持不這樣做的人之一。

  • Tomkins claimed that certain affects

    湯姆金斯稱,某些影響--

  • emotional states and their associated facial expressions

    情緒狀態及其相關的面部表情

  • were universal.

    是普遍的。

  • In the 1960s, psychologist Paul Ekman set about testing this theory

    20世紀60年代,心理學家保羅-埃克曼開始測試這一理論。

  • by examining hundreds of hours of film footage

    通過審查數百小時的電影錄像

  • of remote tribes isolated from the modern world.

    與現代世界隔絕的偏遠部落的。

  • Ekman found the native peoples' expressions to be not only familiar,

    埃克曼發現,當地人的表情不僅熟悉。

  • but occurring in precisely the situations he would expect.

    但發生的情況正是他所期望的。

  • Conversely, he ran tests with tribes who had no prior exposure to Western culture.

    相反,他對那些之前沒有接觸過西方文化的部落進行了測試。

  • They were able to correctly match photos of different facial expressions

    他們能夠正確匹配不同表情的照片。

  • with stories designed to trigger particular feelings.

    用設計好的故事來引發特定的感受。

  • Over the next few decades,

    在接下來的幾十年裡,。

  • further research has corroborated Darwin's idea

    深入研究印證了達爾文的觀點。

  • that some of our most important emotional expressions are in fact universal.

    我們最重要的一些情感表達其實是普遍的。

  • The degrees of expression appropriate to a given situation can, however,

    不過,適合特定情況的表達度可以。

  • vary greatly across cultures.

    不同文化之間的差異很大。

  • For instance, researchers have studied facial expression in people who are born blind,

    例如,研究人員對天生失明者的面部表情進行了研究。

  • hypothesizing that if expressions are universal,

    假設如果表達式是通用的。

  • they would be displayed in the same way as sighted people.

    他們將以與視力正常的人相同的方式顯示。

  • In one study, both blind and sighted athletes

    在一項研究中,盲人和視力正常的運動員都有

  • displayed the same expressions of emotion when winning or losing their matches.

    在比賽的勝負時,他們表現出同樣的情緒。

  • Further evidence can be found in our evolutionary relatives.

    進一步的證據可以在我們的進化親屬中找到。

  • Comparisons of facial expression between humans and non-human mammals

    人類和非人類哺乳動物面部表情的比較

  • have found similarities in the structure and movement of facial muscles.

    已發現面部肌肉的結構和運動有相似之處。

  • Chimpanzee laughter looks different from ours,

    黑猩猩的笑聲和我們的笑聲看起來不一樣。

  • but uses some of the same muscle movements.

    但使用一些相同的肌肉運動。

  • Back in the 60s, Ekman identified six core expressions.

    早在60年代,Ekman就確定了六種核心表達方式。

  • Anger is accompanied by lowered eyebrows drawn together,

    憤怒的同時,低垂的眉毛也會拉在一起。

  • tense and narrowed eyes, and tight lips;

    緊張的眯著眼睛,嘴脣緊閉。

  • disgust, by the lips pulled up and the nose crinkling.

    厭惡,由嘴脣拉起,鼻子皺起。

  • In fear, the upper white of the eyes are revealed as the eyebrows raise

    恐懼時,隨著眉毛的上揚,眼睛的上白露出來。

  • and the mouth stretches open,

    和嘴巴伸開。

  • while surprise looks similar,

    而驚喜看起來卻很相似。

  • but with rounded eyebrows and relaxed lips.

    但眉毛圓潤,嘴脣放鬆。

  • Sadness is indicated by the inner corners of the eyebrows

    眉毛內角有憂愁之意。

  • being drawn inwards and upwards,

    被向內、向上牽引。

  • drooping eyes,

    耷拉著眼睛。

  • and a downturned mouth.

    和一張下垂的嘴。

  • And of course there's happiness:

    當然還有幸福。

  • lips drawn up and back,

    嘴脣往上拉,往後退。

  • and raised cheeks causing wrinkling around the eyes.

    和凸起的臉頰造成眼周皺紋。

  • More recently, researchers have proposed additional entries

    最近,研究人員提出了更多的條目

  • such as contempt,

    如蔑視。

  • shame,

    恥辱。

  • and disapproval,

    和不贊成。

  • but opinions vary on how distinct boundaries

    但對於如何區分界限,眾說紛紜

  • between these categories can be drawn.

    在這些類別之間可以劃分。

  • So if Ekman and other researchers are correct,

    所以,如果埃克曼和其他研究人員是正確的。

  • what makes certain expressions universal?

    是什麼讓某些表達方式具有普遍性?

  • And why are they expressed in these particular ways?

    又為什麼要用這些特殊的方式來表達呢?

  • Scientists have a lot of theories rooted in our evolutionary history.

    科學家有很多理論植根於我們的進化史。

  • One is that certain expressions are important for survival.

    一是某些表達方式對生存很重要。

  • Fear and surprise could signal to others an immediate danger.

    恐懼和驚奇可以向他人發出緊急危險的信號。

  • Studies of humans and some other primates

    對人類和其他一些靈長類動物的研究

  • have found that we pay more attention to faces that signal threats over neutral faces,

    我們發現,我們對發出威脅信號的面孔比對中性面孔的關注度更高。

  • particularly when we're already on high alert.

    特別是當我們已經處於高度警戒狀態時。

  • Expressions also could help improve group fitness

    表達方式也可以幫助提高群體體質

  • by communicating our internal states to those around us.

    通過向周圍的人傳達我們的內心狀態。

  • Sadness, for example, signals to the group that something's wrong.

    例如,悲傷,向群體發出信號,表明有什麼問題。

  • There's some evidence that expressions

    有一些證據表明,表達式

  • might be even more directly linked to our physiology.

    可能與我們的生理學有更直接的聯繫。

  • The fear expression, for instance,

    比如說恐懼的表情。

  • could directly improve survival in potentially dangerous situations

    可以直接改善潛在危險情況下的生存狀況

  • by letting our eyes absorb more light

    通過讓我們的眼睛吸收更多的光

  • and our lungs take in more air, preparing us to fight or flee.

    我們的肺部就會吸收更多的空氣,為戰鬥或逃跑做準備。

  • There's still much research to be done in understanding emotional expression,

    在理解情感表達方面,還有很多研究工作要做。

  • particularly as we learn more about the inner workings of the brain.

    特別是當我們對大腦的內部運作有了更多的瞭解之後。

  • But if you ever find yourself among strangers in a strange land,

    但如果你發現自己在一個陌生的地方和陌生人在一起。

  • a friendly smile could go a long way.

    笑口常開

The 40 or so muscles in the human face can be activated in different combinations

人臉的40多塊肌肉可以通過不同的組合來激活。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 表達 表情 面部 嘴脣 眉毛

【TED-Ed】有共通的情緒表達嗎?(Are there universal expressions of emotion? - Sophie Zadeh)

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    shuting1215 發佈於 2018 年 07 月 08 日
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