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  • Imagine you're at a football game

    想像你在看一場足球賽

  • when this obnoxious guy sits next to you.

    你旁邊坐著一個討厭鬼

  • He's loud, he spills his drink on you, and he makes fun of your team.

    他講話很大聲、飲料灑到你,還嘲笑你支持的球隊

  • Days later, you're walking in the park

    幾天之後,你正在公園散步

  • when suddenly it starts to pour rain.

    突然開始下了一場大雨

  • Who should show up at your side

    誰應該出現在你身旁

  • to offer you an umbrella?

    給你一把雨傘呢?

  • The same guy from the football game.

    就是足球賽那個討厭鬼

  • Do you change your mind about him

    你會改變你對他的印象

  • based on this second encounter?

    根據你們第二次相遇嗎?

  • Or do you go with your first impression and write him off?

    還是你依舊相信你的第一印象不想要理他?

  • Research in social psychology suggests

    社會心理學的研究指出

  • that we're quick to form lasting impressions of others based on their behaviors.

    我們很快就能依據他人的行為產生長久印象

  • We manage to do this with little effort,

    我們很自然就這麼做

  • inferring stable character traits

    從單一行為舉止

  • from a single behavior,

    推論出長久的人格特質

  • like a harsh word

    像是說了很苛刻的話

  • or a clumsy step.

    或是犯了很傻的錯誤

  • Using our impressions as guides,

    我們用印象做為指引

  • we can accurately predict

    能夠準確的預測

  • how people are going to behave in the future.

    這些人在未來會有什麼樣的舉止

  • Armed with the knowledge

    有了這種知識

  • the guy from the football game

    足球比賽的那個傢伙

  • was a jerk the first time you met him,

    你第一次遇見他,覺得他是個混蛋

  • you might expect more of the same down the road.

    你可能會覺得他以後也是個混蛋

  • If so, you might choose to avoid him

    要是這樣,如果下一次你看到他

  • the next time you see him.

    你會選擇避開他

  • That said, we can change our impressions in light of new information.

    即便如此,我們還是可能因為新的資訊而改變對其他人的印象

  • Behavioral researchers have identified

    行為研究員指出

  • consistent patterns that seem to guide

    有一致的模式似乎會引導著

  • this process of impression updating.

    我們處理印象的過程

  • On one hand, learning very negative,

    一方面,知道關於某人非常負面

  • highly immoral information about someone

    非常不道德的資訊

  • typically has a stronger impact than learning very positive, highly moral information.

    比起得知某人非常正面、高度道德的資訊,基本上會有更強的影響

  • So, unfortunately for our new friend

    所以,我們足球場的新朋友

  • from the football game,

    很不幸的

  • his bad behavior at the game

    他在球場的壞行為

  • might outweigh his good behavior at the park.

    可能比他在公園的好行為還要強烈

  • Research suggests that this bias occurs because immoral behaviors are more diagnostic or revealing of a person's true character.

    研究指出之所以有這種偏見,是因為不道德的行為比較能判斷出或顯露出一個人真實的個性

  • Okay, so by this logic,

    好,依據這樣的邏輯

  • bad is always stronger than good

    當有新的印象出現時

  • when it comes to updating.

    壞的效果比好的效果來得強烈

  • Well, not necessarily.

    不過,也不盡然如此

  • Certain types of learning don't seem to lead

    特定幾種的學習似乎並不會

  • to this sort of negativity bias.

    導向這種負面偏見

  • When learning about another person's abilities and competencies, for instance,

    舉例來說,當你得知某人的能力、某人很稱職

  • this bias flips.

    這偏見就完全反過來了

  • It's actually the positive information

    事實上這種正面的資訊

  • that gets weighted more heavily.

    會變得更重要

  • Let's go back to that football game.

    讓我們再回到足球場

  • If a player scores a goal,

    足球員射門得分

  • it ultimately has a stronger impact

    這最後會有個更強的影響

  • on your impression of their skills

    加深你對他們球技的印象

  • than if they miss the net.

    他們若射門失敗,對印象的影響反而較小

  • The two sides of the updating story

    這兩種改變印象的故事

  • are ultimately quite consistent.

    在最後都相當有一致性

  • Overall, behaviors that are perceived

    總的來說

  • as being less frequent are also the ones that people tend to weigh more heavily when forming and updating impressions,

    在形成以及更新印象時,人們對不太常出現的行為,印象會比較深刻

  • highly immoral actions and highly competent actions.

    或是非常不道德的行為,和非常令人滿意的行為

  • So, what's happening at the level of the brain

    所以,當大腦在更新印象的時候

  • when we're updating our impressions?

    這中間到底發生了什麼事?

  • Using fMRI,

    透過 fMRI

  • or functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging,

    也就是功能性磁振造影

  • researchers have identified

    研究員指出

  • an extended network of brain regions

    有一塊大腦區域延伸出的網絡

  • that respond to new information

    對於和第一印象不同的

  • that's inconsistent with initial impressions.

    新資訊會有反應

  • These include areas typically associated

    這些區塊基本上都和

  • with social cognition,

    社會認知

  • attention,

    注意力

  • and cognitive control.

    以及認知控制有關

  • Moreover, when updating impressions

    此外,更新印象的時候

  • based on people's behaviors,

    若是以行為做基礎

  • activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

    在腹側前額葉皮質區

  • and the superior temporal sulcus

    以及上側顳葉溝的活動

  • correlates with perceptions

    和我們所認為

  • of how frequently those behaviors occur in daily life.

    那些行為在生活中出現的頻率有關

  • In other words, the brain seems to be tracking

    換言之,大腦似乎會根據

  • low-level, statistical properties of behavior

    統計中較低機率的行為特徵

  • in order to make complex decisions

    針對他人的個性

  • regarding other people's character.

    做出複雜的決定

  • It needs to decide

    大腦需要決定

  • is this person's behavior typical

    這個人的行為合乎常理嗎?

  • or is it out of the ordinary?

    還是違背常理?

  • In the situation with the obnoxious-football-fan-turned-good-samaritan, your brain says, "Well, in my experience, pretty much anyone would lend someone their umbrella, but the way this guy acted at the football game, that was unusual."

    在那個情況,討厭的足球迷最後成了好心人,你的大腦說:「嗯,根據我的經驗,很多人都可以借別人雨傘,但是這個人在足球場的舉止,卻只有他會這樣。」

  • And so, you decide to go with your first impression.

    所以,你還是決定相信第一印象

  • There's a good moral in this data:

    這份資料有個很好的寓意:

  • your brain, and by extension you,

    你的大腦,延伸出去就是你

  • might care more about

    會比較在乎

  • the very negative, immoral things

    另一個人所做的非常負面

  • another person has done

    非常不道德的事情

  • compared to the very positive, moral things,

    而非十分正面且道德的事

  • but it's a direct result

    但這個直接的結果

  • of the comparative rarity of those bad behaviors.

    存在於相對及少數的壞行為之中

  • We're more used to people being basically good,

    我們比較習慣他人友善

  • like taking time to help a stranger in need.

    像是花點時間去幫助需要的人

  • In this context, bad might be stronger than good,

    這種情況下,壞行為比好行為更強烈

  • but only because good is more plentiful.

    只是因為好行為占多數

  • Think about the last time you judged someone

    想一下你上一次根據他人行為

  • based on their behavior,

    而評斷某人的時候

  • especially a time when you really feel

    尤其是當你真心覺得

  • like you changed your mind about someone.

    你想改變你對某人印象的時候

  • Was the behavior that caused you

    那種讓你會

  • to update your impression

    改變印象的行為

  • something you'd expect anyone to do,

    是你認為大家都能做的

  • or was it something totally out of the ordinary?

    還是只有少數人才會做的?

Imagine you're at a football game

想像你在看一場足球賽

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 印象 行為 大腦 某人 舉止

【TED-Ed】你應該相信你的第一印象嗎?- Peter Mende-Siedlecki (【TED-Ed】Should you trust your first impression? - Peter Mende-Siedlecki)

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