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  • This story is about small cats...

    這是關於小型貓咪的故事

  • ...that look like big cats...

    那看起來是大貓

  • and the people that made that possible.

    使那成真的人

  • But before we get there, let's back up a bit.

    在我們講到那裏之前,先來點背景資訊吧

  • We went to an event at the Westminster Dog Show

    我們去了 Westminster 的狗展

  • and this year cats were invited.

    而今年,貓咪也受到了邀請

  • So we went to film them, and we weren't the only ones.

    我們前去拍攝他們,而我們也不是唯一這麼做的人

  • In the middle of a crowd there was a man, holding his pet cat called a Bengal.

    在人群中有個男人,捧著他那叫做 Bengal 的寵物貓

  • That's Anthony Hutcherson and his whole life, he's had one dream:

    他是 Anthony Hutcherson 。他此生只有一個夢想

  • “I always wanted a pet leopard, or a pet ocelot.”

    「我一直想要有一隻寵物美洲豹,或是寵物豹貓。」

  • Wanting a pet ocelot might sound odd, but until recently

    想要養一隻豹貓當寵物可能有點奇怪,但在此之前

  • owning an exotic cat was not unheard of.

    養一隻異國貓可不是件新聞

  • People had pet leopards

    人們養過美洲豹

  • and pet cheetahs

    印度獵豹

  • and here's Salvador Dali and his pet ocelot named Babou.

    而這是 Salvador Dali 的寵物豹貓 Babou

  • But exotic cats weren't just for celebrities, this family in Denver had a pet leopard.

    異國貓並不只是名人的寵物。這個居住在 Denver 的家庭就養了隻美洲豹

  • They named him Pasha.

    他們叫他 Pasha

  • Growing up, Anthony found books about owning a pet ocelot, and he was fascinated.

    在成長過程中, Anthony 找到一本關於養一隻豹貓的書,並感到極度著迷

  • Fortunately the library was a little outdated so there were still books from The Fifties"

    「很幸運的,學校的圖書館有點過時,所以一些 50 和 60 年代

  • "and Sixties in my public school that said things about having a pet ocelot, and made"

    關於養豹貓當寵物的書都還有留著,並讓這件事看起來很正常

  • "it seem normal...and I thought that could be me too!”

    而我想,我也能成為這樣的人啊 !」

  • But in the 1970s, authorities began restricting ownership and seizing exotic pets.

    但在 1970 年代時,政府開始限制並補抓異國貓

  • So, instead of owning an ocelot, Anthony's dream became

    因此,放棄養一隻豹貓,Anthony 的夢想

  • breeding a pet cat that looked just like one.

    變成養一隻跟豹貓一模一樣的貓

  • He began after seeing a magazine at a grocery store,

    他在一間雜貨店裡找到一本雜誌

  • "At the checkout: like, alien spotted and woman creates domestic cat that looks like"

    「在雜誌的封面寫著,看到外星人啦,還有培育出看起來像

  • "leopard and so, I remembered it, and followed up and found her, and called her.”

    美洲豹的家貓的女人。我印象深刻並繼續追查,最後找到了她,我也打給她。」

  • The woman on the phone was Jean Mill, the first American Bengal breeder.

    那個女人是 Jean Mill,美國第一個孟加拉貓的培育者

  • At one point I remember saying to her,"

    「我記得我對他說

  • " 'no, I can't afford these cats, but I really want one, this is my dream.' "

    我付不起錢買這些貓,但我真的想要一隻,這是我的夢想。」

  • " ' I really wanna do it.' "

    「那是我夢寐以求的 ! 」

  • "I described to her in specific detail what I wanted and she said,"

    「我向她詳細描述我想養的貓,而她說

  • " 'That cat doesn't exist. I want that too.' '”

    『那樣的貓不存在,否則我也想要一隻。』」

  • Jean told Anthony about asian leopard cats: a wild species native to Asia that was bred

    Jean 向 Anthony 介紹石虎,一種生於亞州的野生種

  • with a domestic cat in order to create a first generation hybrid, called an "F1",

    並和家貓交配生出了第一代的混種,他們給這樣的品種稱為 F1

  • which is 50% wild, 50% domestic.

    一半野生一半家貓

  • Jean owned an F1, which she received from Dr. Willard Centerwall,

    Jean 從一位任職於羅馬琳達大學的科學家 Willard Centerwall 那裏

  • a scientist at Loma Linda University.

    拿到一隻第一代 (F1) 的混種貓

  • Dr. Centerwall was breeding hybrid cats in order to study their leukemia heredity factors,

    Centerwall 博士培育這種混種貓是為了研究牠們白血病的遺傳因素

  • which could help in understanding and combatting leukemia in human beings.

    藉由實驗結果來幫助了解及對抗人類的白血病

  • But he only needed their genetic samples and once he bred the cats they needed homes,

    但他只需要貓咪的基因樣本,一旦培育出混種,他就得替牠們找個家

  • so that's how Jean Mill received an F1 kitten in 1980.

    這就是為甚麼 Jean Mill 在 1980 年得到一隻 F1 混種貓

  • By breeding her F1 with a domestic cat, Jean created second generation hybrids.

    藉使 F1 混種貓與家貓交配, Jean 培育出了第二代的混種

  • But the males were sterile, so Jean could only continue breeding through the female offspring.

    但雄性混種無法生育,因此 Jean 僅能以雌性後代來進行培育

  • And when they are four generations away from the asian leopard cat, fertility is much"

    「當牠們培育到第四代時,生育更加地頻繁。」

  • "more regular and, in terms of being able to be shown and be considered a 'domestic cat',"

    「而為了能夠適合被當作家貓,」

  • "they have to be four generations away from the asian leopard cat"

    「第四代的混種貓是最為合適的。」

  • *banging sound*

    (乒乓聲)

  • "Sorry, that's my cats running through the room!”

    「抱歉,我的貓剛剛跑過房間。」

  • By reaching the fourth generation, Jean had developed a new breed: the Bengal,

    培育出第四代後, Jean 得到了新的混種:孟加拉貓

  • which was officially recognized by The International Cat Association in 1986.

    而孟加拉貓也在 1986 年被國際貓協會所認可

  • After his phone call with Jean, Anthony decided to start breeding on his own,

    和 Jean 通過電話後, Anthony 決定自己培育出屬於自己的貓

  • so he bought an F1 bengal and began attending cat shows.

    所以他買了一隻 F1 混種貓,並開始參加貓咪展覽

  • This cat is awesome.”

    「這隻貓超棒的。」

  • For the future of the Bengals, I'd like to see them"

    「為了孟加拉貓的未來,我希望牠們」

  • "move more in a direction toward looking wild."

    「能夠看起來越像野生種越好。」

  • "Being instantly identified as 'oooooh.' "

    「讓人們在第一眼看到牠們的時候發出驚呼。」

  • "But I want them to be as sweet, turn them over on their side, or pull on their tail,"

    「但牠們同時又能很溫馴,任你翻來翻去,或是拉尾巴。」

  • "or kiss them, if you have to.”

    「如果要親牠們的話,也沒問題。」

  • *applause*”

    (掌聲)

  • Over the years, Anthony's goal hasn't changed.

    年復一年, Anthony 的目標一直沒有改變

  • He's continued to pursue it by carefully selecting cats for his breeding program.

    他持續追尋他的目標,並謹慎地挑選那些參與他的計劃的貓咪

  • When I make that decision to breed them,"

    「當我選擇特定的貓咪來培育時,」

  • "I have an idea of what I think the kittens will look like"

    「我心裡會對我的貓咪該長甚麼樣子有一個大概想法。」

  • "and when they are born I try to pick the one"

    「而在牠們出生後,」

  • "that looks the most like what I wanted it to look like."

    「我會選出最符合我心中期待的那隻。」

  • It's like any good chef will probably tell you."

    「這就像一個好廚師會告訴你的。」

  • "it's not adding a bunch of different stuff into a soup."

    「一道美味的湯並不是一股腦地加入一堆食材,」

  • "It's what you choose to add and how much and when you add it.”

    「而是謹慎選擇要加甚麼、數量多寡,以及時機。」

  • Choosing breeding partners to develop certain traits is called "selective breeding".

    這種經過挑選而獲得特定特徵的繁殖方法稱為「選擇性繁殖」

  • All cats are beautiful, but I'm not trying to make all cats."

    「所有的貓都很漂亮,但我並不想要全部的貓。」

  • I'm trying to make a very specific cat.”

    「我就只是要那特定的一隻貓。」

  • A specific cat with qualities like rosettes, the naturally occurring marks on leopards

    那隻特定的貓要有一種會出現在美洲豹身上的花紋

  • that he describes as a pattern,

    Anthony 形容那個花紋

  • “…with that same spot that's maybe black or brown, and in the center of that spot is

    「必須要有那黑色或咖啡色的斑點,然後在那斑點中間

  • a color somewhere between, say yellow or orange-”

    要有一個介於黃色和橘色中間的色澤。」

  • You get the picture, Anthony knows what he wants his cats to look like.

    看著照片, Anthony 知道他理想中的貓咪該長怎樣

  • But selective breeding can put animals at risk if breeders pair close relatives.

    因為近親繁殖的問題,選擇性繁殖可能會使動物有生命危險

  • So to prevent inbreeding, owners like Vicki Jeffers come to cat shows.

    為了預防近親繁殖,像 Vicki Jeffers 這樣的飼主也會來到貓展

  • Where they can exchange cats in order to develop new traits,

    在這裡,牠們能夠交換貓咪,進而獲得新的特徵

  • like the shaggy coat we saw on this longhair Bengal.

    像是我們在這隻長毛孟加拉貓身上看到的柔軟蓬鬆的皮毛

  • If I bred her to Jefferson I might get the beautiful tail and the nice ears"

    「如果我讓牠跟 Jefferson 交配,我可能可以得到漂亮的尾巴還有好看的耳朵。」

  • "and the kittens might get this wonderful pattern."

    「而那隻貓可能可以得到這漂亮的花紋。」

  • So what you do is you look for traits in cats that yours don't have"

    「所以你要做的事就是,在貓咪中找尋你的貓咪沒有的特徵。」

  • "and you look at the pedigrees to be sure that you are not inbreeding too much.”

    「並看一下族譜以確保並不是近親繁殖。」

  • To avoid inbreeding, breeders need a large gene pool,

    為了預防近親繁殖,培育者必須有一個非常大的基因庫

  • which means breeding large numbers of cats.

    也就是說要繁殖很大數量的貓

  • People are convinced that there are too many cats in the world"

    「人們確信世界上已經有太多的貓咪了。」

  • "and there are an awful lot of cats in rescue."

    「而更糟糕的是,有很大的一群貓需要救援。」

  • "And they say, 'well, here you are breeding superfluous cats"

    「他們會說『世界已經上有那麼多貓在等一個家,

  • " 'when there are cats that are wanting for a home.' "

    而你們又培育出更多的貓。』」

  • "And, I mean, they have a point."

    「的確,他們很有道理。」

  • "They have an important point."

    「非常有道理。」

  • "But if you look at these cats, they justify the breeding"

    「但當你看著這些貓咪,如此美好的動物」

  • "because they are just wonderful, wonderful, animals.”

    「培育這件事也就被正當化了。」

  • Animals like Anthony's cat Ovation.

    像是 Anthony 的貓 Ovation

  • Her name's Ovation, she's the greatest cat in the world.”

    「牠叫做 Ovation 。 牠是世界上最棒的貓。」

  • And while the development of bengals has taken decades, other breeds are just getting started.

    除了幾十年來的孟加拉貓培育外,其他的混種繁殖也在悄悄起步

  • This is a Savannah,

    這是 Savannah

  • which were developed by breeding domestic cats

    牠是家貓和居住在非洲大草原

  • with a serval: a wild carnivore native to African savannahs.

    野生肉食性的藪貓所繁殖出來的

  • Unlike the Bengals,

    不像孟加拉貓

  • we found just a few cats at this booth.

    此種混種的數量不多

  • and that's because the Savannah is a newer breed.

    因為這是一個較新培育出的混種

  • The first F1 Savannah was born in 1986.

    第一隻 F1 藪貓混種出生於 1986 年

  • So there are fewer late generation Savannahs compared to Bengals.

    所以相較於孟加拉貓,培育出的後代數量少了很多

  • A cat like this can cost over a thousand dollars.

    這樣的貓價值超過一千美元

  • But earlier generations of Savannahs are even more expensive

    但更之前的培育種價值更高

  • An F1 Savannah can cost upwards of $20,000 and owning one isn't only expensive.

    一隻 F1 藪貓混種要價超過兩萬美元,而擁有這種貓不只要價昂貴

  • It can be illegal, depending on local laws.

    依照當地法律,還可能犯法

  • In New York State, it's legal to own a hybrid as long as it's sixth generation or later.

    在紐約,養育第六代以後的混種是合法的

  • But any generation of Savannah is illegal in New York City.

    但不論是第幾代的藪貓混種都是不合法的

  • So even though these cats had a special exemption, the cats we saw at this show--

    即使這些在展場上的貓有豁免權

  • they're technically illegal.

    他們基本上是觸法的

  • And that's a major reason why breeders come to the show.

    而這也是為甚麼這些人會來這個展覽

  • By showing their cats, breeders hope to demonstrate that hybrid species

    藉由展示他們的貓咪,他們希望能宣揚

  • are just as safe as any other cat.

    這些混種貓其實和一般貓咪一樣安全的理念

  • But what if you aren't into leopards, what if you what you really want is a tiny tiger?

    但要是你沒那麼喜歡美洲豹,要是你其實想要的是一隻小老虎呢

  • This is Tony, one of Toygers we met.

    這是 Tony,牠是我們遇見的其中一隻玩具虎貓

  • That's Toyger fortoyandtiger”.

    玩具虎貓是由「玩具」及「老虎」兩個單字組成

  • This newer breed was created by Judy Sudden.

    牠們是由 Judy Sugden 所培育出來的新種

  • And before you make any assumptions, NO, she did not breed a tiger with a house cat.

    在你下任何定論前,沒有,她沒有讓家貓和老虎繁殖

  • As feline geneticist Steven O'Brien explained to me, that...wouldn't work.

    貓科基因學家 Steven O' Brien 向我解釋這不可能成功

  • As the time has elapsed, the further apart a species might be to another species,"

    「隨著時間消逝,兩種演化的越來越遠的物種,

  • "the less likely they will produce fertile offspring at all."

    越不可能孕育出具有生殖能力的下一代。」

  • "The reason is evolution is a gradual process.”

    「因為演化是一個漸進的過程,」

  • If you look at the cat family tree, you can see that domestic cats

    「如果你看貓科的族譜,你可以看出家貓

  • and asian leopard cats

    和亞州石虎

  • separated from a common ancestor about 6 million years ago,

    在六億年前由同一個祖先所演化,

  • which is about half the time that has passed since they

    這段時間是他們和大貓,像是獅子和老虎

  • separated from great cats, like lions and tigers.

    開始出現分歧的時間的一半。」

  • It's not exactly half, but it's on that order."

    「沒有很準確的一半,但是依照著那樣的順序沒錯。」

  • "So there has been twice as much time for gene differences that inhibit compatibility."

    「所以基因的不同也多了兩倍的時間來抑制融合。」

  • "Which means that you are twice as likely to have generated reproductive isolation,"

    「也就是說,多了兩倍的機率產生生殖隔離。」

  • "which just means it's just not gonna work, Charlie."

    「簡單來說,就是不可能, Charlie 。」

  • "It's just not gonna work."

    「這不可能成功。」

  • It's not gonna work means you can't breed with tigers.

    不可能成功代表你不能和老虎進行繁殖

  • So Judy Sugden created Toygers by selectively breeding domestic cats.

    所以 Judy Sugden 藉由挑選特定家貓來繁殖出玩具虎貓

  • “…and so then you breed that kitten to another kitten…”

    「所以你讓這隻貓和那隻貓繁殖。」

  • As a result, there's nothing wild about these guys.

    因此,牠們和野性沒有任何關聯

  • We just wanna go until…"

    「我們會一直繁殖直到

  • "To make it reminiscent of a big cat."

    「他看起來就像老虎。」

  • "And so, on a tiger, the chin is big and kind of sticks out."

    「就老虎來說,牠們的下巴很大並且突出」

  • Well, they are beautiful."

    「牠們真漂亮。」

  • Well, thank you very much

    「非常感謝你。」

  • And while breeding a tiny tiger might seem ambitious,

    也許培育出一隻小老虎可能看似太過野心勃勃

  • Judy had help along the way.

    Judy 似乎離目標不遠

  • “I started breeding in the mid Eighties."

    「我從八零年代中間就開始繁殖。」

  • "My mother developed the bengal and that was to look like a little leopard."

    「我的母親創造了看起來向美洲豹的孟加拉貓,」

  • "So I said, as we were watching that thing progress,"

    「所以我提議,在看著孟加拉貓持續進展的同時,」

  • "Well maybe we need a little tiger!”

    「我們可能也需要一隻小老虎。」

  • Judy's mother is Jean Mill.

    Judy 的母親是 Jean Mill。

  • The first American Bengal breeder and Anthony Hutcherson's mentor.

    美國第一位培育出孟加拉貓,且是 Anthony Hutherson 的導師

  • It turns out, the world cat breeders is pretty small.

    由此可見,貓咪飼育者的世界真的很小呢

  • Like Anthony, Judy has spent her entire life

    和 Anthony 一樣,Judy 投入了一生

  • developing a new breed to resemble its wild counterpart.

    為了創造出一個能夠和野生老虎相像的混種

  • "His name is Tony."

    「牠叫做 Tony 。」

  • And also like Anthony, she's still pursuing that goal.

    和 Anthony 一樣,她也還在追尋著目標

  • "What's your name again?"

    「再次請問你的名字是?」

  • -"Max"

    「Max。」

  • "Max. Anthony. I'm Anthony."

    「Max Anthhony。我是 Anthony。」