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  • When I was in the fifth grade,

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Yanyan Hong

  • I bought an issue of "DC Comics Presents #57"

    我五年級的時候,

  • off of a spinner rack at my local bookstore,

    我從當地書店的旋轉架上買下了

  • and that comic book changed my life.

    《DC Comics Presents》 (漫畫)第 57 期,

  • The combination of words and pictures did something inside my head

    那本漫畫書改變了我的人生。

  • that had never been done before,

    文字和圖畫的組合, 在我的腦中產生了某種效應,

  • and I immediately fell in love with the medium of comics.

    那是前所未有的,

  • I became a voracious comic book reader,

    我馬上就愛上了漫畫的表現方式。

  • but I never brought them to school.

    我變成了狼吞虎嚥級的 漫畫書讀者,

  • Instinctively, I knew that comic books didn't belong in the classroom.

    但我從未帶它們去學校。

  • My parents definitely were not fans,

    我直覺地知道

  • and I was certain that my teachers wouldn't be either.

    漫畫書並不屬於教室。

  • After all, they never used them to teach,

    我父母肯定不是漫畫書迷,

  • comic books and graphic novels were never allowed during silent sustained reading,

    我很確定我的老師們也不會是。

  • and they were never sold at our annual book fair.

    畢竟,他們從來沒有 用漫畫書來教書,

  • Even so, I kept reading comics,

    在默讀課程中,從來就不允許 選讀漫畫書和圖像小說,

  • and I even started making them.

    在年度的書展也不會販售它們。

  • Eventually I became a published cartoonist,

    即使如此,我仍持續閱讀漫畫書,

  • writing and drawing comic books for a living.

    我甚至開始畫漫畫。

  • I also became a high school teacher.

    最終,我變成了 有作品出版的漫畫家,

  • This is where I taught:

    靠寫和畫漫畫書維生。

  • Bishop O'Dowd High School in Oakland, California.

    我也成了一名高中教師。

  • I taught a little bit of math and a little bit of art,

    這是我教書的地方:

  • but mostly computer science,

    加州奧克蘭的主教奥多德高中。

  • and I was there for 17 years.

    我教一點點數學和一點點藝術,

  • When I was a brand new teacher,

    但主要是教資訊科學,

  • I tried bringing comic books into my classroom.

    我已經在那裡教了 17 年。

  • I remember telling my students on the first day of every class

    當我還是新老師時,

  • that I was also a cartoonist.

    我試圖把漫畫書帶到我的教室裡。

  • It wasn't so much that I was planning to teach them with comics,

    我記得,我在每堂課的 第一天就告訴學生

  • it was more that I was hoping comics would make them think that I was cool.

    我也是漫畫家。

  • (Laughter)

    重點不是我打算用漫畫來教導他們,

  • I was wrong.

    重點比較在於,我希望 漫畫會讓他們覺得我很酷。

  • This was the '90s,

    (笑聲)

  • so comic books didn't have the cultural cachet that they do today.

    我錯了。

  • My students didn't think I was cool. They thought I was kind of a dork.

    這是 90 年代,

  • And even worse, when stuff got hard in my class,

    漫畫書不像現今有受到文化認可。

  • they would use comic books as a way of distracting me.

    我的學生並沒有覺得我很酷。 他們覺得我是某種呆子。

  • They would raise their hands and ask me questions like,

    更糟的是,當我在課堂上 教比較難的內容時,

  • "Mr. Yang, who do you think would win in a fight,

    他們會用漫畫書來當作 讓我分心的方式。

  • Superman or the Hulk?"

    他們會舉手並問我像這樣的問題:

  • (Laughter)

    「楊老師,你認為若超人和浩克

  • I very quickly realized I had to keep my teaching and my cartooning separate.

    對打,誰會贏?」

  • It seemed like my instincts in fifth grade were correct.

    (笑聲)

  • Comic books didn't belong in the classroom.

    我很快就發現, 我得把教學和漫畫給切割開。

  • But again, I was wrong.

    我五年級時的直覺似乎是正確的。

  • A few years into my teaching career,

    漫畫書不屬於教室。

  • I learned firsthand the educational potential of comics.

    但,我又錯了。

  • One semester, I was asked to sub for this Algebra 2 class.

    我的教學職涯開始了幾年之後,

  • I was asked to long-term sub it, and I said yes, but there was a problem.

    我親身體會到漫畫的教育潛力。

  • At the time, I was also the school's educational technologist,

    有一個學期,我擔任 「代數 2」的代課老師。

  • which meant every couple of weeks

    學校希望我長期代課, 我說好,但有個問題。

  • I had to miss one or two periods of this Algebra 2 class

    那時,我也是學校的 教育科學技術人員,

  • because I was in another classroom helping another teacher

    意思就是說,每幾個星期,

  • with a computer-related activity.

    我就無法上一到兩堂 這門「代數 2」的課,

  • For these Algebra 2 students, that was terrible.

    因為那個時段我會 在其他教室協助其他老師

  • I mean, having a long-term sub is bad enough,

    進行電腦相關的活動。

  • but having a sub for your sub? That's the worst.

    對於「代數 2」的學生來說, 這是很糟的狀況。

  • In an effort to provide some sort of consistency for my students,

    我是指,有長期的 代課老師已經夠糟了,

  • I began videotaping myself giving lectures.

    但還有代課老師的 代課老師?那更糟。

  • I'd then give these videos to my sub to play for my students.

    為了給我的學生能有某種一致性,

  • I tried to make these videos as engaging as possible.

    我開始把我自己 教課的過程拍攝下來。

  • I even included these little special effects.

    接著我會把這些影片給我的 代課老師,放給我的學生看。

  • For instance, after I finished a problem on the board,

    我試著讓這些影片 盡可能有互動性和吸引力。

  • I'd clap my hands,

    我甚至加入了一些小小的特效。

  • and the board would magically erase.

    比如,當我在黑板上 解完了一個問題,

  • (Laughter)

    我會拍手,

  • I thought it was pretty awesome.

    然後黑板就會 魔法般地自動擦乾淨。

  • I was pretty certain that my students would love it,

    (笑聲)

  • but I was wrong.

    我覺得那樣很棒。

  • (Laughter)

    我很確定我的學生會喜歡,

  • These video lectures were a disaster.

    但我錯了。

  • I had students coming up to me and saying things like,

    (笑聲)

  • "Mr. Yang, we thought you were boring in person,

    影片教學是場災難。

  • but on video, you are just unbearable."

    有學生來找我,說這樣的話:

  • (Laughter)

    「楊老師,我們以為 你本人已經夠無趣了,

  • So as a desperate second attempt, I began drawing these lectures as comics.

    但在影片中, 你實在讓人忍無可忍。」

  • I'd do these very quickly with very little planning.

    (笑聲)

  • I'd just take a sharpie, draw one panel after the other,

    我做了絕望的第二次嘗試, 我開始把教學畫成漫畫。

  • figuring out what I wanted to say as I went.

    我沒做什麼計畫, 只用很短的時間完成它。

  • These comics lectures would come out

    我只是拿起一枝 Sharpie 筆, 一張又一張畫下去,

  • to anywhere between four and six pages long,

    一邊畫一邊想接下來 我想要說什麼。

  • I'd xerox these, give them to my sub to hand to my students.

    完成的漫畫教學

  • And much to my surprise,

    長度在四到六頁長。

  • these comics lectures were a hit.

    我會影印它們,拿給我的 代課老師,轉交給我的學生。

  • My students would ask me to make these for them

    出乎我的意料,

  • even when I could be there in person.

    這些漫畫教學大受歡迎。

  • It was like they liked cartoon me more than actual me.

    我的學生希望我能畫更多,

  • (Laughter)

    即使是我不用請代課的時候。

  • This surprised me, because my students are part of a generation

    彷彿他們喜歡卡通的我 勝過真正的我。

  • that was raised on screens,

    (笑聲)

  • so I thought for sure they would like learning from a screen

    這讓我很驚訝, 因為我的學生是屬於

  • better than learning from a page.

    看螢幕長大的世代,

  • But when I talked to my students

    我以為他們肯定會 比較喜歡從螢幕上學習,

  • about why they liked these comics lectures so much,

    多於從頁面上學習。

  • I began to understand the educational potential of comics.

    但當我和我的學生談到

  • First, unlike their math textbooks,

    他們為什麼這麼 喜歡這些漫畫教學時,

  • these comics lectures taught visually.

    我開始了解到漫畫的教育潛力。

  • Our students grow up in a visual culture,

    首先,不像他們的數學教科書,

  • so they're used to taking in information that way.

    這些漫畫教學以「視覺」方式呈現。

  • But unlike other visual narratives,

    我們的學生生長在視覺文化當中,

  • like film or television or animation or video,

    他們很習慣用那種方式 來取得資訊。

  • comics are what I call permanent.

    但不像其他視覺型的敘事方式,

  • In a comic, past, present and future all sit side by side on the same page.

    比如電影、電視、動畫,或影片,

  • This means that the rate of information flow

    漫畫是我所謂「永久的」。

  • is firmly in the hands of the reader.

    在漫畫中,過去、現在,和未來 都能肩併肩出現在同一張頁面上。

  • When my students didn't understand something in my comics lecture,

    那就表示資訊流的速度

  • they could just reread that passage as quickly or as slowly as they needed.

    是讀者自己能完全掌控的。

  • It was like I was giving them a remote control over the information.

    如果我的漫畫教學中 有某些東西我的學生不了解,

  • The same was not true of my video lectures,

    他們可以重讀那一段, 要快要慢就看他們的需求。

  • and it wasn't even true of my in-person lectures.

    就像是我給了他們 一個搖控器可以控制那些資訊。

  • When I speak, I deliver the information as quickly or slowly as I want.

    我的影片教學就不是如此了,

  • So for certain students and certain kinds of information,

    連我親自去做的教學也不是如此。

  • these two aspects of the comics medium, its visual nature and its permanence,

    當我說話時,我依照我想要的 快慢速度將資訊傳遞出去。

  • make it an incredibly powerful educational tool.

    所以,對某些學生 及某些種類的資訊而言,

  • When I was teaching this Algebra 2 class,

    漫畫媒材的這兩個面向, 視覺性的本質以及永久性,

  • I was also working on my master's in education at Cal State East Bay.

    讓它成為非常強大的教育工具。

  • And I was so intrigued by this experience that I had with these comics lectures

    當我在教「代數 2」的課時,

  • that I decided to focus my final master's project on comics.

    我同時也在加州州立大學 東灣分校攻讀教育碩士學位。

  • I wanted to figure out why American educators

    因為漫畫教學帶給我的 這項經驗讓我大感好奇,

  • have historically been so reluctant to use comic books in their classrooms.

    我決定我碩士學位的最後一個 專案計畫就要用這個題材。

  • Here's what I discovered.

    我希望能探究為什麼美國的教育家

  • Comic books first became a mass medium in the 1940s,

    在歷史上一直不願意 把漫畫書用在教室中。

  • with millions of copies selling every month,

    我的發現如下。

  • and educators back then took notice.

    漫畫書最早是在 40 年代 變成大眾媒體,

  • A lot of innovative teachers began bringing comics into their classrooms

    每個月可以銷售出數百萬本,

  • to experiment.

    那時的教育家有注意到此事。

  • In 1944, the "Journal of Educational Sociology"

    許多創新的老師開始 把漫畫帶到他們的教室中,

  • even devoted an entire issue to this topic.

    來做實驗。

  • Things seemed to be progressing.

    1944 年,《教育社會學雜誌》

  • Teachers were starting to figure things out.

    甚至有一期全部都在談這個主題。

  • But then along comes this guy.

    一切似乎都在進展中。

  • This is child psychologist Dr. Fredric Wertham,

    老師開始想出很多點子。

  • and in 1954, he wrote a book called "Seduction of the Innocent,"

    但隨著漫畫,也出現了一個人。

  • where he argues that comic books cause juvenile delinquency.

    弗雷德里克魏特漢 (Fredric Wertham)醫生,

  • (Laughter)

    他是位兒童心理學家,

  • He was wrong.

    1954 年,他寫了一本書, 書名叫《誘惑無辜》,

  • Now, Dr. Wertham was actually a pretty decent guy.

    書中,他指出漫畫書 會造成青少年犯罪。

  • He spent most of his career working with juvenile delinquents,

    (笑聲)

  • and in his work he noticed that most of his clients read comic books.

    他錯了。

  • What Dr. Wertham failed to realize was in the 1940s and '50s,

    魏特漢醫生其實是個很好的人。

  • almost every kid in America read comic books.

    他職涯的大部分時間 都在處理青少年犯罪問題,

  • Dr. Wertham does a pretty dubious job of proving his case,

    在他的研究中,他發現 他大部分的客戶都會看漫畫書。

  • but his book does inspire the Senate of the United States

    魏特漢醫生沒有了解一件事, 在 40 及 50 年代,

  • to hold a series of hearings

    幾乎美國的每個小孩都會看漫畫書。

  • to see if in fact comic books caused juvenile delinquency.

    魏特漢醫生未清楚地證明他的論點,

  • These hearings lasted for almost two months.

    但他的書確實造成美國的參議院

  • They ended inconclusively, but not before doing tremendous damage

    進行了一連串的聽證會,

  • to the reputation of comic books in the eyes of the American public.

    來探討漫畫書是否 真的會造成青少年犯罪。

  • After this, respectable American educators all backed away,

    這些聽證會前後持續了幾乎兩個月。

  • and they stayed away for decades.

    最後結果並不確定, 但已經重重地傷害了

  • It wasn't until the 1970s

    漫畫書在美國大眾眼中的名聲。

  • that a few brave souls started making their way back in.

    這件事之後,受尊敬的 美國教育家通通都退縮了,

  • And it really wasn't until pretty recently,

    數十年來,他們一直保持距離。

  • maybe the last decade or so,

    一直到 70 年代,

  • that comics have seen more widespread acceptance

    有少數幾個勇敢的人 開始重新回到這條路上。

  • among American educators.

    但一直要到近期,

  • Comic books and graphic novels are now finally making their way

    也許是大約前十年,

  • back into American classrooms

    漫畫才比較被美國教育家

  • and this is even happening at Bishop O'Dowd, where I used to teach.

    廣為接受。

  • Mr. Smith, one of my former colleagues,

    漫畫書和圖像小說終於重新回到

  • uses Scott McCloud's "Understanding Comics"

    美國的教室中,

  • in his literature and film class, because that book gives his students

    甚至發生在我以前教書的 主教奥多德高中。

  • the language with which to discuss the relationship between words and images.

    我的一位前同事,史密斯老師,

  • Mr. Burns assigns a comics essay to his students every year.

    把斯科特麥克勞德的 《漫畫原來要這樣看》

  • By asking his students to process a prose novel using images,

    用在他的文學與電影課, 因為那本書能提供他的學生

  • Mr. Burns asks them to think deeply

    一種可以用來討論 文字和影像之間關係的語言。

  • not just about the story

    柏恩斯老師每年都會指派 漫畫短文作業給他的學生,

  • but also about how that story is told.

    要求學生用影像來處理散文小說,

  • And Ms. Murrock uses my own "American Born Chinese"

    要他們深思,

  • with her English 1 students.

    不只深思故事本身,

  • For her, graphic novels

    還有說故事的方式。

  • are a great way of fulfilling a Common Core Standard.

    莫拉克老師用我自己 寫的《美生中國人》

  • The Standard states that students ought to be able to analyze

    來教她「英語 1」的學生。

  • how visual elements contribute to the meaning, tone and beauty of a text.

    對她來說,圖像小說

  • Over in the library, Ms. Counts has built a pretty impressive

    是一種很棒的方式, 可以履行「共同核心標準」。

  • graphic novel collection for Bishop O'Dowd.

    該標準所說的是, 學生應該要能分析

  • Now, Ms. Counts and all of her librarian colleagues

    視覺性元素對於一段文字的意義、 調性,以及美有什麼貢獻。

  • have really been at the forefront of comics advocacy,

    康茲老師為主教奥多德高中建立了

  • really since the early '80s, when a school library journal article

    很了不起的圖像小說圖書館館藏。

  • stated that the mere presence of graphic novels in the library

    康茲老師和她所有的圖書館同事

  • increased usage by about 80 percent

    都真的一直在最前線擁護漫畫,

  • and increased the circulation of noncomics material

    80 年代初期,有一篇學校 圖書館期刊的文章指出

  • by about 30 percent.

    光是在圖書館中出現 圖像小說這件事,

  • Inspired by this renewed interest from American educators,

    就讓使用率提升了約 80%,

  • American cartoonists are now producing more explicitly educational content

    也讓非漫畫素材的流通率

  • for the K-12 market than ever before.

    增加 30%。

  • A lot of this is directed at language arts,

    因為美國教育家 再次對漫畫產生興趣,

  • but more and more comics and graphic novels

    美國漫畫家受到鼓舞, 現在製作出了比以前更多專門為

  • are starting to tackle math and science topics.

    幼稚園、小學、 中學教育設計的內容。

  • STEM comics graphics novels really are like this uncharted territory,

    當中許多內容是針對語言藝術題材,

  • ready to be explored.

    但也有越來越多漫畫和圖像小說

  • America is finally waking up to the fact

    開始處理數學和科學的主題。

  • that comic books do not cause juvenile delinquency.

    科學、科技、工程,和數學的 圖像小說就像是未知的領域,

  • (Laughter)

    已經準備好被探索。

  • That they really do belong in every educator's toolkit.

    美國終於意識到

  • There's no good reason to keep comic books and graphic novels

    漫畫書並不會造成青少年犯罪。

  • out of K-12 education.

    (笑聲)

  • They teach visually,

    它們確實屬於每位教育者的工具包。

  • they give our students that remote control.

    沒有任何好理由要阻擋 漫畫書和圖像小說進入

  • The educational potential is there

    幼稚園、小學、中學教育。

  • just waiting to be tapped

    它們能以視覺方式教學,

  • by creative people like you.

    它們給予學生那種遙控器。

  • Thank you.

    教育潛力就在那裡,

  • (Applause)

    只等待著被像各位這樣的

When I was in the fifth grade,

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Yanyan Hong

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 漫畫 漫畫書 老師 學生 小說

TED】楊根聯:漫畫屬於課堂 (漫畫屬於課堂|楊根聯) (【TED】Gene Luen Yang: Comics belong in the classroom (Comics belong in the classroom | Gene Luen Yang))

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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