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  • Good evening, welcome to New Orleans.

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Yanyan Hong

  • I don't know if you knew this,

    晚安,歡迎來到紐奧良。

  • but you are sitting within 15 minutes of one of the largest rivers in the world:

    不知道各位是否知道,

  • the Mississippi river.

    各位所坐的地方,距離世界上 最大的河流之一:密西西比河,

  • Old Man River, Big Muddy.

    僅 15 分鐘。

  • And it goes as far north as the state of Minnesota,

    它出現在歌曲《老人河》 和電影《大泥沼》中。

  • as far east as the state of New York,

    它向北一路通到明尼蘇達州,

  • as far west as Montana.

    向東到紐約州,

  • And 100 miles from here, river miles,

    向西則到蒙大拿州。

  • it empties its fresh water and sediments into the Gulf of Mexico.

    距離這裡 100 英哩,河流的英哩,

  • That's the end of Geography 101.

    它把淡水和沉積物帶入墨西哥灣。

  • (Laughter)

    地理學入門到此為止。

  • Now we're going to go to what is in that water.

    (笑聲)

  • Besides the sediment, there are dissolved molecules, nitrogen and phosphorus.

    現在,我們要來談談水裡有什麼。

  • And those, through a biological process,

    除了沉積物, 還有溶解的分子、氮和磷。

  • lead to the formation of areas called dead zones.

    它們透過生物過程,

  • Now, dead zone is a quite ominous word

    就會導致所謂「死亡區」的形成。

  • if you're a fish or a crab.

    死亡區是個很不吉利的詞,

  • (Laughter)

    如果你是魚或螃蟹的話。

  • Even a little worm in the sediments.

    (笑聲)

  • Which means that there's not enough oxygen

    甚至是沉積物中的小蟲。

  • for those animals to survive.

    這表示,沒有足夠的氧氣

  • So, how does this happen?

    供那些動物存活。

  • The nitrogen and the phosphorus

    為什麼會發生這種狀況?

  • stimulate the growth of microscopic plants called phytoplankton.

    氮和磷刺激

  • And small animals called zooplankton eat the phytoplankton,

    名為「浮游植物」的微生植物生長。

  • small fish eat the zooplankton, large fish eat the small fish

    名為「浮游動物」的小型動物 會去吃浮游植物,

  • and it goes on up into the food web.

    小魚會吃浮游動物,大魚會吃小魚,

  • The problem is that there's just too much nitrogen and phosphorus right now,

    以此類推到整個食物鏈。

  • too much phytoplankton falling to the bottom

    問題是,現在有太多的氮和磷了,

  • and decomposed by bacteria that use up the oxygen.

    太多浮游植物落到底部,

  • That's the biology.

    被細菌分解,把氧氣用盡。

  • Now, you can't see it from the surface of the water,

    這就是背後的生物學。

  • you can't see it in satellite images,

    從水面是看不到死亡區的,

  • so how do we know it's there?

    從衛星影像也看不到,

  • Well, a trawler can tell you,

    我們怎麼知道它存在?

  • when she puts her net over the side and drags for 20 minutes

    拖網漁船就能告訴你,

  • and comes up empty,

    如果把它的網放入水中, 拖行 20 分鐘,

  • that she knows she's in the dead zone.

    拉起來時還是空的,

  • And she has to go somewhere else.

    就知道它在死亡區了,

  • But where else do you go if this area is 8,000 square miles big?

    就得要去其他地方。

  • About the size of the state of New Jersey.

    但若死亡區大到 8000 平方英哩, 還有哪裡能去呢?

  • Well, you either make a decision to go further,

    這面積和新澤西州差不多大。

  • without much economic return,

    你可以決定繼續向前進,

  • or go back to the dock.

    不會有多少經濟報酬,

  • As a scientist, I have access to high-tech equipment

    你也可以返回碼頭。

  • that we can put over the side of the research vessel,

    身為科學家,我能取得高科技設備,

  • and it measures oxygen and many more things.

    我們可以把這設備放在研究船外側,

  • We start at the Mississippi River,

    它就能測量氧氣和許多其他東西。

  • we crisscross the Gulf of Mexico all the way to Texas,

    我們從密西西比河開始,

  • and even I sneak into Texas every now and then and test their waters.

    我們穿過墨西哥灣,一路到德州,

  • And you can tell by the bottom oxygen --

    我偶爾會溜進德州 去檢測他們的水體。

  • you can draw a map of everything that's less than two,

    從底部的氧氣就可以判斷──

  • which is the magic number for when the fish start to leave the area.

    你可以畫一張地圖, 畫出所有少於 2 的東西,

  • I also dive in this dead zone.

    當 2 這個魔術數字出現時, 魚類就開始離開該區域了。

  • We have oxygen meters that we have to deploy offshore

    我也會潛入死亡區。

  • that tell us continuous measurements of low oxygen or high oxygen.

    我們有氧氣計,需要離岸才能部署,

  • And when you get into the water, there's a lot of fish.

    它能持續提供我們 低氧或高氧的測量資訊。

  • Tons of fish, all kinds of fish,

    進入水中時,裡面有很多魚。

  • including my buddy here, the barracuda that I saw one day.

    數不清的魚,各種魚,

  • Everybody else swam this way and I went this way with my camera.

    包括我的伙計, 有一天我發現的梭魚。

  • (Laughter)

    大家都往這個方向游泳, 我帶著攝影機往這個方向去。

  • And then, down at 30 feet you start to see fewer fish.

    (笑聲)

  • And then you get to the bottom.

    接著,下沉到 30 英呎, 看到的魚就變少了。

  • And you don't see any fish.

    接著,就到了底部。

  • There's no life on the platform, there's no life swimming around.

    這裡看不到任何魚類。

  • And you know you're in the dead zone.

    在平台上沒有任何生命, 也沒有生物在周圍游動。

  • So, what's the connection between the middle of the United States

    你就知道自己身在死亡區了。

  • and the Gulf of Mexico?

    美國中部和墨西哥灣

  • Well, most of the watershed is farmland.

    有什麼關聯?

  • And in particular, corn-soybean rotation.

    大部分的流域都是農地。

  • The nitrogen that is put in fertilizers and the phosphorus goes on the land

    尤其是小麥和黃豆輪作。

  • and drains off into the Mississippi River

    在肥料當中的氮及磷會進入土地中,

  • and ends up in the Gulf of Mexico.

    然後流入密西西比河中,

  • There's three times more nitrogen in the water

    最後到達墨西哥灣。

  • in the Mississippi now,

    現在在密西西比河中的氮,

  • than there was in the 1950s.

    是 50 年代的 3 倍之多。

  • Three times.

    3 倍。

  • And phosphorus has doubled.

    磷則是 2 倍。

  • And what that means is more phytoplankton and more sinking sails and lower oxygen.

    那意味著更多浮游植物、 更多沉船、更低的含氧量。

  • This is not a natural feature of the Gulf; it's been caused by human activities.

    這並不是海灣的自然特徵, 而是人類的活動造成的。

  • The landscape is not what it used to be.

    地景和以前不同了。

  • It used to be prairies and forests and prairie potholes

    以前是大草原、森林、草原壺穴、

  • and duck areas and all kinds of stuff.

    鴨子聚集處等等種種地景。

  • But not anymore -- it's row crops.

    但不再是了。現在是大片的農田。

  • And there are ways that we can address this type of agriculture

    我們可以用許多方式 來處理這種類型的農業:

  • by using less fertilizer, maybe precision fertilizing.

    可用較少的肥料, 也許可以更精準地施肥;

  • And trying some sustainable agriculture

    也可以試一些永續農業,

  • such as perennial wheatgrass, which has much longer roots

    像是種植根較長的多年生小麥草,

  • than the six inches of a corn plant,

    比玉米植株的 6 英吋還長,

  • that can keep the nitrogen on the soil and keep the soil from running off.

    能讓氮維持在土壤中, 且不讓土壤流失掉。

  • And how do we convince our neighbors to the north,

    我們要如何說服北方的鄰居,

  • maybe 1,000 miles away or more,

    也許住在1000 英哩外 或更遠的鄰居,

  • that their activities are causing problems with water quality in the Gulf of Mexico?

    讓他們了解,他們的活動會造成 墨西哥灣的水質問題呢?

  • First of all, we can take them to their own backyard.

    首先,我們可以帶他們到 他們的自家後院。

  • If you want to go swimming in Wisconsin in the summer

    如果夏天你想要在威斯康辛州游泳,

  • in your favorite watering hole,

    到你最愛的水坑,

  • you might find something like this

    你可能會發現像這樣的東西,

  • which looks like spilled green paint and smells like it,

    它看起來像是 溢出的綠漆,聞起來也像,

  • growing on the surface of the water.

    在水面上生長。

  • This is a toxic blue-green algal bloom

    這是有毒的、生長茂盛的藍綠藻,

  • and it is not good for you.

    對你有害。

  • Similarly, in Lake Erie, couple of summers ago

    同樣在伊利湖,幾個夏天之前,

  • there was hundreds of miles of this blue-green algae

    有數百英哩的這種藍綠色海藻,

  • and the city of Toledo, Ohio, couldn't use it for their drinking water

    俄亥俄州的托雷多市

  • for several days on end.

    連續數日都無法喝這種水。

  • And if you watch the news,

    如果你看新聞,

  • you know that lots of communities are having trouble with drinking water.

    你就知道有很多社區 都遇到了飲用水問題。

  • I'm a scientist.

    我是科學家。

  • I don't know if you could tell that.

    不知道各位是否看得出來。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And I do solid science, I publish my results,

    我做紮實的科學,出版研究的結果,

  • my colleagues read them, I get citations of my work.

    我的同事會讀,我的研究會被引用。

  • But I truly believe that, as a scientist,

    但身為科學家,我真心相信,

  • using mostly federal funds to do the research,

    我主要用聯邦資金來做研究,

  • I owe it to the public,

    我應該向公眾、

  • to agency heads and congressional people

    機構負責人和國會議員

  • to share my knowledge with them

    分享我的知識,

  • so they can use it, hopefully to make better decisions

    以便他們能用來做更好的決策,

  • about our environmental policy.

    關於環境政策的決策。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • One of the ways that I was able to do this is I brought in the media.

    要達成這個目標, 我的做法之一就是利用媒體。

  • And Joby Warrick from the "Washington Post"

    華盛頓郵報的喬比瓦里克

  • put this picture in an article

    在一篇文章中放入這張照片,

  • on the front page, Sunday morning, two inches above the fold.

    登在星期日早報的頭版, 在對摺線上方 2 英吋處。

  • That's a big deal.

    那是件大事。

  • And Senator John Breaux, from Louisiana,

    路易斯安那州的參議員約翰布里克斯

  • said, "Oh my gosh, that's what they think the Gulf of Mexico looks like?"

    說:「喔,我的天,他們認為 墨西哥灣看起來像這個樣子?」

  • And I said, "Well, you know, there's the proof."

    我說:「嗯,有證據可以證明。」

  • And we've go to do something about it.

    對此我們得要做點什麼。

  • At the same time, Senator Olympia Snowe from Maine

    當時緬因州的參議員奧林匹亞史諾

  • was having trouble with harmful algal blooms in the Gulf of Maine.

    遭遇有害藍綠藻在緬因灣 生長茂盛的問題。

  • They joined forces -- it was bipartisan --

    他們同心協力──兩黨都支持──

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • And invited me to give congressional testimony,

    並邀請我去國會作證,

  • and I said, "Oh, all I've done is chase crabs around south Texas,

    我說:「喔,我所做的 只是在南德州追著螃蟹跑,

  • I don't know how to do that."

    我不知道怎麼作證。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But I did it.

    但我去了。

  • (Cheers)

    (歡呼)

  • And eventually, the bill passed.

    最終,法案通過了。

  • And it was called -- yeah, yay!

    它叫做──對啊,太棒了!

  • It was called The Harmful Algal Bloom

    它是「1998 年控制和研究

  • and Hypoxia Research and Control Act of 1998.

    有害藻類過度繁殖和低氧」法案。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • Which is why we call it the Snowe-Breaux Bill.

    這就是為什麼我們稱它為 史諾-布里克斯法案。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • The other thing is that we had a conference in 2001

    另一件事是 2001 年有一場大會,

  • that was put on by the National Academy of Sciences

    由美國國家科學院舉辦,

  • that looked at fertilizers, nitrogen and poor water quality.

    探討肥料、氮,和水質惡化。

  • Our plenary speaker was the former governor

    我們的專題講者 是紐澤西州的前任州長。

  • of the state of New Jersey.

    她……

  • And she ...

    當她凝視觀眾的時候, 沒有人會認為她不是認真的,

  • There was no thinking she wasn't serious when she peered at the audience,

    當時我心想:「當然她正看著我。」

  • and I thought, "Surely she's looking at me."

    「我已經厭倦了這被稱為紐澤西的。

  • "You know, I'm really tired of this thing being called New Jersey.

    挑別的州吧,任何一州, 我只是不想再聽到紐澤西了。」

  • Pick another state, any state, I just don't want to hear it anymore."

    但她有辦法把行動計畫

  • But she was able to move the action plan

    放在小布希總統的桌上,

  • across President George H.W. Bush's desk

    讓我們能夠設定環境目標,

  • so that we had environmental goals

    且努力去解決問題。

  • and that we were working to solve them.

    中西部沒餵養整個世界的人,

  • The Midwest does not feed the world.

    而是養了許多雞、豬、牛,

  • It feeds a lot of chickens, hogs, cattle

    也生產混入我們的石油的乙醇,

  • and it generates ethanol

    那由聯邦的政策控管。

  • to put into our gasoline,

    我們能做得比這更好。

  • which is regulated by federal policy.

    我們得要決策,

  • We can do better than this.

    要減少消耗,

  • We need to make decisions

    並減少我們對氮的依賴。

  • that make us less consumptive

    就像是碳足跡,

  • and reduce our reliance on nitrogen.

    你可以減少氮足跡。

  • It's like a carbon footprint.

    我的做法是少吃肉──

  • But you can reduce your nitrogen footprint.

    我還是喜歡偶爾吃一點──

  • I do it by not eating much meat --

    不用玉米油,

  • I still like a little every now and then --

    和選擇開不用混乙醇汽油的車,

  • not using corn oil,

    那樣還更省油。

  • driving a car that I can put nonethanol gas in

    做這些事就能夠創造改變。

  • and get better gas mileage.

    我要挑戰,不只向各位挑戰,

  • Just things like that that can make a difference.

    我要挑戰很多人, 特別是中西部的人──

  • So I'm challenging, not just you,

    想想看你們怎麼對待土地, 以及你們能怎麼不同。

  • but I challenge a lot of people, especially in the Midwest --

    我跨出的只是小步。

  • think about how you're treating your land and how you can make a difference.

    要改變美國的農業類型,

  • So my steps are very small steps.

    需要很多的大步。

  • To change the type of agriculture in the US

    在政治面和社會面 也都要配合才能實現。

  • is going to be many big steps.

    但我們能做到。

  • And it's going to take political and social will for that to happen.

    我堅信我們能翻譯科學,

  • But we can do it.

    把它和政策接軌, 為我們的環境帶來改變。

  • I strongly believe we can translate the science,

    我們都想要一個乾淨的環境。

  • bridge it to policy and make a difference in our environment.

    我們能同心協力做到這一點,

  • We all want a clean environment.

    這樣我們在墨西哥灣 就不會再有死亡區了。

  • And we can work together to do this

    謝謝。

  • so that we no longer have these dead zones in the Gulf of Mexico.

    (掌聲)

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

Good evening, welcome to New Orleans.

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Yanyan Hong

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 墨西哥灣 笑聲 植物 肥料 氧氣

【TED】南西·瑞芭萊絲: 墨西哥灣的「死亡區」 (The "dead zone" of the Gulf of Mexico | Nancy Rabalais)

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    Zenn 發佈於 2018 年 05 月 10 日
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