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  • Give me a hug.

    給我抱一下。

  • Give me a hug.

    給我抱一下。

  • Yes, I know. Good girl.

    我知道!棒狗狗。

  • Wanna do some training?

    想要來訓練一下嗎?

  • I work with dogs to train them to go into an MRI scanner,

    我的工作是訓練狗狗進入核磁共振的掃描儀器裡,然後找出是什麼讓牠們思考,還有牠們到底在想什麼。

  • and try to figure out what makes them think, and what they're thinking.

  • My name is Gregory Berns.

    我的名字是 Gregory Berns。

  • I'm a neuroscientist at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia.

    我在位於喬治亞州亞特蘭大城的埃默里大學裡擔任神經學家。

  • I've grown up with dogs, and I've lived with dogs pretty much my whole life.

    我的這一生幾乎都跟狗狗一起度過,也和牠們住在一起。

  • One of my favorite dogs had passed away.

    我最愛的狗過世後。

  • In the back of my mind I started wondering, did that dog love me in the way that I loved him?

    在我腦海深處,我開始想,那隻狗狗有像我愛牠一樣愛我嗎?

  • And that was really the beginning of it.

    而這就是這一切的起因。

  • All of these basic things that we've begun to sort out in humans,

    我們在人類身上發現「愛」是很基本的,至少在人腦中是這樣,我們也想在狗狗身上發現。

  • at least in human brains, we want to do in dogs.

  • If dogs can be trained to go into an MRI machine,

    如果狗狗能夠被訓練自己進入核磁共振的儀器中,也許我們就能夠知道牠們到底在想什麼。

  • then maybe we could figure out what they're actually thinking.

  • So, we have a dog in the scanner.

    我們現在有隻狗狗在儀器裡。

  • That's Katie, and she is a veteran of the project.

    那是 Katie,牠是這項計畫的老手了。

  • This is probably about the fifteenth time she's done this.

    這大概是牠第十五次做這件事了。

  • Just having the idea of, OK, well let's train dogs to go on the scanner,

    一開始雖然有想法要訓練狗狗自己進入掃描儀器裡,可是卻沒有馬上想到要怎麼去執行。

  • it wasn't immediately apparent how you would go about doing that.

  • And MRI scanners are not the most pleasant environments.

    而且核磁共振的掃描儀器室裡並不是個很愉快的環境。

  • Good girl!

    棒狗狗!

  • Callie is the little black terrier who was the first dog to train for the dog project.

    Callie 是隻黑色的小梗犬,牠是這項計畫中第一隻被訓練的狗。

  • High five.

    擊掌!

  • I built a simulator,of an MRI.

    我打造了一個模擬的掃描儀器。

  • So this is the simulator that I built, here in my basement.

    這個模擬儀器就放在我家地下室。

  • Then we started adding in recordings of the scanner noise, which is actually quite loud.

    然後我們再加入事先錄好的儀器聲,那其實還滿大聲的。

  • We just started working with, you know,

    然後我們開始用零食還有很正面的稱讚來試著讓她想要進去這個東西內部。

  • treats and positive reinforcement to see if we could get her to go into this thing.

  • That actually proved to be pretty easy.

    由此證明,這其實還滿簡單的。

  • And then so what we did is we kind of put out word of mouth. Do you wanna join this project?

    然後,我們開始散播消息,「你想加入這個計畫嗎?」或是「想要訓練你的狗狗照核磁共振嗎?」還有,或許可以知道牠們在想什麼。

  • Do you wanna train your dogs for an MRI and you know, maybe figure out what they're thinking?

  • The purpose of this is to go through a number of exercises including basic obedience,

    這樣做的目的是透過一些訓練,包括一些基本的服從還有牠們對於障礙物的反應。

  • as well as how they react to the obstacles.

  • When we hold the tryouts, it lets us weed out the dogs that we don't think would enjoy doing this.

    在進行實驗時,我們會淘汰我們覺得不太享受整個過程的狗狗。

  • One of the benefits, then, of having more participants is it gives you statistical power.

    有許多參與者的一個好處是可以獲得參考數據。

  • You can start to average dogs' brains together and get a better sense for what's happening.

    我們可以開始取得這些數據的平均值,然後也對於狗狗的腦袋有個初步的概念。

  • I started wondering very seriously if we could really finally answer this question:

    我開始很認真地思考一個問題:狗狗是由衷地喜歡與人類互動,還是只是因為愛吃?

  • do dogs essentially like us just for the social bond? Not about the food.

  • And what we found was that in looking at the reward system,

    而當我們開始看研究數據,我們發現,幾乎所有的狗對於稱讚和食物都有一樣的反應。

  • that almost all the dogs had equal responses both to food, as well as praise.

  • Even a few dogs like the praise more.

    甚至有些狗狗還比較喜歡被稱讚。

  • The things that we were finding about the dog's brain, in many ways confirmed,

    我認為,從多方面來觀察狗狗的腦袋證實了,人們內心其實知道狗狗的行為是被什麼影響,和牠們為何會出現如此行為。

  • I think, what people know in their hearts about how dogs behave, and why they behave.

  • And the way I think about dogs is, in many ways, they're the ambassadors to the animal world.

    對我來說,我覺得狗狗在很多方面都是動物界的外交大使。

  • (dog barks)

    (狗叫聲)

  • They're not that different from many of the other mammals out there.

    牠們和其他哺乳類動物其實很像。

  • And so I suspect that a lot of what we find in dogs probably holds true for pretty much any mammal.

    所以我在猜我們在狗狗身上發現的,可能和其他哺乳類動物很接近。

Give me a hug.

給我抱一下。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 GreatBigStory 狗狗 儀器 訓練 掃描 稱讚

【動物】一探究竟!狗狗的小腦袋瓜裡到底在想什麼?(Inside the Mind of a Dog)

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    Evangeline 發佈於 2018 年 06 月 30 日
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