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  • This story is about small cats...

    這是關於小型貓咪的故事

  • ...that look like big cats...

    那看起來是大貓

  • and the people that made that possible.

    使那成真的人

  • But before we get there, let's back up a bit.

    在我們講到那裏之前,先來點背景資訊吧

  • We went to an event at the Westminster Dog Show

    我們去了 Westminster 的狗展

  • and this year cats were invited.

    而今年,貓咪也受到了邀請

  • So we went to film them, and we weren't the only ones.

    我們前去拍攝他們,而我們也不是唯一這麼做的人

  • In the middle of a crowd there was a man, holding his pet cat called a Bengal.

    在人群中有個男人,捧著他那叫做 Bengal 的寵物貓

  • That's Anthony Hutcherson and his whole life, he's had one dream:

    他是 Anthony Hutcherson 。他此生只有一個夢想

  • “I always wanted a pet leopard, or a pet ocelot.”

    「我一直想要有一隻寵物美洲豹,或是寵物豹貓。」

  • Wanting a pet ocelot might sound odd, but until recently

    想要養一隻豹貓當寵物可能有點奇怪,但在此之前

  • owning an exotic cat was not unheard of.

    養一隻異國貓可不是件新聞

  • People had pet leopards

    人們養過美洲豹

  • and pet cheetahs

    印度獵豹

  • and here's Salvador Dali and his pet ocelot named Babou.

    而這是 Salvador Dali 的寵物豹貓 Babou

  • But exotic cats weren't just for celebrities, this family in Denver had a pet leopard.

    異國貓並不只是名人的寵物。這個居住在 Denver 的家庭就養了隻美洲豹

  • They named him Pasha.

    他們叫他 Pasha

  • Growing up, Anthony found books about owning a pet ocelot, and he was fascinated.

    在成長過程中, Anthony 找到一本關於養一隻豹貓的書,並感到極度著迷

  • Fortunately the library was a little outdated so there were still books from The Fifties"

    「很幸運的,學校的圖書館有點過時,所以一些 50 和 60 年代

  • "and Sixties in my public school that said things about having a pet ocelot, and made"

    關於養豹貓當寵物的書都還有留著,並讓這件事看起來很正常

  • "it seem normal...and I thought that could be me too!”

    而我想,我也能成為這樣的人啊 !」

  • But in the 1970s, authorities began restricting ownership and seizing exotic pets.

    但在 1970 年代時,政府開始限制並補抓異國貓

  • So, instead of owning an ocelot, Anthony's dream became

    因此,放棄養一隻豹貓,Anthony 的夢想

  • breeding a pet cat that looked just like one.

    變成養一隻跟豹貓一模一樣的貓

  • He began after seeing a magazine at a grocery store,

    他在一間雜貨店裡找到一本雜誌

  • "At the checkout: like, alien spotted and woman creates domestic cat that looks like"

    「在雜誌的封面寫著,看到外星人啦,還有培育出看起來像

  • "leopard and so, I remembered it, and followed up and found her, and called her.”

    美洲豹的家貓的女人。我印象深刻並繼續追查,最後找到了她,我也打給她。」

  • The woman on the phone was Jean Mill, the first American Bengal breeder.

    那個女人是 Jean Mill,美國第一個孟加拉貓的培育者

  • At one point I remember saying to her,"

    「我記得我對他說

  • " 'no, I can't afford these cats, but I really want one, this is my dream.' "

    我付不起錢買這些貓,但我真的想要一隻,這是我的夢想。」

  • " ' I really wanna do it.' "

    「那是我夢寐以求的 ! 」

  • "I described to her in specific detail what I wanted and she said,"

    「我向她詳細描述我想養的貓,而她說

  • " 'That cat doesn't exist. I want that too.' '”

    『那樣的貓不存在,否則我也想要一隻。』」

  • Jean told Anthony about asian leopard cats: a wild species native to Asia that was bred

    Jean 向 Anthony 介紹石虎,一種生於亞州的野生種

  • with a domestic cat in order to create a first generation hybrid, called an "F1",

    並和家貓交配生出了第一代的混種,他們給這樣的品種稱為 F1

  • which is 50% wild, 50% domestic.

    一半野生一半家貓

  • Jean owned an F1, which she received from Dr. Willard Centerwall,

    Jean 從一位任職於羅馬琳達大學的科學家 Willard Centerwall 那裏

  • a scientist at Loma Linda University.

    拿到一隻第一代 (F1) 的混種貓

  • Dr. Centerwall was breeding hybrid cats in order to study their leukemia heredity factors,

    Centerwall 博士培育這種混種貓是為了研究牠們白血病的遺傳因素

  • which could help in understanding and combatting leukemia in human beings.

    藉由實驗結果來幫助了解及對抗人類的白血病

  • But he only needed their genetic samples and once he bred the cats they needed homes,

    但他只需要貓咪的基因樣本,一旦培育出混種,他就得替牠們找個家

  • so that's how Jean Mill received an F1 kitten in 1980.

    這就是為甚麼 Jean Mill 在 1980 年得到一隻 F1 混種貓

  • By breeding her F1 with a domestic cat, Jean created second generation hybrids.

    藉使 F1 混種貓與家貓交配, Jean 培育出了第二代的混種

  • But the males were sterile, so Jean could only continue breeding through the female offspring.

    但雄性混種無法生育,因此 Jean 僅能以雌性後代來進行培育

  • And when they are four generations away from the asian leopard cat, fertility is much"

    「當牠們培育到第四代時,生育更加地頻繁。」

  • "more regular and, in terms of being able to be shown and be considered a 'domestic cat',"

    「而為了能夠適合被當作家貓,」

  • "they have to be four generations away from the asian leopard cat"

    「第四代的混種貓是最為合適的。」

  • *banging sound*

    (乒乓聲)

  • "Sorry, that's my cats running through the room!”

    「抱歉,我的貓剛剛跑過房間。」

  • By reaching the fourth generation, Jean had developed a new breed: the Bengal,

    培育出第四代後, Jean 得到了新的混種:孟加拉貓

  • which was officially recognized by The International Cat Association in 1986.

    而孟加拉貓也在 1986 年被國際貓協會所認可

  • After his phone call with Jean, Anthony decided to start breeding on his own,

    和 Jean 通過電話後, Anthony 決定自己培育出屬於自己的貓

  • so he bought an F1 bengal and began attending cat shows.

    所以他買了一隻 F1 混種貓,並開始參加貓咪展覽

  • This cat is awesome.”

    「這隻貓超棒的。」

  • For the future of the Bengals, I'd like to see them"

    「為了孟加拉貓的未來,我希望牠們」

  • "move more in a direction toward looking wild."

    「能夠看起來越像野生種越好。」

  • "Being instantly identified as 'oooooh.' "

    「讓人們在第一眼看到牠們的時候發出驚呼。」

  • "But I want them to be as sweet, turn them over on their side, or pull on their tail,"

    「但牠們同時又能很溫馴,任你翻來翻去,或是拉尾巴。」

  • "or kiss them, if you have to.”

    「如果要親牠們的話,也沒問題。」

  • *applause*”

    (掌聲)

  • Over the years, Anthony's goal hasn't changed.

    年復一年, Anthony 的目標一直沒有改變

  • He's continued to pursue it by carefully selecting cats for his breeding program.

    他持續追尋他的目標,並謹慎地挑選那些參與他的計劃的貓咪

  • When I make that decision to breed them,"

    「當我選擇特定的貓咪來培育時,」

  • "I have an idea of what I think the kittens will look like"

    「我心裡會對我的貓咪該長甚麼樣子有一個大概想法。」

  • "and when they are born I try to pick the one"

    「而在牠們出生後,」

  • "that looks the most like what I wanted it to look like."

    「我會選出最符合我心中期待的那隻。」

  • It's like any good chef will probably tell you."

    「這就像一個好廚師會告訴你的。」

  • "it's not adding a bunch of different stuff into a soup."

    「一道美味的湯並不是一股腦地加入一堆食材,」

  • "It's what you choose to add and how much and when you add it.”

    「而是謹慎選擇要加甚麼、數量多寡,以及時機。」

  • Choosing breeding partners to develop certain traits is called "selective breeding".

    這種經過挑選而獲得特定特徵的繁殖方法稱為「選擇性繁殖」

  • All cats are beautiful, but I'm not trying to make all cats."

    「所有的貓都很漂亮,但我並不想要全部的貓。」

  • I'm trying to make a very specific cat.”

    「我就只是要那特定的一隻貓。」

  • A specific cat with qualities like rosettes, the naturally occurring marks on leopards

    那隻特定的貓要有一種會出現在美洲豹身上的花紋

  • that he describes as a pattern,

    Anthony 形容那個花紋

  • “…with that same spot that's maybe black or brown, and in the center of that spot is

    「必須要有那黑色或咖啡色的斑點,然後在那斑點中間

  • a color somewhere between, say yellow or orange-”

    要有一個介於黃色和橘色中間的色澤。」

  • You get the picture, Anthony knows what he wants his cats to look like.

    看著照片, Anthony 知道他理想中的貓咪該長怎樣

  • But selective breeding can put animals at risk if breeders pair close relatives.

    因為近親繁殖的問題,選擇性繁殖可能會使動物有生命危險

  • So to prevent inbreeding, owners like Vicki Jeffers come to cat shows.

    為了預防近親繁殖,像 Vicki Jeffers 這樣的飼主也會來到貓展

  • Where they can exchange cats in order to develop new traits,

    在這裡,牠們能夠交換貓咪,進而獲得新的特徵

  • like the shaggy coat we saw on this longhair Bengal.

    像是我們在這隻長毛孟加拉貓身上看到的柔軟蓬鬆的皮毛

  • If I bred her to Jefferson I might get the beautiful tail and the nice ears"

    「如果我讓牠跟 Jefferson 交配,我可能可以得到漂亮的尾巴還有好看的耳朵。」

  • "and the kittens might get this wonderful pattern."

    「而那隻貓可能可以得到這漂亮的花紋。」

  • So what you do is you look for traits in cats that yours don't have"

    「所以你要做的事就是,在貓咪中找尋你的貓咪沒有的特徵。」

  • "and you look at the pedigrees to be sure that you are not inbreeding too much.”

    「並看一下族譜以確保並不是近親繁殖。」

  • To avoid inbreeding, breeders need a large gene pool,

    為了預防近親繁殖,培育者必須有一個非常大的基因庫

  • which means breeding large numbers of cats.

    也就是說要繁殖很大數量的貓

  • People are convinced that there are too many cats in the world"

    「人們確信世界上已經有太多的貓咪了。」

  • "and there are an awful lot of cats in rescue."

    「而更糟糕的是,有很大的一群貓需要救援。」

  • "And they say, 'well, here you are breeding superfluous cats"

    「他們會說『世界已經上有那麼多貓在等一個家,

  • " 'when there are cats that are wanting for a home.' "

    而你們又培育出更多的貓。』」

  • "And, I mean, they have a point."

    「的確,他們很有道理。」

  • "They have an important point."

    「非常有道理。」

  • "But if you look at these cats, they justify the breeding"

    「但當你看著這些貓咪,如此美好的動物」

  • "because they are just wonderful, wonderful, animals.”

    「培育這件事也就被正當化了。」

  • Animals like Anthony's cat Ovation.

    像是 Anthony 的貓 Ovation

  • Her name's Ovation, she's the greatest cat in the world.”

    「牠叫做 Ovation 。 牠是世界上最棒的貓。」

  • And while the development of bengals has taken decades, other breeds are just getting started.

    除了幾十年來的孟加拉貓培育外,其他的混種繁殖也在悄悄起步

  • This is a Savannah,

    這是 Savannah

  • which were developed by breeding domestic cats

    牠是家貓和居住在非洲大草原

  • with a serval: a wild carnivore native to African savannahs.

    野生肉食性的藪貓所繁殖出來的

  • Unlike the Bengals,

    不像孟加拉貓

  • we found just a few cats at this booth.

    此種混種的數量不多

  • and that's because the Savannah is a newer breed.

    因為這是一個較新培育出的混種

  • The first F1 Savannah was born in 1986.

    第一隻 F1 藪貓混種出生於 1986 年

  • So there are fewer late generation Savannahs compared to Bengals.

    所以相較於孟加拉貓,培育出的後代數量少了很多

  • A cat like this can cost over a thousand dollars.

    這樣的貓價值超過一千美元

  • But earlier generations of Savannahs are even more expensive

    但更之前的培育種價值更高

  • An F1 Savannah can cost upwards of $20,000 and owning one isn't only expensive.

    一隻 F1 藪貓混種要價超過兩萬美元,而擁有這種貓不只要價昂貴

  • It can be illegal, depending on local laws.

    依照當地法律,還可能犯法

  • In New York State, it's legal to own a hybrid as long as it's sixth generation or later.

    在紐約,養育第六代以後的混種是合法的

  • But any generation of Savannah is illegal in New York City.

    但不論是第幾代的藪貓混種都是不合法的

  • So even though these cats had a special exemption, the cats we saw at this show--

    即使這些在展場上的貓有豁免權

  • they're technically illegal.

    他們基本上是觸法的

  • And that's a major reason why breeders come to the show.

    而這也是為甚麼這些人會來這個展覽

  • By showing their cats, breeders hope to demonstrate that hybrid species

    藉由展示他們的貓咪,他們希望能宣揚

  • are just as safe as any other cat.

    這些混種貓其實和一般貓咪一樣安全的理念

  • But what if you aren't into leopards, what if you what you really want is a tiny tiger?

    但要是你沒那麼喜歡美洲豹,要是你其實想要的是一隻小老虎呢

  • This is Tony, one of Toygers we met.

    這是 Tony,牠是我們遇見的其中一隻玩具虎貓

  • That's Toyger fortoyandtiger”.

    玩具虎貓是由「玩具」及「老虎」兩個單字組成

  • This newer breed was created by Judy Sudden.

    牠們是由 Judy Sugden 所培育出來的新種

  • And before you make any assumptions, NO, she did not breed a tiger with a house cat.

    在你下任何定論前,沒有,她沒有讓家貓和老虎繁殖

  • As feline geneticist Steven O'Brien explained to me, that...wouldn't work.

    貓科基因學家 Steven O' Brien 向我解釋這不可能成功

  • As the time has elapsed, the further apart a species might be to another species,"

    「隨著時間消逝,兩種演化的越來越遠的物種,

  • "the less likely they will produce fertile offspring at all."

    越不可能孕育出具有生殖能力的下一代。」

  • "The reason is evolution is a gradual process.”

    「因為演化是一個漸進的過程,」

  • If you look at the cat family tree, you can see that domestic cats

    「如果你看貓科的族譜,你可以看出家貓

  • and asian leopard cats

    和亞州石虎

  • separated from a common ancestor about 6 million years ago,

    在六億年前由同一個祖先所演化,

  • which is about half the time that has passed since they

    這段時間是他們和大貓,像是獅子和老虎

  • separated from great cats, like lions and tigers.

    開始出現分歧的時間的一半。」

  • It's not exactly half, but it's on that order."

    「沒有很準確的一半,但是依照著那樣的順序沒錯。」

  • "So there has been twice as much time for gene differences that inhibit compatibility."

    「所以基因的不同也多了兩倍的時間來抑制融合。」

  • "Which means that you are twice as likely to have generated reproductive isolation,"

    「也就是說,多了兩倍的機率產生生殖隔離。」

  • "which just means it's just not gonna work, Charlie."

    「簡單來說,就是不可能, Charlie 。」

  • "It's just not gonna work."

    「這不可能成功。」

  • It's not gonna work means you can't breed with tigers.

    不可能成功代表你不能和老虎進行繁殖

  • So Judy Sugden created Toygers by selectively breeding domestic cats.

    所以 Judy Sugden 藉由挑選特定家貓來繁殖出玩具虎貓

  • “…and so then you breed that kitten to another kitten…”

    「所以你讓這隻貓和那隻貓繁殖。」

  • As a result, there's nothing wild about these guys.

    因此,牠們和野性沒有任何關聯

  • We just wanna go until…"

    「我們會一直繁殖直到

  • "To make it reminiscent of a big cat."

    「他看起來就像老虎。」

  • "And so, on a tiger, the chin is big and kind of sticks out."

    「就老虎來說,牠們的下巴很大並且突出」

  • Well, they are beautiful."

    「牠們真漂亮。」

  • Well, thank you very much

    「非常感謝你。」

  • And while breeding a tiny tiger might seem ambitious,

    也許培育出一隻小老虎可能看似太過野心勃勃

  • Judy had help along the way.

    Judy 似乎離目標不遠

  • “I started breeding in the mid Eighties."

    「我從八零年代中間就開始繁殖。」

  • "My mother developed the bengal and that was to look like a little leopard."

    「我的母親創造了看起來向美洲豹的孟加拉貓,」

  • "So I said, as we were watching that thing progress,"

    「所以我提議,在看著孟加拉貓持續進展的同時,」

  • "Well maybe we need a little tiger!”

    「我們可能也需要一隻小老虎。」

  • Judy's mother is Jean Mill.

    Judy 的母親是 Jean Mill。

  • The first American Bengal breeder and Anthony Hutcherson's mentor.

    美國第一位培育出孟加拉貓,且是 Anthony Hutherson 的導師

  • It turns out, the world cat breeders is pretty small.

    由此可見,貓咪飼育者的世界真的很小呢

  • Like Anthony, Judy has spent her entire life

    和 Anthony 一樣,Judy 投入了一生

  • developing a new breed to resemble its wild counterpart.

    為了創造出一個能夠和野生老虎相像的混種

  • "His name is Tony."

    「牠叫做 Tony 。」

  • And also like Anthony, she's still pursuing that goal.

    和 Anthony 一樣,她也還在追尋著目標

  • "What's your name again?"

    「再次請問你的名字是?」

  • -"Max"

    「Max。」

  • "Max. Anthony. I'm Anthony."

    「Max Anthhony。我是 Anthony。」

  • Because although you might think these cats

    儘管看著這些貓咪

  • already look like tiny tigers

    牠們已經長得很像小老虎

  • and little leopards,

    或是小美洲豹

  • they see something we don't.

    他們看到了一些我們看不到的東西

  • Something to improve.

    需要改進

  • Something that will keep pushing them closer to that goal:

    看到那些激勵他們向目標更邁進一步的東西

  • the cat that they always dreamed of.

    就是他們理想中的貓

  • My motivation hasn't changed."

    「我的動機從未改變。」

  • "And...I went back to the public libraries and used bookstores and I bought those books."

    「我回到公共圖書館並在書局買下那些書。」

  • "Because they inspired me then and,"

    「因為那些書啟發了我,」

  • "in moments when I think my fellow breeders have no idea what they are doing"

    「在我認為我的同伴們毫無頭緒,」

  • "or I question how many litter boxes I can clean in a day,"

    「或是我開始問自己我每天到底清了多少垃圾桶,」

  • "I still flip through those books and think,"

    「我會翻開那些書,然後想,」

  • "Well, I'm almost there."

    「我就快成功了。」

This story is about small cats...

這是關於小型貓咪的故事

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 Vox 貓咪 老虎 繁殖 寵物 玩具

迎接具有野性血統的設計師貓咪 (Meet the designer cats with wild blood)

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    Evangeline 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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