A2 初級 澳洲腔 68 分類 收藏
開始影片後,點擊或框選字幕可以立即查詢單字
字庫載入中…
回報字幕錯誤
Hello. I'm Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation.
Today we're going to talk about the environment. Global warming is caused by the presence of
greenhouses gases in the atmosphere. One of the worst greenhouses gases is carbon dioxide.
We're going to look at the language of cause and effect while we find out why these greenhouses
gases are a problem.
The main problem is our use of fossil fuels. So what we've done is put the whole natural
system out of balance by digging up coal and oil that took about 200 million years to accumulate
and we're releasing it all in about 100 years. So it's put the whole system out of balance
at the moment, which has resulted in higher levels of these gases in the atmosphere.
That was Dr Roger Francey talking about the natural system. He says that the natural system
is out of balance.
He also talked about the causes and effects of this.
Listen for the main cause of the natural system being out of balance.
The main problem is our use of fossil fuels.
He says: The main problem is our use of fossil fuels.
So if we look at a table of cause and effect, we can say that the use of fossil fuels is
a cause, and the natural system out of balance is an effect.
Listen again.
The main problem is our use of fossil fuels. So what we've done is put the whole natural
system out of balance by digging up coal and oil that took about 200 million years to accumulate
and we're releasing it all in about 100 years.
So the natural system has been put out of balance by people digging up and burning coal
and oil. This releases gases into the atmosphere. Coal and oil are fossil fuels.
So if we go back to the table of cause and effect, we can say that digging up and burning
coal and oil is another cause.
See if you can hear another effect.
The main problem is our use of fossil fuels. So what we've done is put the whole natural
system out of balance by digging up coal and oil that took about 200 million years to accumulate
and we're releasing it all in about 100 years. So it's put the whole system out of balance
at the moment, which has resulted in higher levels of these gases in the atmosphere.
It's put the whole system out of balance, which has resulted in higher levels of gases
in the atmosphere.
So here, the natural system out of balance is now a cause.
It has resulted in, or caused, higher levels of gases in the atmosphere.
This is an effect.
To express these relationships, there are many different word choices.
We can use verbs like causes, leads to, results in.
So we can express the relationship like this:
A causes B A leads to B
A results in B
Listen to an example here:
The main problem is our use of fossil fuels. So it's put the whole system out of balance
at the moment, which has resulted in higher levels of these gases in the atmosphere.
Our use of fossil fuels has resulted in higher levels of gases.
But we can also express the cause/effect relationship the other way round:
Higher levels of gases are the result of our use of fossil fuels.
Notice that we use a noun phrase here. This is very common.
We can use nouns like the result, the effect, the consequence.
If we look at these effect relationships, we can say:
B is the effect of A B is the result of A
B is the consequence of A
Remember that it's always important to have a variety in your language. Make sure you
use both nouns and verbs to express causes, and effects. This will make you written work
and your speech sound more interesting.
OK, so Dr Francey and his team have designed a new way of measuring one of the worst greenhouse
gases in the earth's atmosphere: carbon dioxide.
Listen for what they're trying to find out.
We need to understand what happens in the tropics - that's where the biggest forests
are and that's where some of the biggest changes are occurring in terms of human modification
of those forests through conversion to agriculture and regular burning of these forests.
Our interest is not so much in that diurnal or daily variation. We're interested in what's
happening on time scales of days or months or years.
They are interested in what's happening over days, months or years.
Their interest is not so much in diurnal or daily variation.
The conjunction 'or' here works to connect alternative meanings.
In this sense, 'or' means that is, I mean.
We're interested in diurnal, that is daily, variation.
We're interested in diurnal, I mean daily, variation.
The second word defines the first. It tells the reader or listener what the more unfamiliar,
technical word means.
Listen again for what diurnal means.
Our interest is not so much in that diurnal or daily variation.
He says diurnal or daily.
Diurnal means daily.
See if you can work out the meaning of CO2 here.
One of the main causes of global warming is CO2, or carbon dioxide.
CO2 or carbon dioxide
CO2 is carbon dioxide
When you're looking at environmental issues, like global warming and greenhouses gases,
it's often necessary to be familiar these kinds of chemical terms.
You should try to learn the more common ones, like CO2.
You might want to keep a copy of the periodic table in your notebook. That's the list of
all chemical elements and their abbreviations.
Here are some of them:
hydrogen is H but helium is He
Notice that with abbreviations of elements, the first letter is always a capital, and
the others are always small.
See if you can guess these ones:
oxygen that's O
and carbon is C. But they're not always that easy:
lead is Pb
and sodium is Na
OK, now let's listen to Dr Francey talk about the new CO2 measuring device.
Then we'll look at the names of countries and nationalities.
There's been interest from Korea, Japan, France and Malaysia, where the analyser could be
installed on a 100metre tower on the island of Borneo.
She says there's been interest in their device from Korea, Japan, France and Malaysia.
It's important to learn and recognise the English names of the major countries of the
world, their nationalities, and how to spell and pronounce these.
It's a good vocabulary exercise to make lists of these families of words.
To help you remember them, try grouping countries according to how the nationalities are formed.
Notice that they're all spelt with capital letters.
We have the -an group:
Australia, Australian
Korea, Korean
Malaysia, Malaysian
Fiji, Fijian
We have the -ese group:
Japan, Japanese
China, Chinese
Vietnam, Vietnamese
Then there's the -i group:
Bangladesh, Bangladeshi
Kuwait, Kuwaiti
And some nationalities are formed in an irregular way:
France, French
New Zealand, New Zealander
Philippines, Filipino
And watch the change in spelling with that one!
Why don't you start your own list of English names for countries and their people. Some
countries also take separate adjectives that you can learn along with them.
And that's all for Study English today.
I'll see you next time. Bye bye.
提示:點選文章或是影片下面的字幕單字,可以直接快速翻譯喔!

載入中…

温室气体 (Study English - Series 1, Episode 6: Greenhouse Gases)

68 分類 收藏
大呆危 發佈於 2018 年 6 月 25 日
看更多推薦影片
  1. 1. 單字查詢

    在字幕上選取單字即可即時查詢單字喔!

  2. 2. 單句重複播放

    可重複聽取一句單句,加強聽力!

  3. 3. 使用快速鍵

    使用影片快速鍵,讓學習更有效率!

  4. 4. 關閉語言字幕

    進階版練習可關閉字幕純聽英文哦!

  5. 5. 內嵌播放器

    可以將英文字幕學習播放器內嵌到部落格等地方喔

  6. 6. 展開播放器

    可隱藏右方全文及字典欄位,觀看影片更舒適!

  1. 英文聽力測驗

    挑戰字幕英文聽力測驗!

  1. 點擊展開筆記本讓你看的更舒服

  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔