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  • (gentle music)

    (柔和的音樂)

  • - [Voiceover] Most of us know Pixar as the established

    (旁白) 我們大部分只知道皮克斯

  • dominating animation studio that it is today,

    是現今的當紅動畫公司

  • responsible for some of the greatest

    做出了許多當今

  • animated movies of our time.

    最成功的動畫電影

  • But the truth is that this massively successful studio

    但事實是,這大獲成功的工作室

  • came from a very humble beginnings.

    一開始規模其實很小

  • In fact, on it's first few years

    事實上,在開始的前幾年

  • the studio was constantly on the verge of bankruptcy,

    工作室經常在破產邊緣

  • losing millions of dollars

    損失了上百萬元

  • even after the success of Toy Story.

    即使是在玩具總動員的成功之後

  • In this video I'll tell you the story behind Pixar

    這部影片裡,我會告訴你皮克斯幕後的故事

  • and how founding it was made possible thanks

    以及三個非常不同的人運用

  • to three very different people

    各自不同的才能去

  • with very different talents.

    創建皮克斯

  • (popping)

    (突然出現)

  • (rhythmic techno music)

    (有節奏的技術音效)

  • The story of how Pixar came to be

    皮克斯的由來

  • revolves around three major players,

    圍繞在主要三個人

  • an artist,

    一個藝術家

  • a scientist,

    一個科學家

  • and a businessman.

    和一個生意人

  • All three working together yet separately

    他們三個人雖然是同事但是卻各自獨立運作

  • to one day find each other and create something amazing.

    直到某一天他們找到彼此並創造了美好的東西

  • The artist of this story is a guy

    故事裡的藝術家是個男人

  • named John Lasseter.

    叫作 John Lasseter

  • You've probably heard that name.

    你可能聽過他的名字

  • John would become an Academy Award winning director

    John 是奧斯卡獲獎導演

  • responsible for some of Pixar's greatest films

    負責了許多皮克斯最佳動畫片

  • including Toy Story.

    包括玩具總動員

  • But back in 1975 he was a freshman

    回溯到 1975 年,他仍是加州藝術學院裡

  • at a brand new program at CalArts

    新學程的新生

  • learning Disney style animation.

    他學習迪士尼風格的動畫

  • The program was taught by industry legends

    這個學程是由產業裡的傳奇人物授課的

  • including some of Disney's Nine Old Men.

    包括來自迪士尼的九大元老

  • His classmates included Tim Burton and Brad Bird

    他的同學包括了提姆波頓和布拉德·伯德

  • who would later become prolific filmmakers themselves.

    他們日後都成為電影人並創造出許多電影

  • This was a very exciting and creative environment

    對於學動畫的學生而言,這是個令人興奮

  • for an animation student.

    且具有創造力的學習環境

  • During his time at CalArts John created

    當他就學於加州藝術學院時

  • two student Academy Award winning films

    他獲得了兩部美國電影藝術學生獎

  • and after graduation he got his dream job,

    而在畢業之後他拿到了他的夢想工作

  • he was hired by the Walt Disney Animation Studios.

    他被迪士尼動畫公司聘請

  • (dramatic music)

    (戲劇化的音樂)

  • During his time at Disney working as an animator

    作為動畫師任職於迪士尼時

  • he stumbled upon computer animation.

    他偶然碰到了電腦動畫

  • He had an idea for making an animated film

    他便有了個點子想去做一部動畫片

  • using computer graphics for the environment

    並用電腦繪圖去製作他的背景

  • and pencil animation for the characters.

    而用鉛筆去繪製它的腳色

  • He pitched that idea to Disney executives

    他向迪士尼的執行委員們提出這個想法

  • and they told him,

    但他們告訴他

  • "The only reason we would consider

    「當我們考慮使用電腦技術做動畫時」

  • "using computer for animation

    「唯一的理由是」

  • "is if it will make it faster or cheaper."

    「他能更快速且便宜地做出動畫」

  • Shortly after that pitch John was fired from the studio.

    在 John 提出他的想法後不久,他被工作室開除了

  • At about the same time George Lucas

    在同一時間,George Lucas

  • hired a guy named Ed Catmull

    聘請了一個人叫 Ed Catmull

  • to develop a film editing system

    去開發一個電影剪輯的系統

  • and digital sound editing system,

    還有數位音效的剪輯系統

  • all to advance the computer graphics

    這一切都是為了推進電腦繪圖技術

  • and create ground breaking visual effects for his films.

    並為他的電影創造一個突破性的視覺效果

  • Ed Catmull grew up loving animation,

    Ed Catmull 從小就熱愛動畫片

  • watching cartoons and all Disney films

    他整個童年看了無數的卡通

  • his entire childhood.

    以及迪士尼動畫片

  • He gave up his dream of becoming an animator,

    他放棄追求成為動畫師的夢想

  • thinking he wasn't good enough

    認為自己不夠好

  • and pursued a career in science.

    而追求了科學領域的職業

  • He studied computer science in the University of Utah

    他在猶他大學主修了電腦科學

  • where he earned his doctorate and has made

    他獲得了他的博士學位

  • ground breaking work in the field of computer imagery.

    並在電腦繪圖的領域做出了開創性的創舉

  • He was then asked to run the computer graphics lab

    他被紐約理工大學邀請去

  • in the New York Institute of technology.

    經營電腦成像實驗室

  • Ed was a brilliant scientist responsible for some

    Ed 是位傑出的科學家,他做出了

  • of the most commonly used principles of computer animation

    許多廣為人知的電腦動畫的基本理念

  • such as Z-buffer,

    像是 Z 缓存

  • texture mapping,

    紋理映射

  • and subdivision surfaces.

    和细分曲面

  • He basically invented 3D graphics as we know it.

    基本上就是他創造了我們當今所知的 3D 繪圖技術

  • While working at Lucas Films

    當他在盧卡斯影業工作時

  • Ed asked John to join his division

    在一場企業聚會時,

  • after meeting him at an industry event.

    Ed 問 John 是否願意加入他的公司

  • Nothing having the same dream of one day

    他們倆人都有同樣的夢想

  • making the first computer animated feature film.

    有一天要做出第一部電腦繪製的動畫長片

  • The two hit it off right away,

    他們倆一拍即合

  • but at that time,

    但是在那個年代

  • 1983,

    1983 年

  • that dream was still far away.

    他們的夢想仍離他們很遠

  • (lighthearted music)

    (輕快的音樂)

  • That division in Lucas Films,

    他們在盧卡斯影業的部門

  • then called the Computer Graphics Division,

    叫做電腦圖像部門

  • produced some of the most revolutionary

    在當時,它為電影製造了許多

  • uses of computer imagery in films for that time.

    創新的電腦圖樣

  • They produced the first completely computer generated

    在《星艦迷航記 II:星戰大怒吼》裡,他們創造了第一個景

  • scene in Star Trek Wrath of Khan

    全部由電腦製成

  • and the first computer generated character

    並在年少時的夏洛克·福爾摩斯

  • for Young Sherlock Holmes.

    做了第一個電腦繪成的腳色

  • Within that small division John made the world's

    在這小部門裡,John 創造了

  • first animated short film using computer animation,

    世界第一個電腦繪製的動畫短片:

  • The Adventures of Andre and Wally B.

    安德鲁和威利的冒险

  • Creating such complex imagery required building

    創造有複雜圖像的短片

  • a powerful custom made computer.

    他需要打造一個厲害的客製化電腦

  • That computer was called the Pixar Image Computer.

    這部電腦叫做 Pixar Image Computer

  • Because of the high demand for computer imagery

    因為對於電腦圖像的高需求

  • and advanced computer graphics in other industries

    以及其他產業所需的先進電腦繪圖技術

  • the computer graphics division was reimagined as Pixar.

    電腦圖像部門被重新定義為皮克斯

  • Still dreaming on making a computer animated

    Ed 仍夢想製作一部電腦繪製的

  • full length feature,

    標準長度的劇情片

  • a dream George Lucas had no interest in,

    這是個理念 George Lucas 沒興趣參與

  • Ed looked for an investor to find

    Ed 尋找投資者去

  • such a huge undertaking.

    資助這龐大的責任

  • But for a long time there were no takers.

    但很長一段時間,都沒有任何投資者

  • Meanwhile at Cupertino,

    此時在庫比蒂諾

  • Steve Jobs who was recently fired from Apple

    史蒂芬·賈伯斯剛被蘋果開除

  • founded his next company called,

    並成立了他的下一個公司

  • well, NeXT.

    叫 NeXT 軟件公司

  • Steve was one of the prospect investors

    史蒂芬是其中一個最有前景的投資者

  • called to take a look at Pixar

    他被邀請來看一看皮克斯

  • and he decided to invest.

    最後他決定投資皮克斯

  • He bought Pixar from George Lucas for five million dollars,

    他用五百萬美金從盧卡斯影業買下皮克斯

  • throwing an additional five million

    並額外投入了五百萬給皮克斯

  • to keep the company running.

    去讓公司運行

  • After the acquisition the team wanted

    被收購之後,團隊希望

  • to make another animated short to establish who they were

    製作另一部動畫短片好建立他們的立足點

  • and stay on the track of filmmaking.

    並與影視業與時並進

  • John, who loved animating inanimate objects,

    熱愛繪製靜止物件的 John

  • single handedly animated a short film

    獨立操刀了一部動畫短片

  • about a lamp and it's offspring titled,

    是一部關於檯燈與他的孩子

  • Luxo Junior.

    片名是頑皮跳跳燈

  • That short film was later nominated

    這部短片之後被學院獎提名

  • for an Academy Award and was the first

    而這是第一部

  • computer generated short to ever receive that nomination.

    被提名的動畫短片

  • The lamp from that film then became Pixar's mascot.

    從這部短片開始,這個檯燈成為了皮克斯的吉祥物

  • Despite the massive potential though,

    雖然他們極度擁有潛能

  • Pixar was still struggling.

    但皮克斯仍在苦苦奮鬥

  • They were licensing their rendering software.

    他們為他們的渲染器授權為

  • RenderMan,

    RenderMan

  • which became the industry standard

    它之後成為展業內的標準

  • for visual effects in films used in major pictures

    被許多當紅電影用來製作視覺特效

  • such as Jurassic Park.

    像是侏儸紀公園就使用了它的技術

  • But despite that they still couldn't turn a profit.

    但即使如此,皮克斯仍未因此而獲益

  • They started doing commercials,

    他們開始做廣告

  • getting clients like Trident and Tropicana.

    他們接收委託像是 Trident 和 Tropicana

  • They did medical visualization,

    他們做了醫學成像

  • seismic imaging,

    也做了地震成像

  • they sold their hardware,

    他們賣了他們的硬體設備

  • the Pixar Image Computer, which was very expensive.

    即 Pixar Image Computer,對當時而言相當昂貴

  • Yet with all their effort they couldn't make

    然而,他們所有的努力仍然沒辦法

  • their product commercially viable enough

    讓他們的產品賺取商業利益

  • to sustain themselves.

    去支持他們自己

  • Steve Jobs was losing about one million dollars

    賈伯斯每年損失了將近一百萬

  • every year for five years.

    這持續了五年

  • The dire financial problems didn't stop the team

    這迫切的經濟問題並沒有阻擋他們

  • from making more computer animated shorts.

    去製作更多電腦繪製的動畫

  • Their third film,

    他們的第三部動畫

  • Tin Toy,

    小錫兵

  • telling the story of toys trying to escape

    講述一個故事關於玩具們試著逃脫

  • a terrifying baby won the Academy Award in 1988.

    一個可怕的寶寶,而這贏得了 1988 年的學院獎

  • Disney, who not that long ago before had fired John,

    不久前開除 John 的迪士尼

  • saw the success of his shorts and asked him to come back

    看見他短片的成功並邀請他回來

  • and direct a feature film for them.

    為他們導一部劇情片

  • This was a life long dream for John

    對於 John 來說,這是他長久以來的夢想

  • and he was currently working on a company

    而他正任職於一個

  • on the brink of bankruptcy.

    正在面臨破產的公司

  • Yet he refused Disney

    然而,他拒絕了迪士尼的邀約

  • and he stayed with Pixar

    決定待在皮克斯

  • still dreaming to make the first

    仍夢想著製作第一部

  • computer animated feature film.

    電腦繪製的長篇劇情片

  • (subdued music)

    (漸弱的音效)

  • After the success of Tin Toy

    在小錫兵的成功後

  • the idea of an entire film from the toy's point of view

    從玩具的角度去講一整部片的點子

  • stuck with them.

    仍被他們惦記著

  • And despite refusing Disney not too long beforehand,

    雖然不久前才拒絕了迪士尼的邀約

  • he knew that if he wanted to make a fully length film

    他知道如果他想要製作一個完整的長篇動畫

  • they would need the financial support of a larger studio

    身為大型的工作室,他們會需要經濟上的贊助

  • for marketing and distribution.

    去行銷與發送

  • Disney was the perfect candidate.

    迪士尼是個完美的候選

  • He pitched them the idea and they loved it.

    他提出他的想法而他們也喜歡

  • At that time animated feature had only one style,

    在那個時候,動畫電影只有一個風格

  • the Disney style.

    就是迪士尼的風格

  • That style was so established that when Tom Hanks

    他們的風格創立於當湯姆漢克斯

  • was asked to do the voice for the film he asked,

    被邀約去為他們的電影配音而問的問題

  • "You're not gonna make me sing, are ya?"

    「你們不會逼我唱歌吧?對嗎?」

  • But the people at Pixar wanted to do it differently.

    但是,皮克斯想嘗試不同的事

  • They had a set of rules they set for themselves.

    他們訂立了一些規則給自己

  • There would be no songs.

    他們不會有歌曲

  • Mister I'll make a man

    「要成為男子漢」

  • Out of you

    「不認輸」

  • No "I want" moment.

    不會有「我想要」的獨白

  • ♫ I want to be where the people are

    「我想要到人類生活的地方」

  • No happy village.

    沒有快樂的村莊

  • Bojour

    「早安」

  • Bojour

    「早安」

  • Bojour, Bojour, Bojour

    「早安!早安!早安!」

  • No love story.

    沒有愛情故事

  • Can you feel the love

    「妳感受到愛了嗎?」

  • And no villain.

    沒有反派

  • This went against everything that was

    這違背了所有當時

  • proving to be working in the animation industry at the time.

    動畫產業證明可運性的特點

  • Despite their drive to do something different

    即使如此,他們仍想做些不同的事

  • Disney executives were at their backs

    有迪士尼的執行委員在他們背後撐腰

  • giving them notes and ideas.

    給他們提點以及點子

  • They were the experienced studio,

    他們是有經驗的工作室

  • they though they knew what makes animated films work.

    他們認為自己知道該如何製作動畫片

  • After a year of preparation,

    經過數年的準備

  • working on story boards and story reels,

    在迪士尼的引導下準備畫面分鏡劇本和故事版

  • guided by Disney they screened the pitch

    他們播出了他們的影片

  • of what would later become Toy Story.

    這之後便成為了玩具總動員

  • Disney hated it.

    迪士尼討厭這影片

  • It wasn't funny,

    他們覺得這不好笑

  • it wasn't moving,

    也不感人

  • Woody was a horrible character.

    胡迪是個討厭的腳色

  • The film was clearly not working,

    這電影明顯沒辦法行銷

  • Disney shut down production the next day.

    隔天迪士尼便終止了他們的製作

  • (lighthearted music)

    (輕鬆的音樂)

  • This could have been the end for Pixar.

    這可能會是皮克斯的終點

  • However, John did not give up

    但是 John 沒有放棄對於

  • on the story he believed in.

    這故事的信念

  • Within a period of three weeks

    三週內

  • with a talented yet small team

    他與一組能幹的小組

  • he completely re-did the story like originally he wanted to

    他全部重做他的故事並改為他原本設想的電影

  • without all the notes and ideas

    屏除了經驗老到的迪士尼執行委員們的

  • from experienced Disney executives.

    提點與意見

  • They had a second screening

    他們有了第二次試映會

  • and this time the story worked,

    而這次有所成效了

  • production was back on track.

    製作再次回到正軌

  • The film took almost five years to make,

    這部電影花了將近五年去做

  • and in 1995 it was released to become

    在 1955 年,他的上映

  • the highest grossing film of that year,

    成為了當年最高票房的電影

  • making 192 million dollars domestically

    國內賺了 1.92 億

  • and 362 million dollars worldwide.

    海外賺了 3.62 億元

  • The film got three Oscar nominations

    這部電影獲得了三座奧斯卡提名

  • and John received a special achievement award

    John 因為製作了第一部電腦繪製的劇情片

  • for making the first computer animated feature film.

    而獲得了特別成就獎

  • It seemed that Pixar was is the clear,

    看來皮克斯完全沒問題了

  • the studio was now a success and their worries were over.

    工作室大獲成功而他們的擔憂也該消失了

  • But that was not the case.

    但事實卻不是如此

  • There was one big problem.

    他們仍有一個大問題

  • According to the deal they made with Disney

    根據他們與迪士尼的合約

  • Pixar didn't have the rights to any of the profits

    皮克斯對於周邊商品的收益

  • for merchandise,

    沒有任何版權

  • and in fact barely made any money from the film.

    事實上他們幾乎沒有從這部電影裡拿到任何錢

  • They were still struggling financially.

    他們經濟仍然拮据

  • They decided that their only choice was to go public

    他們決定他們唯一的選擇是讓公司上市

  • in order to raise capital.

    好為了 籌集資金

  • They went on to be the biggest IPO of 1995,

    他們的首次公開募股是 1995 年最大的

  • exceeding even Netscape,

    甚至遠勝於網景通訊

  • raising 132 million dollars.

    籌集了 1.32 億

  • (gentle music)

    (柔和的音樂)

  • Disney wanted to renew their agreement

    迪士尼想要更新他們與皮克斯的合約

  • to distribute more Pixar films,

    好發行更多皮克斯電影

  • and they signed a new contract to produce

    他們簽了一份新合約

  • five more films together over the period of 10 years,

    在 10 年內合作製作多於五部的電影

  • this time dividing the profits 50/50.

    這次,收益將分半對收

  • Pixar was still, however,

    然而,對於皮克斯

  • a single success story so far,

    他們目前只成功了一個故事