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  • You may have noticed that I'm wearing two different shoes.

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: 易帆 余

  • It probably looks funny --

    各位可能有注意到, 我穿了兩隻不同的鞋子。

  • it definitely feels funny --

    看起來可能很古怪--

  • but I wanted to make a point.

    感覺起來肯定還更古怪--

  • Let's say my left shoe corresponds to a sustainable footprint,

    但我想要表達一個論點。

  • meaning we humans consume less natural resources

    假設說我的左腳鞋子 符合碳足跡永續經營,

  • than our planet can regenerate,

    意思就是說,我們人類 消耗的自然資源

  • and emit less carbon dioxide than our forests and oceans can reabsorb.

    比地球重新生成的量更少,

  • That's a stable and healthy condition.

    且釋放出的二氧化碳也比 我們的森林和海洋能吸收的量更少。

  • Today's situation is more like my other shoe.

    這是一種穩定且健康的狀況。

  • It's way oversized.

    現今的情況比較像我的另一隻鞋子。

  • At the second of August in 2017,

    它生產的方式對環境影響相當大。

  • we had already consumed all resources our planet can regenerate this year.

    在 2017 年8月2日,

  • This is like spending all your money until the 18th of a month

    我們就已經把該年地球能重新 生成的所有資源都消耗完了。

  • and then needing a credit from the bank for the rest of the time.

    這就像是在一個月的 18 號 就把你所有的錢花光了,

  • For sure, you can do this for some months in a row,

    接著剩下的時間就需要 用銀行發的信用卡。

  • but if you don't change your behavior,

    當然,你可以連續幾個月都這麼做,

  • sooner or later, you will run into big problems.

    但如果你都不改變你的行為,

  • We all know the devastating effects of this excessive exploitation:

    遲早,你會有大麻煩。

  • global warming,

    我們都知道這種過度使用 所造成的破壞性影響:

  • rising of the sea levels,

    全球暖化、

  • melting of the glaciers and polar ice,

    海平面上升、

  • increasingly extreme climate patterns and more.

    冰河和極冰溶化、

  • The enormity of this problem really frustrates me.

    氣候越來越極端等等。

  • What frustrates me even more is that there are solutions to this,

    這個問題的巨大程度,讓我很挫折。

  • but we keep doing things like we always did.

    讓我更挫折的是, 這個問題是有解決方案的,

  • Today I want to share with you

    但我們卻持續做過去一直在做的事。

  • how a new solar technology can contribute to a sustainable future of buildings.

    今天,我想和各位分享

  • Buildings consume about 40 percent of our total energy demand,

    一種新的太陽能技術如何能夠 協助達成建築物的永續未來。

  • so tackling this consumption

    我們的總能源需求中 有 40% 是被建築物所消耗的,

  • would significantly reduce our climate emissions.

    若能減少這種消耗,

  • A building designed along sustainable principles

    將能讓氣候排放顯著下降。

  • can produce all the power it needs by itself.

    依據永續原則設計的建築物

  • To achieve this,

    能夠產生它自己所需要的所有電力。

  • you first have to reduce the consumption as much as possible,

    要達成這個理想,

  • by using well-insulated walls or windows, for instance.

    先得要盡可能減少消耗,

  • These technologies are commercially available.

    比如使用隔熱效果 很好的牆壁或窗戶。

  • Then you need energy for warm water and heating.

    在商業上已經有在使用這些技術了。

  • You can get this in a renewable way from the sun

    接著,你需要能源 來供應熱水和暖氣。

  • through solar-thermal installations

    你可以從太陽取得再生能源,

  • or from the ground and air, with heat pumps.

    包括用太陽熱能的裝置,

  • All of these technologies are available.

    或用熱泵從地面與空氣取得能源。

  • Then you are left with the need for electricity.

    這些技術都是可行的。

  • In principle, there are several ways to get renewable electricity,

    還剩下的,就是對電力的需求。

  • but how many buildings do you know which have a windmill on the roof

    原則上,有幾種方式 可以取得再生電力,

  • or a water power plant in the garden?

    但你見過幾棟建築物, 在屋頂上有裝設風車?

  • Probably not so many, because usually, it doesn't make sense.

    或在花園裡有裝設水力發電廠?

  • But the sun provides abundant energy to our roofs and facades.

    可能沒有幾棟, 因為通常這並不合理。

  • The potential to harvest this energy at our buildings' surfaces is enormous.

    但太陽向我們的屋頂和建築物表面 提供了大量的能源。

  • Let's take Europe as an example.

    從建築物外牆取用這些 能源的潛力是非常大的。

  • If you would utilize all areas which have a nice orientation to the sun

    咱們用歐洲來當例子。

  • and they're not overly shaded,

    如果你可以利有所有理想的 日照方向區域,

  • the power generated by photovoltaics

    且它們沒有被過度遮蔽,

  • would correspond to about 30 percent of our total energy demand.

    太陽光電產生的電力,

  • But today's photovoltaics have some issues.

    相當於我們總能源需求的 30%。

  • They do offer a good cost-performance ratio,

    但現今的太陽光電有一些問題。

  • but they aren't really flexible in terms of their design,

    它們有不錯的成本效益比率,

  • and this makes aesthetics a challenge.

    但在設計上卻缺乏彈性,

  • People often imagine pictures like this

    這對美感而言是一項挑戰。

  • when thinking about solar cells on buildings.

    對於建築物上的太陽能板,

  • This may work for solar farms,

    大家心中的想像通常是這樣的。

  • but when you think of buildings, of streets, of architecture,

    在太陽能農場可能是可行的,

  • aesthetics does matter.

    但如果要用在建築物、街道、大樓,

  • This is the reason why we don't see many solar cells on buildings today.

    美感是很重要的。

  • They just don't match.

    這就是為什麼現今我們不會 在建築物上看到很多太陽能電板。

  • Our team is working on a totally different solar-cell technology,

    它們很不搭調。

  • which is called organic photovoltaics or OPV.

    我們的團隊正致力於一種 不同的太陽能板技術,

  • The term organic describes

    它叫做有機太陽光電,簡稱 OPV。

  • that the material used for light absorption and charge transport

    「有機」這個詞的意思是

  • are mainly based on the element carbon,

    用來吸收光以及進行載子傳輸的材料

  • and not on metals.

    是以碳元素為主,

  • We utilize the mixture of a polymer

    而不是金屬。

  • which is set up by different repeating units,

    我們將聚合物混合,

  • like the pearls in a pearl chain,

    以不同的重覆單位組成,

  • and a small molecule which has the shape of a football

    就像珍珠鏈的珍珠一樣,

  • and is called fullerene.

    還有一個形狀像是足球的小型分子,

  • These two compounds are mixed and dissolved to become an ink.

    它叫做球碳。

  • And like ink,

    這兩種化合物被混合起來, 溶解成為墨水。

  • they can be printed with simple printing techniques like slot-die coating

    就像墨水一樣,

  • in a continuous roll-to-roll process on flexible substrates.

    它們可以用簡單的印刷技術印刷,

  • The resulting thin layer is the active layer,

    例如在柔性基材上以連續的 卷對卷工藝進行槽模塗佈。

  • absorbing the energy of the sun.

    由此產生的薄層是活動層,

  • This active layer is extremely effective.

    吸收太陽的能量。

  • You only need a layer thickness of 0.2 micrometers

    這個活動層的效率相當高。

  • to absorb the energy of the sun.

    只需要 0.2 微米的厚度,

  • This is 100 times thinner than a human hair.

    就能吸收太陽的能源。

  • To give you another example,

    這厚度是一根頭髮的百分之一。

  • take one kilogram of the basic polymer

    再舉一個例子,

  • and use it to formulate the active ink.

    拿1公斤的基礎聚合物,

  • With this amount of ink,

    用它來配製出反應墨水。

  • you can print a solar cell the size of a complete football field.

    這墨水的量,

  • So OPV is extremely material efficient,

    可以印出一整個 美式足球場大小的太陽能板。

  • which I think is a crucial thing when talking about sustainability.

    所以,OPV 的材料效能非常好,

  • After the printing process,

    若要談永續,這是個很重要的關鍵。

  • you can have a solar module which could look like this ...

    在列印流程序之後,

  • It looks a bit like a plastic foil

    你可以產出一個 像這樣的太陽能組件…

  • and actually has many of its features.

    它看起來有點像是保鮮膜,

  • It's lightweight ...

    實際上也有許多保鮮膜的特性。

  • it's bendable ...

    它很輕…

  • and it's semi-transparent.

    它可以彎曲…

  • But it can harvest the energy of the sun outdoors

    且它是半透明的。

  • and also of this indoor light,

    但它能取得戶外太陽的能源,

  • as you can see with this small, illuminated LED.

    以及室內光的能源,

  • You can use it in its plastic form

    各位看到的這個就是個 小型的發光 LED。

  • and take advantage of its low weight and its bendability.

    你可以用它的塑膠形式,

  • The first is important when thinking about buildings in warmer regions.

    享受它的好處: 很輕的重量和可彎曲性。

  • Here, the roofs are not designed to bear additionally heavy loads.

    第一項好處對較溫暖地區的 建築物是很重要的。

  • They aren't designed for snow in winter, for instance,

    在這些地方,屋頂的設計 無法承受額外的重量。

  • so heavy silicon solar cells cannot be used for light harvesting,

    比如,它們不會設計來 承受冬天的降雪。

  • but these lightweight solar foils are very well suited.

    所以,不能用沉重的 矽太陽能板來取得光線,

  • The bendability is important

    但這些輕量的太陽能箔片非常適合。

  • if you want to combine the solar cell with membrane architecture.

    彎曲性也很重要,

  • Imagine the sails of the Sydney Opera as power plants.

    因為你可以把太陽能板 和建築膜材做結合。

  • Alternatively, you can combine the solar foils

    想像一下,雪黎歌劇院的 帆形屋頂變成了發電廠。

  • with conventional construction materials like glass.

    或是,你可以把太陽能箔片

  • Many glass facade elements contain a foil anyway,

    與玻璃等傳統建築材料結合使用。

  • to create laminated safety glass.

    反正許多玻璃牆的構件都含有箔片,

  • It's not a big deal to add a second foil in the production process,

    用它來打造夾層式安全玻璃。

  • but then the facade element contains the solar cell

    在生產過程中再加上 第二層箔片並不難,

  • and can produce electricity.

    但當建築物的外牆構件 包含了太陽能板時,

  • Besides looking nice,

    就能產生電力。

  • these integrated solar cells come along with two more important benefits.

    除了很好看以外,

  • Do you remember the solar cell attached to a roof I showed before?

    這些整合式的太陽能板 還有兩項益處。

  • In this case, we install the roof first,

    還記得剛剛我們看到 加在屋頂上的太陽能板嗎?

  • and as a second layer, the solar cell.

    在那個例子中,需要先安裝屋頂,

  • This is adding on the installation costs.

    太陽能板則是第二層。

  • In the case of integrated solar cells,

    因此安裝的成本會增加。

  • at the site of construction, only one element is installed,

    若改成整合式的太陽能板,

  • being at the same time the envelope of the building

    在建地就只要安裝一項構件,

  • and the solar cell.

    它既是建築物外牆,

  • Besides saving on the installation costs,

    也是太陽能板。

  • this also saves resources,

    除了能省下安裝成本,

  • because the two functions are combined into one element.

    也能節省資源,

  • Earlier, I've talked about optics.

    因為兩種功能被結合 在一個構件當中。

  • I really like this solar panel --

    早先,我有談到光學。

  • maybe you have different taste or different design needs ...

    我真的很喜歡這種太陽能板--

  • No problem.

    也許你有不同的品味 或不同的設計需求…

  • With the printing process,

    不成問題。

  • the solar cell can change its shape and design very easily.

    只要有列印程序,

  • This will give the flexibility to architects,

    太陽能板的形狀就能任意改變, 設計上也非常容易。

  • to planners and building owners,

    這就能提供更大的彈性給建築師、

  • to integrate this electricity-producing technology as they wish.

    規劃師,以及建築物擁有人,

  • I want to stress that this is not just happening in the labs.

    依照他們的想法 來整合這項發電技術。

  • It will take several more years to get to mass adoption,

    我想要強調,這並不只是 在實驗室中測試的技術。

  • but we are at the edge of commercialization,

    會需要數年的時間 才能被大規模採用,

  • meaning there are several companies out there with production lines.

    但我們處在商業化的邊緣,

  • They are scaling up their capacities,

    意思就是,有幾間公司都有生產線了。

  • and so are we, with the inks.

    它們正在增加產能,

  • (Shoe drops)

    我們則是在墨水上努力。

  • This smaller footprint is much more comfortable.

    (鞋子落下)

  • (Laughter)

    足跡比較小的這雙舒服多了。

  • It is the right size, the right scale.

    (笑聲)

  • We have to come back to the right scale when it comes to energy consumption.

    它的尺寸吻合,尺碼正確。

  • And making buildings carbon-neutral is an important part here.

    對於能源消耗,我們得要 回到對的尺碼上。

  • In Europe,

    讓建築物碳中合也是很重要的。

  • we have the goal to decarbonize our building stock [by] 2050.

    在歐洲,

  • I hope organic photovoltaics will be a big part of this.

    我們的目標是要在 2050 年 把新建的建築物都脫碳。

  • Here are a couple of examples.

    我希望有機光電會扮演重要的角色。

  • This is the first commercial installation of fully printed organic solar cells.

    以下是幾個例子。

  • "Commercial" means that the solar cells were printed on industrial equipment.

    這是有機太陽能板 第一次做商業性裝設。

  • The so-called "solar trees" were part of the German pavilion

    「商業性」的意思是,太陽能板 能在工業設備上列印出來。

  • at the World Expo in Milan in 2015.

    這個「太陽能樹」是 2015 年米蘭

  • They provided shading during the day

    世界博覽會中德國展示館的一部分。

  • and electricity for the lighting in the evening.

    在白天,它能遮陽,

  • You may wonder why this hexagonal shape was chosen for the solar cells.

    在晚上則提供光照所需要的電力。

  • Easy answer:

    你們可能會納悶,為什麼 太陽能板要用六角形的?