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  • So what I'm doing

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Yanyan Hong

  • is a thought experiment.

    我在做的,

  • Now you may know of or have read

    是一個思想實驗。

  • this book by this guy.

    你們可能知道或讀過

  • It's probably the first and maybe the only bestseller

    這個傢伙寫的這本書。

  • ever written about economics.

    這可能是暢銷書中 第一次也是唯一一次出現

  • And you probably know a bit about what it says.

    關於經濟的書。

  • It talks about how nations all over the world will prosper

    你可能多少知道一點它的內容。

  • through the individual pursuit of individual profit.

    它談的是全世界的國家要如何透過

  • Individual profit will be the mechanism for the prosperity of the world.

    個人對於個人利益的追求來繁榮。

  • But the funny thing about Adam Smith

    個人利益會是世界繁榮的機制。

  • is that he was a stay-at-home kind of guy.

    但亞當史密斯(Adam Smith) 有一點十分有趣,

  • He actually never went further from Edinburgh

    那就是,他是個宅男。

  • than France and Switzerland.

    實際上,他從來沒有 從愛丁堡去到任何

  • So my thought experiment is to imagine

    比法國和瑞士更遠的地方。

  • what would have happened if Adam Smith had visited Africa.

    所以,我的思想實驗是要想像

  • And fortunately, there's actually an easy answer,

    如果亞當史密斯造訪過 非洲,會發生什麼事。

  • because the Arab lawyer and traveler Ibn Battuta

    幸運地,有個很簡單的答案,

  • traveled down the east coast of Africa in the 14th century,

    因為阿拉伯律師及旅人伊本巴圖塔

  • and what he found when he got to Mogadishu was a market,

    在十四世紀時, 沿著非洲的東岸旅行,

  • and he wrote about it.

    當他到達摩加迪休時, 他發現了一個市場,

  • And basically, merchant ships came to the harbor,

    這成為他的寫作素材。

  • and they weren't even allowed to land.

    基本上,商人會乘船來到海港,

  • They had to drop anchor in the harbor,

    他們甚至不被允許登陸。

  • and boats came out to them,

    他們得要在海港拋下錨,

  • and locals picked them and said, "You are my guest, I am now your broker."

    再搭小船出來,

  • And they had to do business through the local broker,

    當地人會挑選他們,說:「你是 我的客人,我現在是你的仲介。」

  • and if they went around that and didn't do business through the broker,

    他們得要透過當地仲介來做生意,

  • they could go to court, and the deal would be canceled,

    如果他們想走別的門路, 不透過仲介來做生意,

  • and they would be thrown out of town.

    他們可能要上法庭, 且交易就會被取消,

  • And through this mechanism, everyone prospered.

    他們會被丟出鎮外。

  • And so if that was Adam Smith, he might look like this guy

    透過這個機制,人人都有賺頭。

  • and say, "Ah! That's a mutual aid society.

    換成是亞當史密斯, 他可能就會像這個傢伙,

  • That's a share-the-wealth free market."

    說:「啊!那是個互助的社會。

  • And when I put this question to Christian [Benimana],

    那是個財富共享的自由市場。」

  • who had the stage at the beginning of this session,

    當我問克利斯汀班尼馬納這個問題,

  • he responded that if Adam Smith had come to Africa,

    他在這段議程的開頭有上台演說,

  • there would have been a sharing economy long before Airbnb and Uber.

    他的回應是,如果 亞當史密斯去過非洲,

  • And that's true.

    共享經濟的出現就會 遠比 Airbnb 和 Uber 早許多。

  • So if we put this to work today,

    那是真的。

  • it would be very interesting.

    如果我們把它放到現今這個時代,

  • There would be a lot of money flowing into the countries.

    會非常有意思。

  • These are just figures of 10 percent of exports in these countries.

    會有很多錢流入國家。

  • So the interesting thing is that this mutual aid economy still exists,

    這些數字只是這些國家出口的 10%。

  • and we can find examples of it in the strangest places.

    有趣的地方在於, 這種互助經濟仍然存在,

  • So, this is Alaba International Market.

    我們能在最奇怪的地方找到例子。

  • It's the largest electronics market in West Africa.

    這是阿拉巴國際市場。

  • It's 10,000 merchants,

    它是西非最大的電子產品市場。

  • they do about four billion dollars of turnover every year.

    有一萬個商家,

  • And they say they are ardent apostles of Adam Smith:

    他們每年的營業額 大約是四十億美元。

  • competition is great, we're all in it individually,

    他們說他們是 亞當史密斯的忠誠信徒:

  • government doesn't help us.

    競爭很好,我們都 以個人身分參與其中,

  • But the interesting reality is that when I asked further,

    政府對我們沒有幫助。

  • that's not what grew the market at all.

    但有趣的現實是, 當我進一步詢問時,

  • There's a behind-the-scenes principle

    發現那完全不是讓市場成長的原因。

  • that enables this market to grow.

    幕後還有些原則在,

  • And they do claim -- you know, this is an interesting juxtaposition

    是這些原則讓市場成長。

  • of the King James Bible and "How To Sell Yourself."

    他們確實宣稱—— 你們知道的,將欽定版聖經

  • That's what they say is their message.

    與《如何推銷你自己》 放在一起,是種有趣的並列。

  • But in reality, this market is governed by a sharing principle.

    那就是他們的訊息中所說的內容。

  • Every merchant, when you ask them, "How did you get started in global trade?"

    但在現實中,這個市場 是用共享原則來管理的。

  • they say, "Well, when my master settled me."

    你問任何一位商人: 「你何時開始做全球貿易的?」

  • And when I finally got it into my head to ask, "What is this 'settling?'"

    他們會說:「嗯, 當我的師父把我安置好時。」

  • it turns out that when you've done your apprenticeship

    我終於突然想到要問: 「這種『安置』是什麼?」

  • with someone you work for,

    結果發現,在你跟著僱主當學徒的

  • they are required -- required -- to set you up in business.

    見習期完成之後,

  • That means paying your rent for two or three years

    他們必須要,「必須要」 幫你建立事業。

  • and giving you a cash infusion

    那就表示要幫你付兩或三年的房租,

  • so you can go out in the world and start trading.

    給你現金資本,

  • That's locally generated venture capital. Right?

    讓你可以走出去並開始交易。

  • And I can say with almost certainty

    那是當地自產的創業投資,對吧?

  • that the Igbo apprenticeship system that governs Alaba International Market

    我幾乎可以肯定地說,

  • is the largest business incubator platform in the world.

    管理阿拉巴國際市場的伊布學徒體制

  • And there are other sharing economies that we look for --

    是世界上最大的創業育成平台。

  • merry-go-rounds, which are found in almost every shantytown.

    我們還尋找其他共享經濟——

  • They have different names in other cultures; this is the Kenyan name.

    幾乎在每個貧民區 都可以看到「旋轉木馬」。

  • It's a way of generating cash.

    在不同的文化中,「旋轉木馬」 有不同的名字,這是肯亞的用詞。

  • It's a kitty -- people throw money into a pot once a week,

    它是一種產生現金的方式。

  • and once a week, one member of the group gets the money,

    共同湊出一筆錢——每週一次, 大家把錢投入罐中,

  • and they can spend it on whatever they need to.

    每週一次,團體中的 一個成員會去取錢,

  • And there's also something called "acequias,"

    他們可以把錢花在任何需要的地方。

  • and that is a Spanish word, but it comes from the North African Arabic;

    還有所謂的「灌溉水渠 (acequias)」,

  • "saqiya" means "water wheel."

    它是西班牙語, 但來自北非的阿拉伯字;

  • And what the acequia is is a sharing system for scarce water.

    「saqiya」意思是「水輪」。

  • It's migrated from North Africa to Spain,

    灌溉水渠則是種 稀少水資源的共享系統。

  • and from Spain to the west of the United States,

    它被從北非移往西班牙,

  • where it still is used.

    再從西班牙移往美國西部,

  • And it shares water by need

    現在在那裡都還有使用。

  • rather than by who was there first.

    這個系統是根據需求來分享水,

  • And contrary, with all due respect, to what Llew [Claasen] said

    而不是根據誰先到。

  • when he talked about blockchains and cryptocurrencies yesterday,

    沒有不敬的意思,但這和盧克拉森

  • there is no tragedy of the commons.

    昨天在談到車鏈 和密碼貨幣時所說的相反,

  • People in acequias have been commonly managing scarce water resources

    沒有公地悲劇。

  • for hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of years.

    在灌溉水渠中的人, 一直都共同管理著稀有的水資源,

  • So taking this thought experiment, I wanted to go a little bit further

    數百年來都是如此。

  • and suggest that these things are managed communally,

    所以,我把這個思想實驗 再更進一步,

  • and they are taking care of scarce capital, scarce cash

    我認為

  • and scarce resources.

    這些東西是以公有的方式來管理的,

  • And it seems to me that we have actually two kinds of capitalism.

    他們能處理稀有資本、稀有現金,

  • We have the capitalism of the top up.

    以及稀有資源。

  • And these are really interesting statistics,

    在我看來,我們似乎有兩種資本主義。

  • because three one-thousandths of one percent of the Nigerian population

    有「由上而上」的資本主義。

  • controls wealth equal to one-fourth of the GDP of the country.

    這些統計數字很有意思,

  • One one-hundredth of one percent of the Kenyan population

    因為奈及利亞人口 1% 的千分之三

  • controls wealth equal to 75 percent of the GDP of the country.

    所控制的財富等同於 該國 GDP 的四分之一。

  • That's the capitalism of top up.

    肯亞人口 1% 的百分之一

  • And everyone else is with this guy,

    所控制的財富等同於該國 GDP 的 75%。

  • selling board games and bodybuilding equipment

    這就是由上而上的資本主義。

  • in a go-slow on the highway in Lagos.

    所有其他人就和這個傢伙一樣,

  • And when you're selling board games and bodybuilding equipment in a go-slow,

    在拉哥斯的公路上的緩慢車流中

  • that traffic jam is really, really, really bad, right?

    銷售桌上遊戲以及健身器材,

  • Those of us in this sphere of the economy

    當你在緩慢車流中 銷售桌上遊戲和健身器材時,

  • are caught in what I call "the capitalism of decay,"

    塞車狀況一定是非常非常糟,對吧?

  • because there's no way to rise up and get out of it,

    在這層經濟中的我們這些人

  • because they're lacking the resources that we talked about

    碰到的是我所謂的 「衰退的資本主義」,

  • in those sharing economies.

    因為不可能爬起來,從中脫出,

  • And they're tripped up

    因為他們沒有我們 在談那些共享經濟時,

  • by the thesis of cassava and capitalism,

    談到的那些資源。

  • that cassava has to be processed in order not to be poisonous,

    他們被樹薯論點

  • and I would argue that, similarly,

    以及資本主義給絆倒了,

  • the market economy needs to be processed in order to be fair to everyone.

    樹薯必須要經過處理才不會有毒,

  • So we have to look at what I call the "bottom down economy."

    同樣地,我的主張是,

  • These are these sharing models that exist out there

    市場經濟需要被處理過, 才能對每個人都公平。

  • that need to be propagated and used and scaled.

    所以我們得要看看我所謂的 「由下而下的經濟」。

  • OK?

    外頭還存在有這些共享模型,

  • And if we propagate these things,

    它們需要被傳播、被使用、被擴大。

  • we can begin to bring infrastructure to everyone,

    好嗎?

  • and that will ensure that communities

    如果我們傳播這些東西,

  • are leading their own development,

    我們就能開始將基礎建設帶給每個人,

  • which is, I believe, what we need in the world,

    那就能確保社區

  • and, I would suggest, what we need in Africa.

    能引領它們自己的發展,

  • I wanted to quote Steve Biko,

    而我相信,這就是 我們在世界上所需要的,

  • and I thought it was really important to quote Steve Biko,

    且,我會說,它也是 我們在非洲所需要的。

  • because next month, September 12 to be exact,

    我想要引述史蒂夫比科的話,

  • is the 40th anniversary of his murder by the South African state.

    我認為引述他的話是很重要的,

  • And you can read the quote.

    因為,下個月, 明確來說是 9 月 12 日,

  • He basically said that we're not here to compete.

    就是他被南非國家謀殺的四十週年。

  • And I love this quote: "... to make us a community of brothers and sisters

    你們可以讀讀這句引述。

  • jointly involved in the quest for a composite answer

    基本上,他說, 我們不是來這裡競爭的。

  • to the varied problems of life."

    我很愛這句引述:「……讓我們 成為一個兄弟姐妹的共同體,

  • And he also said that "the great powers of the world

    聯合起來,一起為人生的各種問題,

  • have done wonders in giving us an industrial and military look, ..."

    尋求一個複合的答案。」

  • and we don't have to copy that military-industrialist complex,

    他也說:「世界上的偉大強權

  • because Africa can do things differently

    已經創造了奇蹟,給予我們 工業和軍事的外表……」

  • and restore the humanity of the world.

    我們不需複製那軍事實業家的情結,

  • And so what I want to suggest here

    因為非洲能用不同的方式來做事,

  • is that we have an opportunity,

    並恢復世界的人性。

  • that we are all here in the mutual landscape

    所以,這裡我想點出的是,

  • to be able to do things,

    我們有一個機會,

  • and that the journey starts now.

    我們都在這裡, 在這個相互的地景上,

  • Thank you very much.

    能夠去做事,

  • (Applause)

    而那旅程,從現在開始。

So what I'm doing

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Yanyan Hong

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 市場 資本主義 經濟 非洲 灌溉

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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