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  • ("They carried all they could bear, and then some, including a silent awe for the terrible power of the things they carried." - Tim O'Brien, "The Things They Carried" )

    「他們負重前行,其中也包含了對於不堪沈重之生命之重的無聲畏懼。」- 提姆.歐布萊恩《負重》

  • Many of us will experience some kind of trauma during our lifetime.

    絕大多數人在一生中都會經歷某種創傷。

  • Sometimes, we escape with no long-term effects.

    有時,我們能夠徹底地走出傷痛。

  • But for millions of us, those experiences linger, causing symptoms like flashbacks, nightmares, and negative thoughts that interfere with everyday life.

    但我們之中,有幾百萬人仍在這些經歷中徘徊,造成閃回、 惡夢、干擾生活的負面想法等症狀。

  • This phenomenon called post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, isn't a personal failing.

    此症狀稱作創傷後壓力症候群,也就是PTSD,它並非是個人的墮落失敗。

  • Rather, it's a treatable malfunction of certain biological mechanisms that allow us to cope with dangerous experiences.

    而是一種可治療的人體生理機制上的故障,而這種機制能使我們處理那些危險的經歷。

  • To understand PTSD, we first need to understand how the brain processes a wide range of ordeals,

    要了解 PTSD,我們首先要知道大腦如何處理諸多磨難,

  • including the death of a loved one, domestic violence, injury or illness, abuse, rape, war, car accidents, and natural disasters.

    包括深愛之人死去、家暴、 受傷、疾病、 虐待、 強暴、 戰爭、 車禍、和自然災害 。

  • These events can bring on feelings of danger and helplessness, which activate the brain's alarm system, known as the "fight-flight-freeze" response.

    這些事件會帶來危機感和無助感,進而刺激大腦的警報系統,也就是「戰鬥或逃跑」反應。

  • When this alarm sounds, the hypothalamic, pituitary, and adrenal systemsknown as the HPA axiswork together to send signals to the autonomic nervous system.

    當這個警報響起,下丘腦、腦垂體和腎上腺系統 (統稱為 HPA 軸) 就會開始運作,並發送信號至自主神經系統。

  • That's the network that communicates with adrenal glands and internal organs to help regulate functions like heart rate, digestion, and respiration.

    也就是腎上腺與內臟間的網絡,用以調節各種身體機能,如心率、消化和呼吸。

  • These signals start a chemical cascade that floods the body with several different stress hormones, causing physiological changes that prepare the body to defend itself.

    這些信號會使體內代謝湧現,讓各種不同的壓力荷爾蒙溢滿全身,帶來生理上的改變,好讓身體做好防衛準備。

  • Our heart rate speeds up, breathing quickens, and muscles tense.

    我們的心率上升、呼吸加快、肌肉收縮。

  • Even after a crisis is over, escalated levels of stress hormones may last for days, contributing to jittery feelings, nightmares, and other symptoms.

    即使危機已過,逐步上升的壓力荷爾蒙仍可能維持數天,導致緊張不安、 惡夢及其他症狀。

  • For most people, these experiences disappear within a few days to two weeks as their hormone levels stabilize.

    對於大多數人,隨著他們的荷爾蒙指數回歸平衡,這些經歷會在數天至兩週內消失。

  • But a small percentage of those who experience trauma have persistent problems, sometimes vanishing temporarily only to resurface months later.

    但少部分經歷創傷的人仍會出現持續性問題,有時問題會暫時消失,但幾個月後又會浮出水面。

  • We don't completely understand what's happening in the brain.

    我們還不能完全了解大腦到底發生了什麼。

  • But one theory is that the stress hormone cortisol may be continuously activating the "fight-flight-freeze" response while reducing overall brain functioning, leading to a number of negative symptoms.

    但有個理論說明,患者的壓力荷爾蒙皮質醇可能會持續激發「戰鬥或逃跑反應」,使大腦整體功能下降,並帶來諸多負面症狀。

  • These symptoms often fall into four categories:

    這些症狀通常分為四類:

  • Intrusive thoughts like dreams and flashbacks.

    侵入性想法,如夢境和閃回。

  • Avoiding reminders of the trauma.

    避開令人聯想到創傷的事物。

  • Negative thoughts and feelings like fear, anger, and guilt.

    負面想法和如恐懼、怒氣和愧疚感等的情緒。

  • And reactive symptoms like irritability and difficulty sleeping.

    以及反應性症狀,如易怒和睡眠困難。

  • Not everyone has all these symptoms or experiences them to the same extent and intensity.

    並非所有人都有這些症狀,也不一定都經歷同樣的程度或強度。

  • When problems last more than a month, PTSD is often diagnosed.

    當問題持續超過一個月,通常就會被診斷為 PTSD。

  • Genetics, ongoing overwhelming stress, and many risk factors, like pre-existing mental illnesses or lack of emotional support, likely play a role in determining who will experience PTSD.

    遺傳、持續性的巨大壓力和許多風險因子,比如已有的心理疾病或是缺乏心理支持,都是患上PTSD的因素之一。

  • But the underlying cause is still a medical mystery.

    但是 PTSD 的真正成因在醫學上仍是一團謎。

  • A major challenge of coping with PTSD is sensitivity to triggersphysical and emotional stimuli that the brain associates with the original trauma.

    患者處理PTSD的一個巨大挑戰是對於觸發點(促使大腦聯想到創傷的生理及心裡刺激)的敏感度。

  • These can be everyday sensations that aren't inherently dangerous but prompt powerful physical and emotional reactions.

    這些可能是不具危脅性的日常感知,但卻會激發患者強烈的生理和情緒反應。

  • For example, the smell of a campfire could evoke the memory of being trapped in a burning house.

    舉例來說,營火的氣味可能會喚起患者被困在火場裡的回憶。

  • For someone with PTSD, that memory activates the same neurochemical cascade as the original event.

    對於有 PTSD 的人而言,那段記憶會激發和創傷當下一樣的神經化學物質的傾瀉。

  • That then stirs up the same feelings of panic and helplessness as if they're experiencing the trauma all over again.

    導致同樣的恐懼和無助感,就像再次經歷創傷一般。

  • Trying to avoid these triggers which are sometimes unpredictable can lead to isolation.

    觸發點有時是難以預測的,而試圖避開這些觸發點可能導致患者進入自我孤立狀態。

  • That can leave people feeling invalidated, ignored, or misunderstood, like a pause button has been pushed on their lives while the rest of the world continues around them.

    那會使人感到無力、被忽視或誤解,就像全世界唯獨他們的生命被按下了暫停鍵一般。

  • But there are options.

    但還是有其他選擇的。

  • If you think you might be suffering from PTSD, the first step is an evaluation with a mental health professional who can direct you towards the many resources available.

    如果認為自己可能患上了 PTSD,請先尋求心理專家進行評估,他們能指引你獲得許多可用資源。

  • Psychotherapy can be very effective for PTSD, helping patients better understand their triggers.

    心理治療能有效改善 PTSD 病人病況,幫助病患更了解自己的創傷觸發點。

  • And certain medications can make symptoms more manageable, as can self-care practices like mindfulness and regular exercise.

    特定藥物能使症狀更易於掌控,而自我康復練習,如冥想或規律運動也有幫助。

  • What if you notice signs of PTSD in a friend or family member?

    如果發現朋友或家人有 PTSD 的徵兆該怎麼做?

  • Social support, acceptance, and empathy are key to helping in recovery.

    社會支持、包容及同理心都是幫助復原的關鍵。

  • Let them know you believe their account of what they're experiencing and that you don't blame them for their reactions.

    讓他們知道,你相信他們所正在描述的經歷,並且不會因他們的反應而責怪他們。

  • If they're open to it, encourage them to seek evaluation and treatment.

    如果他們願意接受,鼓勵他們尋求評估及治療。

  • PTSD has been called "the hidden wound" because it comes without outward physical signs.

    PTSD 也被稱為「隱藏傷口」,因為它不具有外顯生理跡象。

  • But even if it's an invisible disorder, it doesn't have to be a silent one.

    但即便此病症不易察覺,也不代表它該被漠視。

  • Mental health conditions impact millions of people around the world, yet are often misunderstood.

    全球數百萬人都受到心理健康狀況影響,但常常仍飽受誤解。

  • Check out this playlist to get informed.

    查看此播放清單以獲取相關資訊。

("They carried all they could bear, and then some, including a silent awe for the terrible power of the things they carried." - Tim O'Brien, "The Things They Carried" )

「他們負重前行,其中也包含了對於不堪沈重之生命之重的無聲畏懼。」- 提姆.歐布萊恩《負重》

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B2 中高級 中文 英國腔 TED-Ed 症狀 生理 患者 荷爾蒙 壓力

【TED-Ed】 一同來認識創傷後壓力症候群,並且克服創傷! (The psychology of post-traumatic stress disorder - Joelle Rabow Maletis)

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    April Lu 發佈於 2022 年 08 月 04 日
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