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  • Your future is nothing but the outcome of the decisions you make today.

    你的未來取決於你今日所做的決定

  • You make better decisions today, your future will be more prosperous, you make the wrong

    你今天做了更好的決定,你的未來會更有前景,你做錯決定

  • ones, then your future will be full of struggles.

    你的未來就會充滿掙扎

  • So, today we are going to talk about critical thinking and how it applies to problem solving.

    所以今天我們要講的是批判性思考,以及如何將它應用在解決問題上

  • I'll give you a weird analogy here.

    我給你一個特別的類比

  • Critical thinking ability is like having infrared goggles and looking at the sky at night.

    批判思考能力就像戴紅外線護目鏡一樣,然後你望向夜晚的天空

  • Without it, You look at the space, you see only three things, you see stars, sometimes you see planets

    沒有戴上它,你看向外太空,你只看到三樣東西,星星、其他星球

  • and you see darkness.

    還有一片漆黑

  • But the moment you put on your infrared goggles then you get to see all these beautiful

    但當你戴上紅外線護目鏡後,你可以看到各式各樣美麗的

  • gas cloud, giant gas cloud and dust

    星際雲、巨型星際雲、塵埃等等

  • It so colorful, right? So you get to see the things we

    這很色彩繽紛對吧 ? 所以你能夠看到這些

  • previously impossible to see.

    你先前絕無可能看到的事情

  • That's what critical thinking is.

    這就是批判性思考

  • It lets you identify the actual problems, the root causes, but it also helps you see

    幫助你去辨認真正的問題,根本性原因,也幫助你看見

  • the opportunities.

    機會

  • Now, critical thinking isn't only applicable to your work.

    批判性思考不只可以應用在你的工作上

  • It's applicable to every single area of your life.

    它可以應用在你生活的每個領域

  • But my channel is all about your career.

    但我的頻道是關於生涯規劃的

  • So, that's what we'll cover in this video.

    所以這會是我們在這部影片要講的部分

  • Now, we need a framework.

    現在,我們需要一個架構

  • And the framework starts with Problem Statement.

    這個架構起始於問題描述 (Problem Statement)

  • Problem statement is very similar to a project charter.

    問題描述和專案章程 (Project Charter) 非常相似

  • It includes Goals, as in what are you trying to achieve,

    它包含了目標,你想要試圖達成什麼

  • your success criteria, as in how will I know I succeeded or failed, your assumptions, timelines,

    你的成功標準是什麼,要如何知道我是成功或失敗的,你的假設、時間軸

  • and stakeholders involved.

    還有股東

  • It's very similar to a project charter.

    這和和專案章程非常相似

  • I am actually going to call this Problem Charter.

    我將會把這個稱為問題章程 (Problem Charter)

  • This document is very helpful for two reasons.

    這份文件有用處的原因有兩個

  • The second reason being a lot more important than the first.

    第 2 個理由比第 1 個理由更重要

  • The first reason why it's very helpful is because when you get engaged in that problem

    第 1 個理由很有用處,原因是當你設法在解決這個問題時

  • solving mode, you start uncovering a lot of other symptoms, that may be caused by completely

    你開始發現許多其他徵兆,這可能由

  • other root causes.

    其他完全不同的原因引起

  • We are not interested in that at that moment.

    我們在這時候還不需要關注這些

  • You will document those, but you are not going to develop solution alternatives, and develop

    你會把這些記下來,但你不會發展其他替代解決方案,並研究

  • action plans for those.

    這些問題的行動計劃

  • Unless there are dependencies.

    除非這些事是有關聯的

  • So, it helps you understand your scope, who to deal with, the timelines, it basically

    所以這有助於你瞭解問題的範圍、處裡的對象和時間軸,基本上

  • keeps everything under control.

    就是讓所有事物在一定的控制底下

  • But to be honest, in my decade long consulting career, I noticed that the biggest help of

    但說實話,在我十年長的諮詢經驗來說,我注意到

  • having such a charter is all about moving through bureaucracy.

    這個章程最有幫助的一點是通過官僚作風體系

  • Let me explain.

    讓我解釋是什麼意思

  • When you are going through problem solving stages, you actually do a lot of work, you

    當你正在解決問題的各個階段,你需要做很多工作

  • summon meetings, you request data from various departments, you request for expertise from

    你召集會議,蒐集各單位的資料,要求專業諮詢協助

  • consultants, so you are shaking things, you are moving things around.

    你在重新整頓所有事物,把所有事繞過一遍

  • Now, what gives you the power to do it?

    誰賦予你這些權力去做這些 ?

  • What gives you the power to call all these people to a meeting room, what gives you the

    誰給你權力去召集這些人來開會,誰給你權力

  • power to ask for certain analytics data from a completely different department?

    去要求完全不同的單位提供特定的分析資料

  • Why should they attend that meeting or give you the data you want?

    為什麼他們要參加會議或給你你想要的資料呢 ?

  • Because they like you and they want to help you?

    因為他們喜歡你或想幫你 ?

  • What if they don't like you.

    要是他們不喜歡你怎麼辦

  • Now if you are a senior employee, you are a manager, director, VP, then fine, of course

    如果你是資深員工,你是經理、處長、副總裁,那當然

  • everyone will come in to the meeting or give you the data you want.

    每個人會來參加會議或給你資料

  • But if you are not that senior.

    但如果你不是那麼資深

  • Where does your power come from?

    你的權力從何而來呢 ?

  • It comes from that document.

    這就來自於你的文件了

  • The problem charter.

    問題章程

  • Corporate companies aren't usually very agile.

    法人公司的動作通常不是很迅速

  • They move slowly and the employees are usually verythey are not lazy but they push back

    他們的動作緩慢,員工通常非常 ... 也不是說懶惰,而是比較會拖延

  • They don't want to stop what they are doing and join your little problem solving

    他們不想停下手中的工作,參加你的小小問題

  • brainstorm session and go through your little PowerPoint of fishbone analysis.

    腦力激盪會議,然後瀏覽你簡報裡的魚骨圖分析

  • They got their own thing to worry about.

    他們有他們自己要擔心的事要去處理

  • So, if you have your problem charter, only a few pages, signed off by a sponsor, someone

    所以,如果你有你的問題章程,只要少少幾頁,贊助商或某資深主管也簽過名

  • senior, then you have the power to get the data you want and bring in experts, and call

    你就有權去拿到你要的資料,且可找專家

  • for meetings.

    召集會議

  • That's what your power comes from. Ok, now let's continue; now you developed the problem statement,

    這就是你權力的來源。好,接著是,你已經完成你的問題章程

  • you got your buy-in from someone senior, now, you are off to solving the problem.

    你得到某資深人員的同意,現在可以開始解決問題

  • The 2nd step in your critical thinking towards a problem is identifying the root causes,

    批判性思考的第 2 步驟是去分辨根本的原因

  • right?

    對吧 ?

  • We want to look at the symptoms, or the consequences, and walk backwards and until we reach the root causes.

    我們觀察問題的症狀、結果,然後推敲回去直到最根本的原因

  • There are various ways you can use.

    有許多可以應用的方法

  • Like Fishbone analysis for relatively more complex ones, or for simple problems you can

    你可以用魚骨圖來分析相對複雜的問題,或對檢疫的問題可以用

  • have 5 WHYs.

    五個為什麼方法

  • 5 Whys is made famous by Toyota Production System.

    五個為什麼來自豐田汽車的製程方法學

  • As the name suggests, you ask WHY WHY WHY until you get to a root cause.

    就像它的名字一樣,詢問 WHY WHY WHY 直到你找到根本的原因

  • Very simple stuff.

    非常簡單

  • But what is not so simple is knowing when to stop.

    但不簡單的是知道何時停下來

  • It's not necessarily at the 5th question.

    不需要真的問到 5 個問題

  • Because you actually can ask infinite amount of WHYs.

    因為其實你可以問到無限個為什麼

  • There is always a layer down.

    你永遠可以一層接一層下去

  • It never actually ends.

    沒有真的結束的一刻

  • I mean, If you have children, then you probably know what I am talking about.

    我的意思是,如果你有小孩,你大概知道我在說什麼

  • So 5 is just an arbitrary number.

    5 只是一個隨意的數字而已

  • Don't take it literally.

    不要用字面意義去解釋

  • Let's run an example.

    舉個例子來說

  • An actual one.

    一個現實案例

  • This is actually a problem that got me into a lot of trouble.

    有一個問題是時尚讓我陷入很多麻煩

  • So, the situation is that when I was at PwC Consulting, every time we have a down time,

    這個情況是當我在 PwC 顧問工作時,每天有工作的休養期

  • meaning when we are not doing client work, we would engage in other work, like research,

    意思是我們不用幫顧客做事,我們做其他工作,像是做研究

  • writing thought leadership articles, delivering pro bono speeches, or write proposals for

    寫關於領導力的文章、出席一些不收費的演講或

  • new projects.

    替新案子寫提案報告

  • Now there was this one time, when I couldn't finish the proposal on time.

    就在有一次,我沒有準時完成提案報告

  • As a result, we couldn't submit the document to client and client excluded us from the

    因此,我們沒有將報告送到客戶手中,客戶取消了我們的

  • bids.

    投標

  • Now, that's a potentially a million dollar loss for the firm.

    這背後代表一百萬美金的損失

  • Because if we could just submit, we would most probably win the project.

    因為如果我們及時繳交,我們有很大的機會贏得案子

  • This whole thing entirely was my mistake.

    這整件事完全是我的錯

  • I was leading the proposal development, I was the manager, and I had 2 senior associates

    我負責主導整個專案進行,我擔任經理,且有兩位資深夥伴

  • working for me.

    幫我工作

  • So, it was a big failure.

    所以這是個大失敗

  • I mean I messed up real good.

    我指我真的犯了很大的錯

  • It's really rare that anyone can say they cost their employer a million dollars – I

    很少有人能夠說我虧了我老闆一百萬美元,我

  • canand it is even more rare that they don't get fired

    可以說 ... 更少的是這些人沒有被炒魷魚

  • I didn't…

    我沒被炒 ...

  • A definitely career milestone for me there.

    這絕對是我職涯的里程碑

  • Not something you can see on my CV

    不是你可以在我履歷表中看見的事情

  • But anyway, let's ask some WHYs

    總而言之,接下來我來問一些為什麼

  • Let's analyze why I messed up.

    分析我到底為什麼搞砸

  • let's apply the 5 WHYs.

    運用 5 個為什麼分析法

  • So, Deniz says, we couldn't deliver the proposal on time.

    Deniz 說我們無法準時提交提案報告

  • Ok.

  • Deniz, why?

    為什麼會這樣 Deniz ?

  • It took us more time than I expected Why – I estimated the time requirements,

    比我預期花了還要長的時間。為什麼 ? 我估計所需時間時

  • like how long it would take based on the previous similar projects.

    像是會花多長時間,用了先前一個相似的案子來估

  • So, I looked at the previous RFPs Request for Proposals, and our proposal development

    所以我看了先前的需求建議書 (Request For Proposal, RFP) 和看了這些專案的提案進展

  • time for those projects, and that's how I estimated.

    我是這樣去估計時間的

  • Now, stop.

    現在,停下來

  • Because it's a dead end.

    因為問到死路了

  • Don't ask more Whys.

    不要接著問更多為什麼了

  • Because it is the best practice to estimating the time requirements of a proposal based

    因為估計提案需求時間的最佳方式就是

  • on the previously similar ones.

    根據先前那個相似的案子

  • So, Deniz did the right thing here.

    所以 Deniz 其實沒有做錯

  • So, if you ask one more WHY.

    所以如果你問更多的為什麼

  • It will be detrimental.

    是有害無益的

  • Why did you look at the past RFPs?

    為什麼你要去看以前的需求建議書

  • Because it's the best practice….

    因為這是最好的慣例做法

  • Oh

    喔 ...

  • See, my point.

    看到我說的點了嗎

  • So, it was the right action to take.

    所以採取的行動是對的

  • But it was implemented poorly.

    但執行的很糟糕

  • So, I did the right thing by looking at the previous RFPs but I did a poor job in terms

    所以我去看先前的需求建議書是對的,但是

  • of analyzing the scope of work.

    從分析工作領域的角度上我做的很糟

  • I didn't realize a small part of the scope involved expertise in social security systems

    我沒有理解到有一小部分的領域是涉及到社會安全制度專業

  • which I didn't know much about.

    而這是我不太了解的

  • So, I had to work with a subject matter expert from our London office and I wasted a lot

    所以我必須和來自倫敦的領域專家合作,也因此浪費許多

  • of time there with back and forth communication.

    來回通信的時間

  • Let's run one more example.

    接著再多講一個例子

  • I am not an IT.

    我不是資訊科技專業

  • But let's give one example from IT.

    但在多舉一個資訊科技的案例

  • Our software is slow in responding to inputs.

    我們的軟體對輸入信號回應緩慢

  • 1st WhyBecause the server is overloaded 2nd WhyBecause we had a sudden peak in

    第一個為什麼,因為伺服器超載。第二個為什麼,因為遇到突發的系統塞車

  • traffic 3rd WhyBecause we got featured in a Tech

    第三個為什麼,因為我們獲得 《技術雜誌》(Tech Magazine) 評選

  • Magazine which resulted in massive traffic boost.

    因此造成巨量資料塞車

  • Good.

  • Now you know the reasons.

    現在你知道原因了

  • It would be idiotic to continue asking why.

    繼續問為什麼是很愚蠢的事

  • It's common sense.

    這很顯而易見

  • Why did we get featured in Tech Magazine?

    為什麼我們獲得技術雜誌的曝光

  • It's a great thing for the business.

    這對拓展事業很有幫助

  • See, it makes no sense.

    看 ! 這完全沒有道理

  • Instead, at that stage, a better question to ask, is why didn't we anticipate this

    取而代之的是,在這個階段,更好的是去問為什麼我們沒有預期到這個情況

  • and put in place the contingency capacity in our server?

    然後先在伺服器中放入更大空間

  • If ask that question. Then the answer to that would be negligence, a human error, or lack of standard operating

    如果問了這個問題,那答案會是沒人注意到、人為錯誤或缺乏標準作業流程

  • procedures, like whatever works.

    諸如此類關於運作的問題

  • So, I want to go back to the proposal example.

    所以我想回到提案的例子

  • I want to talk more about finding root causes..

    我想談更多如何找到根本原因

  • If you noticed, the problems I shared with you were fairly simple ones, right?

    如果你注意到,我分享給你們的問題相當簡單,對吧 ?

  • And the reason they were simple was because there is a direct chain, direct connection

    這些理由之所以簡單的原因是因為有直接的鏈結、直接的連結

  • between the consequence and the root cause.

    在結果和根本原因之間

  • Why?

    為什麼 ?

  • Because Of X, Why X? because of Z?

    是因為 X,為什麼是 X ? 因為 Z ?

  • Why Z… Well, that's the root cause.

    為什麼是 Z ... 因為這就是根本原因

  • So it was fairly simple.

    所以這相當簡單

  • But in real life it so happens that sometimes problems can't be found by looking at the consequences

    但在現實情況中,有時觀察結果無法找到問題的根本原因

  • or the symptoms.

    或從問題的癥狀來看

  • The root cause lies completely elsewhere. There is no direct link between the root cause and symptom

    根本原因被完全隱藏住了。在根本原因和癥狀之間沒有直接的連結

  • So you know situations, where do you even start?

    所以你知道情況,但你究竟該從何開始 ?

  • Now, let me give you an example of a problem that we faced very recently.

    我給你一個我們最近面對的一個案例

  • That problem was actually the reason of my absence from YouTube for a while.

    這個問題就是為何我在 YouTube 消失一陣子的原因

  • Let me share with you what happened and how we eventually identified the root cause.

    跟各位分享到底發生什麼事還有我們最後是如何找出根本原因的

  • You probably already know about my LIG program, right?

    你們大概已經知道我的 LIG 專案,對吧 ?

  • It's Landing Interviews Guaranteed.

    就是面試攻略 (Landing Interviews Guaranteed)

  • Horrible name. I know.

    很糟的名字,我知道

  • I Don't know what I was thinking.

    我不知道我那時在想什麼

  • So, I left PwC Consulting around 4 months ago to fully focus on my LIG program, and

    所以我大概在 4 個月前離開 PwC 顧問公司,專心在我的 LIG 計畫上面

  • I usually spent most of my day helping LIG members get better jobs or pass their interviews.

    我通常會一天中大部分的時間幫忙 LIG 會員找到更好的工作或通過面試

  • It's an awesome program and I get about 10 to 15 new registrations every day.

    這是個很棒的計畫,我大概每天可以接收到 10 到 15 位新會員

  • And LIG is the reason why I have this YouTube channel so I can have opportunity

    LIG 計畫是為什麼我開這個 YouTube 頻道的原因,也因此我有機會

  • to talk about.

    來跟大家談談

  • Which I should do it more often.

    也是我應該多做的

  • Anyways, Now, about 3 weeks ago, something really bad happened.

    好,就在 3 週前,發生了非常糟的事

  • So, from having about 10 to 15 registrations every day, all of a sudden we got nothing.

    從原本每天 10 到 15 個註冊會員,突然之間,沒有半個新會員

  • No registration.

    沒有人註冊

  • No one enrolled.

    沒有人加入

  • Then comes the next day, again nothing.

    然後到了隔天,仍舊沒有

  • Then 3rd day again nothing, 4th day again nothing.

    到了第 3 天還是沒有,第 4 天沒有

  • I mean you can imagine how I felt in that situation, right?

    我的意思是你能想像我對這個狀況的感受,對吧 ?

  • It's my livelihood.

    這是我的生計來源

  • I mean I left a pretty amazing career with PwC and took a big risk with LIG and The Career

    我離開了相當棒的 PwC 顧問工作,花了很大的風險去經營 LIG 還有 The Career

  • Mastery.

    Mastery

  • And it's all crashing down. Think about how it is,

    一切都崩塌了。想像這個情況

  • the moment for me. It's like war mode.

    對我的衝擊。我陷入了戰爭模式

  • So, for about 4 days I got nothing more than 5 hours of sleep combined.

    在大概 4 天期間,我睡不到 5 個小時

  • I was a walking zombie constantly asking WHY, WHY, WHY, WHY?

    我就像喪屍一樣,持續問著為什麼、為什麼、為什麼、為什麼 ?

  • You know the 5 Whys we covered, they became 500 Whys.

    你知道我們剛說的 5 個為什麼分析法,當時便成了 500 個為什麼

  • So, the first obvious questions; Is it the payment processor?

    首先,最明顯的問題就是:付款處理器有問題嗎 ?

  • Nope, we tested it.

    沒有,我們測試過了

  • It worked fine.

    運作很正常

  • Is the traffic to site down?

    網站的連結壞了嗎 ?

  • Are people not coming ? Nope

    所以人們進不來 ? 不是

  • We checked Google Analytics.

    我們查過 Google Analytics 了

  • It's all fine.

    完全都沒事

  • We still get a lot of referral traffic.

    我們仍舊有很許多轉介流量

  • Is the server down?

    伺服器壞了嗎 ?

  • We checked the server logs, it was all fine.

    我們確認了伺服器記錄檔,也都好好的

  • There was no downtime, even in peak times.

    完全沒有間歇期,即使是在尖峰時段

  • I mean me and Jeanette, we literally came up with more than 100 potential causes

    我和 Jeanette,我們真的想了超過 100 種潛在的原因

  • and we ran tests for every single one of them.

    也測試了每一個原因

  • No sleep for 4 days. Nothing. It's crazy.

    4 天完全沒有睡覺。真的是瘋了

  • Now after 4 days of constant struggle.

    在 4 天持續的掙扎過後

  • Like constant effort, right ?

    就像持續不段的努力,對吧 ?

  • I got really depressed.

    我變得真的很沮喪

  • No sleep, nothing, I didn't even know who to go to solve this problem.

    沒有睡覺,一點也沒有。我不知道該找誰解決這個問題

  • Like who is the person that can help us understand.

    誰能幫我們理清這個問題

  • So, in my misery, I went home to my sweet couch, opened up a bottle of Vodka, I grabbed

    所以在這個悲慘的情況下,我來到我溫暖的沙發,開了一瓶伏特加,拿了

  • the whole bottle, sat down, turned on my TV, and literally

    整瓶酒,坐下來,打開電視

  • I picked the most depressing movie of all time: Hachiko.

    選了一個無敵憂鬱的電影《忠犬小八》

  • If you are dog owner, I don't care if you are the toughest person alive, that movie

    如果你有養狗,不管你是不是最鐵血的人,這部電影

  • will make you cry your eyes out. It's that depressed.

    會讓你哭到不行,就是這麼憂鬱

  • So I started watching it.

    所以我開始看

  • After watching for an hour, all of a sudden, a very interesting idea came to my mind

    在看了 1 小時後,突然之間,腦袋冒出了一個很有意思的想法

  • Was I somehow hacked?

    我們是不是被駭客入侵了

  • Was like the whole thing some sort of sophisticated hacking?

    整件事是不是某種複雜的駭客問題

  • It was.

    沒錯它是

  • The hackers somehow made everything look normal to us, and all the visitors from 2 cities

    駭客不知用什麼方法讓我們看起來網站沒什麼異樣,而所有訪客,來自我

  • I live in. Dubai, and Vancouver. Everything looks fine if you enter from those cities.

    居住的地方,杜拜和溫哥華。從這些城市登入看起來一切都沒事。

  • But anyone else who come to the site, they would see a maintenance note.

    其他進來網站的人則會看見維修標誌

  • The site is under construction.

    該網站正在維修中

  • They even put a weird video to make the visitors stay in the site a bit longer so I wouldn't

    這些駭客甚至放了一個奇怪的影片,讓網站的訪客停留稍微久一些些,所以我無法

  • understand by looking at the Google Analytics user behavior data.

    從 Google Analytics 的使用者行為資料看出端倪

  • We got hacked! It took us 4 days to realize that

    我們被駭了 ! 我們花了 4 天才想到這點

  • and a bottle of Vodka. Anyway, I understood the root cause, not because I

    還有一瓶伏特加。總而言之,我發現了根本原因,不是因為我

  • followed a Fishbone diagram or 5 WHYS.

    遵照魚骨圖或 5 個為什麼分析法

  • I asked 500 Whys, 5000 Whys

    我甚至問了 500 個、5000 個為什麼

  • Do you know why I was able to solve the problem?

    你們知道我為什麼能夠解決這個問題嗎 ?

  • Can you guess why the potential root cause popped up in my mind?

    你們猜得到為何這個可能的根本原因蹦出在我腦海中 ?

  • Let's get nerdy a bit.

    接著進入一下書呆子模式

  • I was able to solve the problem because my brainwaves changed.

    我之所以能解決問題是因為我的腦波改變了

  • I didn't do it purposely but I am glad it did.

    我不是故意這樣做的,但我很高興我做了