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  • Before the sun never set on the British Empire,

    在大英帝國成為日不落帝國之前

  • before Genghis Khan swept the steppe,

    在蒙古大汗成吉思汗橫掃西伯利亞大草原前

  • before Rome extended its influence to encircle the Mediterranean Sea,

    在羅馬帝國將其影響力拓展至地中海沿岸前

  • there was ancient Assyria.

    這裡有個古老的亞述帝國

  • Considered by historians to be the first true empire,

    歷史學家認為亞述帝國是第一個真正的帝國

  • Assyria's innovations laid the groundwork for every superpower that's followed.

    亞述帝國的創新為後續所有強權大國建立基礎

  • At its height, in the 7th century BCE,

    在公元前 7 世紀,正是亞述帝國的巔峰時期

  • the Assyrian Empire stretched across modern Iraq,

    亞述帝國領土範圍廣達現今的伊拉克

  • Syria,

    敘利亞

  • Lebanon,

    黎巴嫩

  • Israel,

    以色列

  • and parts of Turkey,

    還有一部分土耳其

  • Iran,

    伊朗

  • and Egypt.

    跟埃及

  • Its wonders included a vast library and large botanical and zoological park.

    亞述帝國內的奇觀包括一座巨大圖書館、大型的動植物公園

  • But the story of Assyria's rise to dominance began many centuries earlier,

    但亞述帝國崛起成為主宰的故事在好幾世紀以前就開始了

  • in the Late Bronze Age, in a city called Ashur.

    在青銅器時代晚期,在亞述古城阿舒爾內開始興起

  • Ashur was a tin and textiles trading center

    阿舒爾是個錫與紡織品的貿易中心

  • located along the Tigris River in northern Iraq.

    座落於北伊拉克的底格里斯河邊

  • It shared its name with a god thought to be an embodiment of the city

    阿舒爾同時也是神的名字,祂被視為這座城市的化身

  • and later of the entire empire.

    後來更是整個帝國的化身

  • For the administration-minded Assyrians, politics and religion were closely linked.

    對善於管理的亞述人來說,政治與宗教是密切相關的

  • Around 1300 BCE, a high priest named Ashur-uballit I took the title of king

    大約公元前 1300 年,一位名為阿舒爾·烏巴里特一世的大祭司取得王位

  • and initiated a tradition of military campaigns,

    並開始了軍事戰役的傳統

  • effectively transforming Assyria from a city-state to a territorial state.

    有效地將亞述帝國從城市國家轉變為領土國家

  • This meant that a single administrative entity

    這意味著,從單一個行政實體

  • oversaw many places, cultures, and peoples.

    來監督許多地方、文化與民族

  • For the next 150 years, Assyria extended its reach and thrived.

    往後的 150 年,亞述帝國不斷向外拓展、繁榮興盛

  • In the 12th century BCE,

    在公元前 12 世紀

  • a mysterious catastrophe that still bewilders archaeologists

    一場至今仍讓考古學家感到迷惑的神秘大災難

  • caused the Assyrians to lose much of their territory.

    使得亞述帝國失去他們大部分的領土

  • A few hundred years later, however,

    然而,幾百年後

  • Assyrian kings began a new round of conquests.

    亞述國王又開始了新一波的征戰

  • This time, they honed their administrative system

    這一次,他們的行政體系已經過磨練

  • into an empire that would last generations.

    讓他們能夠成為統治好幾個世代的帝國

  • Assyrians were military innovators and merciless conquerors.

    亞述人是軍事的創新者,也是無情的征服者

  • During their conquests,

    在他們的征戰過程

  • they used siege tactics and cruel punishments for those who opposed them,

    他們使用圍攻戰略,並對反抗他們的人施以殘酷的懲罰

  • including impalement and flaying.

    包括刺刑跟剝皮刑

  • The growth of their empire was due, in part,

    亞述帝國的成長,有部分是因為

  • to their strategy of deporting local populations,

    他們有一個策略是將當地人口驅逐

  • then shifting them around the empire to fulfill different needs.

    然後根據不同的需求,將他們轉移到帝國其他地方

  • This broke peoples' bonds with their homelands

    這個作法破壞人民與其家園的聯繫

  • and severed loyalties among local groups.

    並切斷地方團體之間的忠誠

  • Once the Assyrians conquered an area,

    一旦亞述人征服了一個地區

  • they built cities connected by well-maintained royal roads.

    他們便建立一個城市,並以善加維護的皇家道路連結

  • Often, when a new king came to power, he would build a new capital.

    通常,當一個新國王上位時,他會興建一座新的首都

  • With each move, new palaces and temples were erected and lavishly decorated.

    每一次遷都,新的宮殿與寺廟都會興建起來,並極其奢華地裝飾

  • Although kings claimed absolute power,

    雖然國王擁有絕對權力

  • we know that an extensive system of courtiers,

    我們也知道有另外延伸的體系,即朝臣

  • provincial officials,

    地方官員

  • and scholars influenced affairs.

    與學者能夠影響事務

  • At least one woman, Sammuramat, ruled the kingdom.

    亞述帝國歷史上至少有一個女性統治者,薩穆.拉瑪特

  • Assyrian rulers celebrated their military excursions

    亞述統治者祝賀他們軍隊遠征的方式

  • by having representations of their exploits

    是透過將他們代表性的功績

  • carved into the walls of their newly built palaces.

    雕刻在新建成的宮殿牆上

  • But despite the picture of a ruthless war state projected by these records,

    但儘管這些記錄圖像反映出殘忍的戰爭國家的模樣

  • the Assyrian kings were also interested in the cultural traditions of the region,

    亞述國王也對地方傳統文化感興趣

  • especially those of Babylonia, a separate state to the south.

    特別是巴比倫尼亞,一個南方的獨立國家

  • Babylonia had been a cultural leader for millennia,

    巴比倫尼亞數千年來都是文化的領頭羊

  • stretching back to the beginning of writing

    最早可追溯至寫作的起源

  • at the end of the 4th millennium BCE.

    約略公元前 4 千年晚期

  • Assyria saw itself as the inheritor and protector of this tradition.

    亞述帝國將自己視為此一傳統的繼承者與保護者

  • Assyrian rulers supported scholars

    亞述統治者相當支持學者

  • in specialties ranging from medicine to magic,

    專業領域從醫學到巫術都有

  • and the capital cities, like Ninevah,

    而且首都城市,像尼尼微

  • were home to elaborate parks and gardens

    就建有精心設計的公園與花園

  • that housed plants and animals from around the empire.

    收藏來自帝國各處的植物與動物

  • One of Assyria's final rulers, Ashurbanipal,

    亞述帝國最後的統治者之一,亞述巴尼拔

  • sent scholars throughout Babylonia to gather up and copy ancient literary works.

    將學者派至巴比倫尼亞各地,蒐集與抄寫古老文學著作

  • Ashurbanipal's library took the form of clay tablets

    亞述巴尼拔的圖書館收藏的著作形式為泥土刻寫板

  • inscribed with cuneiform in the languages of Akkadian and Sumerian.

    用阿卡德語跟蘇美語的楔形文字刻寫而成

  • The library was lost during the final sack of Ninevah in 612 BCE.

    在公元前 612 年,尼尼微的最後一次劫掠中,圖書館的許多著作遺失了

  • But thanks to a 19th century archaeological excavation,

    但幸好 19 世紀的一次考古挖掘中

  • many masterpieces of ancient literature,

    許多古老文學的傑作

  • including the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Babylonian Creation Epic,

    包括吉爾伽美什的史詩,還有巴比倫尼亞的創建史詩

  • survive today.

    都被挖掘出來並保存至今

  • After centuries of rule,

    在數世紀的統治後,

  • the Assyrian Empire fell to the Babylonians and Medes between 612 and 609 BCE.

    公元前 612 到 609 年間,亞述帝國落入巴比倫尼亞人與米底亞人手裡

  • Yet the innovations that the Assyrians  pioneered live on.

    然而亞述人開拓性的創新模式仍被保存下來

  • Their emphasis on constant innovation,

    他們強調時常的創新

  • efficient administration,

    有效率的行政

  • and excellent infrastructure

    還有出色的基礎建設

  • set the standard for every empire that's followed them in the region and across the globe.

    為後續在此地區以及全球各地興起的帝國設立了標準

Before the sun never set on the British Empire,

在大英帝國成為日不落帝國之前

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 帝國 統治 國王 創新 領土

【TED-Ed】亞述帝國的興衰歷史 (The rise and fall of the Assyrian Empire - Marian H Feldman)

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    Kate Chang 發佈於 2018 年 05 月 03 日
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