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  • You know this scene from The Wizard of Oz.

    你看過這個綠野仙蹤的場景

  • It happens just after Dorothy croons in sepia-toned Kansas,

    桃樂絲在棕褐色的堪薩斯州唱著歌,它隨後便發生了

  • Toto wags his tail, and the house gets caught in a tornado.

    此時托托搖著自己的尾巴,而房子被龍捲風捲起

  • She travels from a faded film strip to a Technicolor world.

    她從褪色的電影幻燈片中跨越到特藝彩色的世界

  • But there are three things about this scene you might get wrong.

    但是,關於這個場景有三件事你可能理解錯了

  • And each one helps show the real history of Technicolor.

    而每一個都能展現特藝彩色的歷史

  • These misconceptions explain what theTechnicolor triumphreally was, from

    這些誤解解釋了「特藝彩色」實際上有多成功

  • the technical aspects that made it work, to exactly why it took over the movies, to the

    從它如何運作的技術方面,到它接管無數電影

  • way in which the technology shaped the look of the 20th century.

    甚至到科技塑造而成的 20 世紀

  • Lie #1 - Wizard of Oz is not the first Technicolor movie.

    第一個謊言:綠野仙蹤不是第一部使用特藝彩色的電影

  • Not even close.

    差遠了

  • You might know that, but a lot of people don't.

    你可能知道這件事,但是很多人都不知道

  • Come on Maryland Science Center, you're better than this.

    拜託,馬里蘭科學中心,你可以更好的

  • Historian Barbara Flueckiger has an exhaustive timeline of color in film, from

    歷史學家 Barbara Flueckiger 對於電影的色彩有個詳盡的時間軸

  • hand-painted film to the first movie filmed inkinemacolor,”

    從手繪電影到第一部以 kinemacolor 拍成的電影

  • A Visit to the Seaside.

    A Visit to the Seaside

  • But Technicolor stood out, and even it has a history that long predates The Wizard of

    但是特藝彩色更為顯眼,即使它的出現早就預測了

  • Oz.

    綠野仙蹤

  • Herbert Kalmus, Daniel Frost Comstock, and W. Burton Wescott founded the company in 1914,

    Herbert Kalmus、Daniel Frost Comstock 和 W. Burton Wescott 在 1914 年建立了公司

  • with theTechreferring to MIT, where Kalmus and Comstock met.

    而「Tech」代表了 Kalmus 和 Comstock 相遇的麻省理工學院

  • It started by merging red and green - into a new image that roughly looked like this.

    它始於把紅與綠混在一起:變成一個新的影像,大概長得像這樣

  • You can see the look in this range of movies from the late 1920s and early 30s.

    你可以從 1920 年末到 1930 早期看到這類電影

  • It could do passably well with skin tones, but

    它能把膚色配得很好看

  • there's no blue in these dresses for a reason.

    但是,這些服裝上沒有藍色是有原因的

  • Blue came into the mix in 1932, when Technicolor added the key third strip.

    藍色在 1932 年的時候加了進來,此時特藝彩色添加了重要的第三條帶子

  • They showed off the process in Walt Disney's Flowers and Trees, a gorgeous animated feature

    他們在華特迪士尼的一部精緻的動畫短片《花與樹》 中,炫耀自己的技術

  • that was a botanist's nightmare.

    那可是植物學家的惡夢

  • You know, there are evil trees in Wizard of Oz, too.

    你知道,綠野仙蹤裡也有邪惡的樹

  • What do you think you're doing?”

    「你以為你在幹嘛?」

  • Anyway, in order to get Technicolor to work, it was an insanely difficult process.

    總之,為了讓特藝彩色有所成效,這過程可是不可置信的困難

  • Technicolor distributed guides like these

    特藝彩色發布了像這樣的指標

  • and we can make a reasonable simulation digitally, with a scene like this.

    好讓我們能夠用數位技術,為這個場景做出一個像樣的模擬

  • So here's a scene of some Lego people who are apparently worshipping Lawrence of Arabia?

    所以,這裡有個一些玩樂高的人做出來的景,他們顯然人很崇拜阿拉伯的勞倫斯

  • Not sure what's going on here, but it's our starting image.

    雖然不太確定這邊發生了什麼事,但是這是我們的初始畫面

  • A technicolor camera would typically take that picture and shoot it through a prism

    特藝彩色的相機會透過一個稜鏡拍照

  • that split the light into red, blue, and green negatives for the picture.

    這個稜鏡能把光分成紅、藍和綠色的底片

  • Those negatives were then flipped into positivematrices,”

    這些底片會被翻成正片「matrices」

  • which eventually got soaked with dyes of the complementary colors.

    它們最後都會浸泡在補色的染料裡

  • So the red matrix turned cyan, the green one magenta, and the blue one yellow.

    所以,紅色的模型變成青色,綠色變成紅紫色,而藍色變成黃色

  • Then the dye was transferredthis was called a “dye transfer processto create

    於是,染料的顏色便會染上,這種手法叫做「染印法」

  • a final gorgeous Technicolor image.

    它用於製造特藝彩色的美麗圖像

  • So if you're anything like me, that explanation might make you feel like the scarecrow.

    如果你像我一樣,這些解釋讓你看起來像個稻草人

  • Oh I'm a failure because I haven't got a brain.”

    「天啊!我真失敗,因為我沒有腦袋。」

  • So let's try it again, but only look at that red channel.

    所以,我們再試一次,但這次只看著紅色的轉換

  • So keep your eye on the View-Master, the red in the Rubik's cube, or maybe the Lego guy's

    所以,注意望遠鏡、魔術方塊上的紅色、還有樂高人偶上的

  • hat.

    紅帽

  • It is all kind of dark now, because that's just the red color in the negative.

    它現在看起來有點暗,那是因為底片裡的紅色長的像這樣

  • Now flipped in the matrix, that red is really bright, which means that when it's dyed,

    現在我們換個模型,紅色現在看起來很亮,這表示當它染色時

  • it won't get a lot of cyan.

    它不會有太多的青色

  • And that makes sense.

    而一切都說得通了

  • Cyan is the complementary colorit's the anti-red.

    青色是種補色—它是反紅色的

  • So where you want a lot of red, you do not want a lot of cyan.

    所以,當你想要很多的紅色的時候,你不想要太多的青色

  • That way, when it comes together, you get a ton of magenta and some yellow.

    這就是為什麼,當全部混在一起時,你會有一堆的紅紫色與些許的黃色

  • You don't have a lot of cyan, because the cyan cancels out the red.

    你不會有太多的青色,因為青色會抵掉紅色

  • In the earlier days of Technicolor, they also had to amp up the contrast.

    在特藝彩色早期,他們也把這對比給放大

  • The company would add a black and white layer underneath the matrices to serve as something

    公司會在模型下面加一層黑白色調,這叫做

  • called "the key."

    「基色」

  • You can see the results early, in films like 1934's La Cucaracha,

    你可以在早期的電影裡看到這樣的結果,像是 1934 年的 La Cucaracha

  • The Trail of the Lonesome Pine, and Robin Hood, all of which came out well

    孤松林徑和羅賓漢,它們都比

  • before the Wizard of Oz.

    綠野仙蹤還早出來

  • It's easy enough to roughly copy the technology thatTechnicoloredthe Wizard of Oz.

    要複製綠野仙蹤的科技很簡單,像是綠野仙蹤的特藝彩色

  • RGB split, color bath, mesh, repeat.

    RGB 分離、色彩分析、編織並重複

  • But the film strip processes are just part of the story.

    但是,這電影膠捲的成長過程只是故事的一部分

  • Lie #2: this scene?

    第二個謊言:這個場景?

  • It's not going from a black and white world to a color one.

    它不是從一個黑白的世界到一個彩色的世界

  • The set was actually painted sepia-tone so the same Technicolor process could be used

    這佈景實際上是棕褐色色調的,好讓同樣的特藝色彩能夠處理好

  • for the bright Oz reveal.

    展現明亮的奧茲國

  • Today, it's much easier.

    今日,一切都更簡單了

  • I can draw a box with my hand and with a click, black and white and color play together.

    我可以用我的手畫出一個盒子,點一下,黑白色以及各色都各自成形

  • They even had techniques to do stuff like this in the Oz days.

    在做綠野仙蹤時,他們甚至已經有技術去做這類東西了

  • But the fact that they built a sepia house shows how Technicolor's technical limitations

    但是,實際上他們蓋了個棕褐色的房子去展現特藝色彩技術上的限制

  • shaped all color movies.

    是如何塑造整部彩色電影

  • This is one of the cameras that was used to film

    「這正是拍攝綠野仙蹤的

  • The Wizard of Oz.”

    攝影機之一。」

  • It weighs 4 to 500 pounds, and these cameras were bigger than ordinary motion picture cameras

    「它重達 400 到 500 磅,而這些攝影機又比平常的攝影機更大,

  • because they had to run three strips of film through them at any given time.”

    因為它們必須同時同時運作三條膠捲。」

  • So rememberthis scene?

    所以,記得嗎?這個場景?

  • That had to be done with this beast of a camera.

    它必須用這如野獸般的攝影機拍攝

  • Those three strips didn't just require more space, they needed tons of light.

    三片膠捲不但需要更大的空間,也需要一堆光線

  • That set had to be blazingly overlit to get enough light through to these three strips

    片廠必須用強光照明,好讓三片電影膠捲有足過的光線

  • of film.

    通過

  • The set was reportedly 100 degrees Fahrenheit at times.

    據說,片場當時有華氏 100度

  • Sound was an issue, too.

    聲音也是個問題

  • It's so loud when you're running three strips of film through a camera, so they had

    「當你同時在攝影機上運作三個電影膠捲,聲音太大了。所以他們得

  • to build this blimp around it.

    「做這個外框在它的周圍。」

  • It's filled with soundproofing material so when you're making a sound film you don't

    「它充滿了隔音的素材,所以當你在拍有聲電影時

  • get all the sound from the camera throughout the studio there.”

    「你不會收到攝影機或是製片廠的聲音。」

  • Technicolor's advantages outweighed its limitations.

    特藝彩色的優點超越了它的限制

  • It's main advantage was the way in which it could capture the tone of a scene.

    它主要的優點是它如何捕捉場景的色調

  • Two movies made in the same year could have a different look, not just because of the

    兩部電影就算同年開拍也會有不同的樣貌,這不只是因為

  • choices made in front of the camera.

    攝影機選色的差別

  • Technicolor consultants and directors tweaked the palette of the film by adjusting the cyan,

    特藝彩色的顧問和導演調整青色、紅紫色與黃色的染料

  • magenta and yellow dyes.

    以處理電影的色調

  • The complicated dye transfer process gave Singin' in the Rain some of its magenta-hued

    這複雜的染料轉移過程讓萬花嬉春裡有著偏紅紫色的膚色

  • skin and deep saturated colors.

    與極度飽和的色調

  • The film and technology weren't the only things that gave Technicolor movies their

    電影和科技並不是讓特藝彩色有如此特殊樣貌的

  • distinctive look.

    唯一理由

  • It also shaped the world that they chose to film.

    它也塑造了這個人們選擇拍攝的世界

  • Lie #3: This isn't the real Dorothy.

    第三個謊言:這不是真的桃樂絲

  • It's Judy Garland's body double.

    她是 Judy Garland 的替身

  • She wore specially designed clothes and makeup to match the sepia world, so Judy Garland

    她穿著特別設計去配合棕褐色世界的衣服和妝容,好讓 Judy Garland

  • could swoop in, in the same shot and a blue dress, to join Technicolor Oz.

    能夠穿著藍色洋裝,在同樣的鏡頭下交換進來特藝彩色的奧茲國

  • These movies, and Oz, were shaped around Technicolor's abilities, from head to toe.

    這些電影和綠野仙蹤從頭到尾都是以特藝彩色的特點來塑造的

  • The second page that you see here is the part of the script that shows the ruby slippers

    「你看到的第二頁是劇本的一部分,在這裡紅寶石鞋

  • being unveiled, but what it shows is that they were still silver shoes at this point,

    將被發現,但是,此時,劇本裡寫的卻是呈現一雙銀鞋

  • but the producers of the film really wanted to show off that Technicolor that they were

    電影的製作人實在很想要展現他們特藝彩色付出的成果。

  • paying for, so they wanted them to be sparkly ruby slippers that would look good against

    所以,他想要這雙鞋是雙閃亮且能在黃磚路上格外

  • the yellow brick road.

    顯眼的紅寶石鞋

  • So they changed it at the middle of production to ruby slippers.”

    所以,在拍攝途中,他們換成了紅寶石鞋。」

  • Today, the shoes are kept under low light to preserve them, but during the shoot they

    今天,這雙鞋被保存在低光源的光中。但在拍攝的時候

  • were blasted with light to accommodate the camera and make those sequins sparkle.

    它被無數的燈光聚焦著,好讓鞋上的小金屬片發光

  • These weren't just on-set decisionsTechnicolor was always pulling strings behind the curtains.

    這可不是個臨時起意的點子—特藝彩色總種是在幕後操作

  • Look at the credits for Wizard of Oz,

    看看綠野仙蹤的片尾名單

  • and The Trail of the Lonesome Pine, and A Star is Born, and so on and so on.

    孤松林徑和星夢淚痕,等諸如此類的電影

  • You'll see one name over and over.

    你會看到這個名字無數遍

  • Natalie Kalmus.

    Natalie Kalmus

  • Once married to Technicolor cofounder Herb Kalmus, she ruled with an iron fist over

    她一嫁給特藝彩色的共同創辦人 Herb Kalmus,她便以鐵腕政策

  • Technicolor productions for many of the early years.

    掌控了早期數年特藝彩色的製作

  • Kalmus had over 300 film credits where she gave Technicolor adviceand sometimes

    Kalmus 參與了超過 300 部的電影,她給予了他們關於特藝彩色的意見,有時候

  • told directors what to do.

    更告訴導演該如何做

  • This is the IMDB page for a woman born in 1882.

    這是 IMDB 影視資料庫上 1882 年出生的女性

  • In documents likeColor Consciousness,”

    在文獻中,「色彩的認知」裡

  • she extended her reach into artthe essay includes aesthetic color theory.

    她更延伸自己的領域到藝術—論文裡包括了美學上的顏色理論

  • Red: danger, blood, life, heat.

    「紅色:危險、血、生命和熱」

  • Green: Nature, outdoors, freedom, freshness.”

    「綠色:大自然、戶外、自由和新鮮」

  • Kalmus's influence was significant, but it's as important as a reflection of Technicolor's

    Kalmus 的影響很大,她的重要性反應了特藝彩色的

  • power.

    影響力

  • Technicolor had its own processing facilities, and its own camera crew that continued Natalie

    特藝彩色有自己的處理設備以及電影劇組,好在 Natalie Kalmus 離開公司後

  • Kalmus' work after she left the company.

    延續她的作品

  • The technology and the production process gave Technicolor a significant competitive

    它的技術與製作過程讓特藝彩色有著無與倫比的優勢

  • advantage to alternatives being used.

    直到取代的技術被使用為止

  • Despite all those alternatives shown on Barbara Flueckiger's website, studios stuck with

    即使在 Barbara Flueckiger 的官網上有這些替代選擇,但製片仍

  • Technicolor for a long time.

    持續使用特藝彩色好一段時間

  • It had a reliable system and could be shown in any theatre in splendid

    它有個可靠的系統可以在任何的戲院上播放它絢麗的色彩

  • color, without requiring special equipment.

    它並不需要仰賴任何特別的裝置

  • Technicolor eventually fell to cheaper processes through the 1950s, like Eastman Color, that

    特藝彩色最終在 1950 年時成為了較便宜的技術,像是 Eastman Color

  • used a single strip.

    它只使用了一個膠捲

  • The Godfather, Part II was one of the final major releases to use the Technicolor we recognize.

    教父第二部是個重要的發行,它使用了我們認得的特藝彩色

  • But old prints remain surprisingly vibrant today due to the dye transfer process used.

    但是,懷舊電影在今日仍出奇的有著明亮色彩,這是因為它們染料的轉換過程

  • Today, I can snap my fingers and be in The Matrix or in Stranger Things' Upside

    今天,我可以彈指便身在駭客任務、怪奇物語或是

  • Down.

    顛倒世界

  • Ok.

    好啦

  • What are all these dust particles?

    這些小灰塵是什麼?

  • Is this asbestos?

    這是石綿嗎?

  • Am I covered in asbestos right now?

    我現在被石綿蓋著嗎?

  • Technicolor was never just a clickthe look was formed by the camera's strengths

    特藝彩色從來就不只是件彈指的易事—這樣貌是攝影機的強項與

  • and weaknesses, the artistic choices made for color, and the Technicolor company's

    缺點製成的、還有藝術上對顏色的選擇、特藝彩色公司的

  • infrastructure and supervision.

    基礎構造以及監督

  • In that key scene from the Wizard of Oz, you might not have known the trivia about Dorothy's

    在這綠野仙蹤重要的場景裡,你可能不知道這冷知識關於桃樂絲的替身

  • double, or the sepia doorway, or even that it wasn't Technicolor's debut.

    或是棕褐色的門廊,甚至這根本不是特藝彩色的首映

  • But one thing is easy to understand, intuitively.

    但有件事可以很直觀且容易理解的

  • The movie is all about it.

    電影就是關於這些

  • Technicolor wasn't a switch or a doorway.

    特藝彩色不單只是個開關或是扇門

  • It was a whole world, just waiting on the other side.

    而是在另一邊等著你的另一個世界

  • You can nerd out a lot more on Technicolor by checking out Barbara Flueckiger's website,

    你可以在 Barbara Flueckiger 的網站上學到更多關於特藝彩色的知識

  • or Eastman House, which was really generous with their time and a lot of the images that

    或是 Eastman House,他們付出了大量的時間還有

  • you saw in this video.

    你在這部影片裡看到的圖片

  • I've linked both of those below.

    我把兩個連結都放在下面了

  • You can see the director's commentary for this video in an additional video that we've

    你可以在我們做的這個額外的影片裡找到導演對這影片的評論

  • made where I share some behind-the-scenes info and a few of the details that couldn't

    我也分享了一些幕後資訊,還有一些細節我們沒辦法

  • quite fit in.

    放進來

You know this scene from The Wizard of Oz.

你看過這個綠野仙蹤的場景

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特藝彩色如何改變電影 (How Technicolor changed movies)

  • 1957 116
    Evangeline 發佈於 2018 年 09 月 07 日
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