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  • This story is about small cats...


  • ...that look like big cats...


  • and the people that made that possible.


  • But before we get there, let's back up a bit.


  • We went to an event at the Westminster Dog Show

    我們去了 Westminster 的狗展

  • and this year cats were invited.


  • So we went to film them, and we weren't the only ones.


  • In the middle of a crowd there was a man, holding his pet cat called a Bengal.

    在人群中有個男人,捧著他那叫做 Bengal 的寵物貓

  • That's Anthony Hutcherson and his whole life, he's had one dream:

    他是 Anthony Hutcherson 。他此生只有一個夢想

  • “I always wanted a pet leopard, or a pet ocelot.”


  • Wanting a pet ocelot might sound odd, but until recently


  • owning an exotic cat was not unheard of.


  • People had pet leopards


  • and pet cheetahs


  • and here's Salvador Dali and his pet ocelot named Babou.

    而這是 Salvador Dali 的寵物豹貓 Babou

  • But exotic cats weren't just for celebrities, this family in Denver had a pet leopard.

    異國貓並不只是名人的寵物。這個居住在 Denver 的家庭就養了隻美洲豹

  • They named him Pasha.

    他們叫他 Pasha

  • Growing up, Anthony found books about owning a pet ocelot, and he was fascinated.

    在成長過程中, Anthony 找到一本關於養一隻豹貓的書,並感到極度著迷

  • Fortunately the library was a little outdated so there were still books from The Fifties"

    「很幸運的,學校的圖書館有點過時,所以一些 50 和 60 年代

  • "and Sixties in my public school that said things about having a pet ocelot, and made"


  • "it seem normal...and I thought that could be me too!”

    而我想,我也能成為這樣的人啊 !」

  • But in the 1970s, authorities began restricting ownership and seizing exotic pets.

    但在 1970 年代時,政府開始限制並補抓異國貓

  • So, instead of owning an ocelot, Anthony's dream became

    因此,放棄養一隻豹貓,Anthony 的夢想

  • breeding a pet cat that looked just like one.


  • He began after seeing a magazine at a grocery store,


  • "At the checkout: like, alien spotted and woman creates domestic cat that looks like"


  • "leopard and so, I remembered it, and followed up and found her, and called her.”


  • The woman on the phone was Jean Mill, the first American Bengal breeder.

    那個女人是 Jean Mill,美國第一個孟加拉貓的培育者

  • At one point I remember saying to her,"


  • " 'no, I can't afford these cats, but I really want one, this is my dream.' "


  • " ' I really wanna do it.' "

    「那是我夢寐以求的 ! 」

  • "I described to her in specific detail what I wanted and she said,"


  • " 'That cat doesn't exist. I want that too.' '”


  • Jean told Anthony about asian leopard cats: a wild species native to Asia that was bred

    Jean 向 Anthony 介紹石虎,一種生於亞州的野生種

  • with a domestic cat in order to create a first generation hybrid, called an "F1",

    並和家貓交配生出了第一代的混種,他們給這樣的品種稱為 F1

  • which is 50% wild, 50% domestic.


  • Jean owned an F1, which she received from Dr. Willard Centerwall,

    Jean 從一位任職於羅馬琳達大學的科學家 Willard Centerwall 那裏

  • a scientist at Loma Linda University.

    拿到一隻第一代 (F1) 的混種貓

  • Dr. Centerwall was breeding hybrid cats in order to study their leukemia heredity factors,

    Centerwall 博士培育這種混種貓是為了研究牠們白血病的遺傳因素

  • which could help in understanding and combatting leukemia in human beings.


  • But he only needed their genetic samples and once he bred the cats they needed homes,


  • so that's how Jean Mill received an F1 kitten in 1980.

    這就是為甚麼 Jean Mill 在 1980 年得到一隻 F1 混種貓

  • By breeding her F1 with a domestic cat, Jean created second generation hybrids.

    藉使 F1 混種貓與家貓交配, Jean 培育出了第二代的混種

  • But the males were sterile, so Jean could only continue breeding through the female offspring.

    但雄性混種無法生育,因此 Jean 僅能以雌性後代來進行培育

  • And when they are four generations away from the asian leopard cat, fertility is much"


  • "more regular and, in terms of being able to be shown and be considered a 'domestic cat',"


  • "they have to be four generations away from the asian leopard cat"


  • *banging sound*


  • "Sorry, that's my cats running through the room!”


  • By reaching the fourth generation, Jean had developed a new breed: the Bengal,

    培育出第四代後, Jean 得到了新的混種:孟加拉貓

  • which was officially recognized by The International Cat Association in 1986.

    而孟加拉貓也在 1986 年被國際貓協會所認可

  • After his phone call with Jean, Anthony decided to start breeding on his own,

    和 Jean 通過電話後, Anthony 決定自己培育出屬於自己的貓

  • so he bought an F1 bengal and began attending cat shows.

    所以他買了一隻 F1 混種貓,並開始參加貓咪展覽

  • This cat is awesome.”


  • For the future of the Bengals, I'd like to see them"


  • "move more in a direction toward looking wild."


  • "Being instantly identified as 'oooooh.' "


  • "But I want them to be as sweet, turn them over on their side, or pull on their tail,"


  • "or kiss them, if you have to.”


  • *applause*”


  • Over the years, Anthony's goal hasn't changed.

    年復一年, Anthony 的目標一直沒有改變

  • He's continued to pursue it by carefully selecting cats for his breeding program.


  • When I make that decision to breed them,"


  • "I have an idea of what I think the kittens will look like"


  • "and when they are born I try to pick the one"


  • "that looks the most like what I wanted it to look like."


  • It's like any good chef will probably tell you."


  • "it's not adding a bunch of different stuff into a soup."


  • "It's what you choose to add and how much and when you add it.”


  • Choosing breeding partners to develop certain traits is called "selective breeding".


  • All cats are beautiful, but I'm not trying to make all cats."


  • I'm trying to make a very specific cat.”


  • A specific cat with qualities like rosettes, the naturally occurring marks on leopards


  • that he describes as a pattern,

    Anthony 形容那個花紋

  • “…with that same spot that's maybe black or brown, and in the center of that spot is


  • a color somewhere between, say yellow or orange-”


  • You get the picture, Anthony knows what he wants his cats to look like.

    看著照片, Anthony 知道他理想中的貓咪該長怎樣

  • But selective breeding can put animals at risk if breeders pair close relatives.


  • So to prevent inbreeding, owners like Vicki Jeffers come to cat shows.

    為了預防近親繁殖,像 Vicki Jeffers 這樣的飼主也會來到貓展

  • Where they can exchange cats in order to develop new traits,


  • like the shaggy coat we saw on this longhair Bengal.


  • If I bred her to Jefferson I might get the beautiful tail and the nice ears"

    「如果我讓牠跟 Jefferson 交配,我可能可以得到漂亮的尾巴還有好看的耳朵。」

  • "and the kittens might get this wonderful pattern."


  • So what you do is you look for traits in cats that yours don't have"


  • "and you look at the pedigrees to be sure that you are not inbreeding too much.”


  • To avoid inbreeding, breeders need a large gene pool,


  • which means breeding large numbers of cats.


  • People are convinced that there are too many cats in the world"


  • "and there are an awful lot of cats in rescue."


  • "And they say, 'well, here you are breeding superfluous cats"


  • " 'when there are cats that are wanting for a home.' "


  • "And, I mean, they have a point."


  • "They have an important point."


  • "But if you look at these cats, they justify the breeding"


  • "because they are just wonderful, wonderful, animals.”


  • Animals like Anthony's cat Ovation.

    像是 Anthony 的貓 Ovation

  • Her name's Ovation, she's the greatest cat in the world.”

    「牠叫做 Ovation 。 牠是世界上最棒的貓。」

  • And while the development of bengals has taken decades, other breeds are just getting started.


  • This is a Savannah,

    這是 Savannah

  • which were developed by breeding domestic cats


  • with a serval: a wild carnivore native to African savannahs.


  • Unlike the Bengals,


  • we found just a few cats at this booth.


  • and that's because the Savannah is a newer breed.


  • The first F1 Savannah was born in 1986.

    第一隻 F1 藪貓混種出生於 1986 年

  • So there are fewer late generation Savannahs compared to Bengals.


  • A cat like this can cost over a thousand dollars.


  • But earlier generations of Savannahs are even more expensive


  • An F1 Savannah can cost upwards of $20,000 and owning one isn't only expensive.

    一隻 F1 藪貓混種要價超過兩萬美元,而擁有這種貓不只要價昂貴

  • It can be illegal, depending on local laws.


  • In New York State, it's legal to own a hybrid as long as it's sixth generation or later.


  • But any generation of Savannah is illegal in New York City.


  • So even though these cats had a special exemption, the cats we saw at this show--


  • they're technically illegal.


  • And that's a major reason why breeders come to the show.


  • By showing their cats, breeders hope to demonstrate that hybrid species


  • are just as safe as any other cat.


  • But what if you aren't into leopards, what if you what you really want is a tiny tiger?


  • This is Tony, one of Toygers we met.

    這是 Tony,牠是我們遇見的其中一隻玩具虎貓

  • That's Toyger fortoyandtiger”.


  • This newer breed was created by Judy Sudden.

    牠們是由 Judy Sugden 所培育出來的新種

  • And before you make any assumptions, NO, she did not breed a tiger with a house cat.


  • As feline geneticist Steven O'Brien explained to me, that...wouldn't work.

    貓科基因學家 Steven O' Brien 向我解釋這不可能成功

  • As the time has elapsed, the further apart a species might be to another species,"


  • "the less likely they will produce fertile offspring at all."


  • "The reason is evolution is a gradual process.”


  • If you look at the cat family tree, you can see that domestic cats


  • and asian leopard cats


  • separated from a common ancestor about 6 million years ago,


  • which is about half the time that has passed since they


  • separated from great cats, like lions and tigers.


  • It's not exactly half, but it's on that order."


  • "So there has been twice as much time for gene differences that inhibit compatibility."


  • "Which means that you are twice as likely to have generated reproductive isolation,"


  • "which just means it's just not gonna work, Charlie."

    「簡單來說,就是不可能, Charlie 。」

  • "It's just not gonna work."


  • It's not gonna work means you can't breed with tigers.


  • So Judy Sugden created Toygers by selectively breeding domestic cats.

    所以 Judy Sugden 藉由挑選特定家貓來繁殖出玩具虎貓

  • “…and so then you breed that kitten to another kitten…”


  • As a result, there's nothing wild about these guys.


  • We just wanna go until…"


  • "To make it reminiscent of a big cat."


  • "And so, on a tiger, the chin is big and kind of sticks out."


  • Well, they are beautiful."


  • Well, thank you very much


  • And while breeding a tiny tiger might seem ambitious,


  • Judy had help along the way.

    Judy 似乎離目標不遠

  • “I started breeding in the mid Eighties."


  • "My mother developed the bengal and that was to look like a little leopard."


  • "So I said, as we were watching that thing progress,"


  • "Well maybe we need a little tiger!”


  • Judy's mother is Jean Mill.

    Judy 的母親是 Jean Mill。

  • The first American Bengal breeder and Anthony Hutcherson's mentor.

    美國第一位培育出孟加拉貓,且是 Anthony Hutherson 的導師

  • It turns out, the world cat breeders is pretty small.


  • Like Anthony, Judy has spent her entire life

    和 Anthony 一樣,Judy 投入了一生

  • developing a new breed to resemble its wild counterpart.


  • "His name is Tony."

    「牠叫做 Tony 。」

  • And also like Anthony, she's still pursuing that goal.

    和 Anthony 一樣,她也還在追尋著目標

  • "What's your name again?"


  • -"Max"


  • "Max. Anthony. I'm Anthony."

    「Max Anthhony。我是 Anthony。」