Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Imagine with me this scene.

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Vera LIN

  • It's a scene that played out in nearly all of our families.

    請和我一起想像這個情境,

  • It's a scene in which a young person,

    幾乎在我們所有人家中 都會上演這個情境,

  • somewhere in our family tree,

    在這個情境中,有一個年輕人,

  • somewhere in our lineage

    位在家譜中的某一處,

  • had a heartbreaking decision to make.

    來自家系中的某一家族,

  • It was a decision to leave all that they had known.

    他得做出一個讓人心碎的決定。

  • And all of the people that they had loved

    這個決定是他要離開 所有他熟悉的一切,

  • and to set out for a place far, far away

    離開所有他愛的人,

  • that they had never seen

    前往一個很遠很遠的、

  • in hopes that life might be better.

    完全陌生的地方,

  • Migration is usually a young person's endeavor.

    只希望在那裡過上更好的生活。

  • It's the kind of thing that you do when you're on the cusp of life.

    遷徙通常是年輕人才會 試圖去做的事情。

  • And so, there is, in all of our families,

    是一件你在人生的關口時會做的事。

  • this young person somewhere in our background.

    所以,在我們所有人的家庭中,

  • That person is standing at a dock,

    過去都曾有一個這樣的年輕人。

  • about to board a ship

    那個人站在碼頭,

  • that will cross the Atlantic or the Pacific Ocean.

    準備登船,

  • That person is loading up a truck

    將要橫渡大西洋或太平洋。

  • that will cross the Rio Grande.

    那個人在把東西裝載到卡車上,

  • Or that person is standing

    準備開車穿過格蘭河。

  • at a railroad platform

    或著,那個人站在車站月台上,

  • about to board a train that will cross rivers and mountains

    準備上火車,穿越河流及山岳,

  • out of the Jim Crow South

    離開南方的吉姆克勞, (註:克勞實行種族隔離制)

  • to what they hope will be freedom in the North.

    到能找到自由的北方。 (註:克勞實行種族隔離制)

  • And there, with this young person

    在這個年輕人身旁,

  • as they are about to board that ship,

    當他準備要登上那艘大船、

  • that boat,

    那艘輪船、

  • that truck, that train,

    那輛卡車、那列火車時,

  • are the people who raised them.

    有養育他的人為他送行,

  • Their mother, their father,

    他的母親、他的父親、

  • their aunt, their uncle, their grandparents,

    他的姑姑、叔叔、他的祖父母。

  • whoever it might have been who had gotten them to this point.

    陪著他走到這一步的任何人,

  • Those older people

    這些較年長的人將無法 和他一起踏上這橫渡之旅。

  • were not going to be able to make the crossing with them.

    當他望向那些養育他的人,

  • And as they looked into the eyes of the people who had raised them,

    沒有人可以擔保

  • there was no guarantee

    他會再與他們活著相見。

  • that they would ever see them alive again.

    別忘了,那時沒有 Skype、

  • Remember, there was no Skype,

    沒有電子郵件、沒有手機,

  • no e-mail, no cell phones

    甚至沒有可靠的長途電話服務。

  • not even reliable long-distance telephone service.

    就算有長途電話,

  • And even if there had been,

    許多留下的人也都住在 沒有電話的地方。

  • many of the people that they were leaving did not even have telephones.

    這趟旅程將會將他們完全分離,

  • This was going to be a complete break

    他將離開所熟悉的一切,

  • from all that they knew

    以及所有他愛的人。

  • and all of the people that they loved.

    而他下一次

  • And the very next time

    聽到這些養育他的人的任何消息,

  • that they might hear anything about the people who had raised them

    很可能就是一封電報 寫著「你的父親過世了。」

  • might be a telegram saying, "Your father has passed away."

    或「你的母親病得非常非常重,

  • Or, "Your mother is very, very ill.

    若你想見她最後一面, 你必須要盡快回家。」

  • You must return home quickly if you are to see her alive again."

    那就是犧牲的程度,

  • That is the magnitude of the sacrifice

    這幾乎在我們所有人的 家族中都發生過,

  • that had to have happened in nearly all of our families

    如今我們才會在這裡。

  • just for us to be here.

    一個決定,改變了家族後代、

  • A single decision that changed the course of families

    國家、歷史的方向,

  • and lineages and countries and history

    以及今日的樣貌。

  • to the current day.

    其中一股遷徙浪潮特別顯著,

  • One of these migration streams

    我們可能還沒注意到,

  • stands out in ways that we may not realize.

    它被稱為「大遷徙 (the Great Migration)」,

  • It was called the Great Migration.

    有六百萬非裔美國人

  • It was the outpouring of six million African Americans

    從實施吉姆克勞法的南方

  • from the Jim Crow South

    移居到北方和西方的城市,

  • to the cities of the North and West,

    時間是一次大戰到 1970 年代間。

  • from the time of World War I until the 1970s.

    它之所以特別,是因為 這是美國史上第一次,

  • It stands out because this was the first time in American history

    美國公民必須逃離自己的出生地,

  • that American citizens had to flee the land of their birth

    只為了讓自己的公民身份 能像過去一樣被承認。

  • just to be recognized as the citizens that they had always been.

    不曾有過其他的美國人族群

  • No other group of Americans

    需要做到像移民者一樣

  • has had to act like immigrants

    才能讓自己的公民身份被承認。

  • in order to be recognized as citizens.

    這次大遷徙並不是搬家,

  • So this great migration was not a move.

    而是在自己的國家內尋求政治庇護。

  • It was actually a seeking of political asylum

    他們在逃離俗稱 「吉姆克勞」的等級制度。

  • within the borders of one's own country.

    那是種人造階級制度,

  • They were defecting a caste system known as Jim Crow.

    你能做什麼、不能做什麼,

  • It was an artificial hierarchy

    都由你的外貌來決定。

  • in which everything that you could and could not do

    這個等級制度很不可思議,

  • was based upon what you looked like.

    它甚至禁止黑人和白人

  • This caste system was so arcane that it was actually against the law

    一起在伯明罕市下棋。

  • for a black person and a white person

    如果你被逮到和不同種族的 人下棋,可能會因此坐牢。

  • to merely play checkers together in Birmingham.

    一定是有某人看到了 一個黑人和一個白人

  • You could go to jail

    在某個鎮上的廣場下棋,

  • if you were caught playing checkers with a person of a different race.

    也許不該贏的人贏了,

  • Someone must have seen a black person and a white person

    或是他們玩得太開心,

  • playing checkers with someone in some town square.

    不論他們在下棋時

  • And maybe the wrong person was winning

    這個人看到的是什麼,

  • or they were having too good of a time,

    他必定感覺到整個 南方文明的根基有危險,

  • but whatever it was that this person saw,

    於是他決定花些時間

  • with this black person and this white person playing checkers,

    把這狀況寫入法律。

  • they felt the entire foundation of Southern civilization was in peril.

    這個等級制度很不可思議,

  • And decided that it was worth taking the time

    在南方各地的法庭 竟同時備有一本黑人聖經

  • to write this down as a law.

    與一本白人聖經,

  • This caste system was so arcane

    讓不同種族的人們 發誓說實話時使用。

  • that in courtrooms throughout the South there was actually a black Bible

    在吉姆克勞的南方,

  • and an altogether separate white Bible

    連神的話語都被做了種族隔離。

  • to swear to tell the truth on in court.

    同樣是聖物

  • The very word of God was segregated

    卻不容被不同種族的手觸碰。

  • in the caste system of the Jim Crow South.

    這種人造階級制度

  • The same sacred object

    因為違反了人類對自由的渴望,

  • could not be touched by hands of different races.

    所以需要大量的暴力才能維持它。

  • This artificial hierarchy,

    以致於每四天, 在美國南方的某個地方,

  • because it goes against human desires to be free,

    每四天,就有一個非裔 美國人被私刑處死,

  • required a tremendous amount of violence to maintain.

    只因為有人覺得他破壞了 等級制度的某些協定,

  • Such that every four days, somewhere in the American South,

    這是大遷徙前數十年來的社會樣貌。

  • every four days an African American was lynched

    會實施這個等級制度,有許多理由。

  • for some perceived breach of protocol in this caste system

    其中之一是要維持南方的經濟秩序,

  • in the decades leading up to the start of the Great Migration.

    南方經濟不只仰賴廉價的勞工,

  • This caste system had been put in place for many, many reasons.

    還需要超量的廉價勞力 來完成土地的耕作,

  • But one of them was to maintain the economic order of the South,

    大遷徙始於北方出現勞工問題時,

  • which required not just a supply of cheap labor

    北方有勞工問題

  • but an oversupply of cheap labor to work at the will of the land.

    是因為它一直仰賴歐洲的廉價勞工,

  • This Great Migration began when the North had a labor problem.

    來自歐洲的移民者,

  • The North had a labor problem

    在工廠、鑄造廠、鋼廠裡工作。

  • because it had been relying on cheap labor from Europe --

    但一次大戰期間,

  • immigrants from Europe --

    歐洲人停止移民美國,

  • to work the factories and the foundries and the steel mills.

    北方因此出現了勞工問題。

  • But during World War I,

    所以他們決定要在國內 尋找最便宜的勞力,

  • migration from Europe came to a virtual halt.

    也就是在南方的非裔美國人。

  • And so the North had a labor problem.

    他們當中有很多人 做了苦力卻都沒有薪水,

  • And so the North decided to go and find the cheapest labor in the land

    許多人為取得在他們 耕地上的居住權而工作。

  • which meant African Americans in the South,

    他們是佃農,沒有薪水,

  • many of whom were not even being paid for their hard work.

    所以他們早已準備好被招聘了。

  • Many of them were working

    然而,

  • for the right to live on the land that they were farming.

    南方對於廉價勞工被竊取 這件事十分憤慨,

  • They were sharecroppers and not even being paid.

    於是盡一切所能,不讓人們離開。

  • So they were ripe for recruitment.

    他們在車站月台逮捕人。

  • But it turned out

    別忘了,那些人該是 自由的美國公民。

  • that the South did not take kindly to this poaching of its cheap labor.

    他們可能會從火車座位上被帶走,

  • The South actually did everything it could to keep the people from leaving.

    當要逮捕的人太多時,

  • They would arrest people from the railroad platforms.

    他們會揮手讓火車 不要停下來,直接通過,

  • Remember, putatively free American citizens.

    這麼一來,一直抱著希望、

  • They would arrest them from their train seats.

    一直在存錢、

  • And when there were too many people to arrest,

    不停的禱告希望得到自由的人們,

  • they would wave the train on through

    就得要為下一步做打算。

  • so that people who had been hoping

    當他們順利離開南方,

  • and saving

    遠離吉姆克勞法,

  • and praying for the chance to get to freedom

    他們循著三條可預期的路線前進,

  • had to figure out: How now will we get out?

    如同人類史上每一次的移民潮。

  • And as they made their way out of the South,

    在這個特別的案例中,有三條路線,

  • away from Jim Crow,

    第一條路線沿著東岸,

  • they followed three beautifully predictable streams

    從佛羅里達、喬治亞、 卡羅來納、維吉尼亞,

  • as is the case in any migration throughout human history.

    到華盛頓特區、費城、

  • In this particular case, there were three streams.

    新澤西、紐約,沿著東岸向北走。

  • One was the migration along the East Coast

    還有中西部的路線,

  • from Florida, Georgia, the Carolinas and Virginia

    這條路線會帶著人們從 密西西比、阿拉巴馬、

  • to Washington DC, to Philadelphia,

    田納西和阿肯色,

  • New Jersey, New York and on up the East coast.

    到芝加哥、底特律、 克里夫蘭和整個中西部。

  • There was the Midwest stream,

    還有條西岸路線,

  • which carried people from Mississippi, Alabama,

    這條路線會帶著人們從 路易斯安那和德州,

  • Tennessee and Arkansas

    向西到加州去。

  • to Chicago, to Detroit, to Cleveland and the entire Midwest.

    當他們真的想要逃離時,

  • And then there was the West Coast stream,

    他們會去西雅圖。

  • which carried people from Louisiana and Texas

    當他們真的真的想要逃離時,

  • out to California.

    他們會到阿拉斯加,

  • And when they really wanted to get away,

    這是美國境內能去的地方中,

  • they went to Seattle.

    離吉姆克勞法最遠的。

  • And when they really, really wanted to get away,

    在大遷徙開始之前,

  • they went to Alaska,

    90% 的非裔美國人住在南方。

  • the farthest possible point within the borders of the United States

    幾乎是被囚禁在南方。

  • from Jim Crow South.

    大遷徙結束時,

  • Before the Great Migration began,

    一半的人住到了美國的其他地方,

  • 90 percent of all African Americans were living in the South.

    所以,結果幾乎算是 一次人口的再分配。

  • Nearly held captive in the South.

    大遷徙是美國史上第一次

  • But by the time this Great Migration was over,

    最低等級的人

  • nearly half were living all over the rest of the country.

    伸張他們有選擇權,並做出選擇。

  • So this ended up being nearly a complete redistribution

    非裔美國人在美國的前三個世紀

  • of part of an entire people.

    都不曾發生這樣的事,

  • This Great Migration was the first time in American history

    在種族隔離前的一個世紀,

  • that the lowest caste people

    整整十二個代的奴役 世代間不曾發生過。

  • signaled that they had options and were willing to take them.

    你要在「祖父母」前面

  • That had not happened in the three centuries

    加上多少個「曾」字,

  • in which African Americans had been on that soil at that time.

    才能想像美國的奴役世代持續了多久?

  • It had not happened in 12 generations of enslavement

    第二,這次大遷徙是美國史上第一次

  • that preceded nearly a century of Jim Crow.

    最低等級的人

  • How many "greats"

    真的有機會為自己做選擇,

  • do you have to add to the word "grandparent"

    選擇要如何運用自己的天賦,

  • to begin to imagine how long enslavement lasted in the United States?

    以及在哪裡進行。

  • Secondly, this Great Migration was the first time in American history

    想想那些棉花田、

  • that the lowest caste people

    稻田、

  • actually had a chance to choose for themselves

    菸田

  • what they would do with their God-given talents

    以及那些甘蔗園。

  • and where they would pursue them.

    在那些甘蔗園裡,

  • Think about those cotton fields

    在那些菸田上,

  • and those rice plantations

    在那些稻田上,

  • and those tobacco fields

    在那些棉花田上,

  • and those sugar plantations.

    有著歌劇演唱家、

  • On those sugar plantations,

    爵士音樂家、

  • and on those tobacco fields,

    劇作家、

  • and on those rice plantations,

    小說家、

  • and on those cotton fields

    外科醫生、

  • were opera singers,

    律師、

  • jazz musicians,

    會計師、

  • playwrights,

    教授、

  • novelists,

    記者,

  • surgeons,

    我們怎麼會知道?

  • attorneys,

    我們之所以會知道是因為 這些是他們、他們的孩子,

  • accountants,

    以及現在是他們的孫子, 甚至曾孫,

  • professors,

    通常會做出的職業選擇,

  • journalists.

    一旦他們有機會為自己選擇

  • And how do we know that?

    如何運用自己的天賦才能時。

  • We know that because that is what they and their children

    若沒有大遷徙,

  • and now their grandchildren and even great-grandchildren

    可能就不會有我們今天 所熟知的托妮·莫里森,

  • have often chosen to become

    她的父母來自阿拉巴馬和喬治亞,

  • once they had the chance to choose for themselves

    他們移居到俄亥俄,

  • what they would do with their God-given talents.

    在那裡,他們的女兒才能去做

  • Without the Great Migration,

    一些今天看起來理所當然的事,

  • there might not have been a Toni Morrison as we now know her to be.

    這些事在當時會違反法律 及非裔美國人應遵守的協議,

  • Her parents were from Alabama and from Georgia.

    若她父母那時留在南方,

  • They migrated to Ohio,

    讓她在南方長大的話。

  • where their daughter would get to do something

    這些事包括走進圖書館

  • that we all take for granted at this point,

    借出一本書。

  • but which was against the law and against protocol for African Americans

    光是「決定離開」這件事,

  • at the time that she would have been growing up in the South,

    她的父母就確保了 他們的女兒能夠取得書籍。

  • had they stayed.

    如果你要成為諾貝爾獎得主,

  • And that is just to walk into a library

    有時能夠看本書是有幫助的,

  • and take out a library book.

    那是有幫助的。

  • Merely by making the single decision to leave,

    我們所知道的音樂 也被大遷徙重塑過。

  • her parents assured that their daughter would get access to books.

    到北方時,音樂保留在 人們的心中與記憶中,

  • And if you're going to become a Nobel laureate,

    那些是伴隨他們祖先的音樂,

  • it helps to get a book now and then.

    藍調、靈歌、福音音樂、

  • You know, it helps.

    世世代代支撐著他們的音樂。

  • Music as we know it was reshaped by the Great Migration.

    他們將這些音樂轉變成 全新的音樂類型。

  • As they came North, they brought with them,

    他們得到機會

  • on their hearts and in their memories,

    錄製他們創造的新音樂,

  • the music that had sustained the ancestors --

    並散播到全世界去。

  • the blues music, the spirituals and the gospel music

    若沒有大遷徙,就不會有 摩城唱片 (Motown),

  • that had sustained them through the generations.

    它的創辦人貝里戈迪的 父母來自喬治亞。

  • And they converted this music into whole new genres of music.

    他們移居到底特律。

  • And got the chance to record this music,

    他長大後決定進入音樂這一行,

  • this new music that they were creating,

    但他沒有資源走到全國各地

  • and to spread it throughout the world.

    尋找最有才華的人,

  • Without the Great Migration, "Motown" would not have existed.

    然而,他根本不用這麼做。

  • The founder, Berry Gordy, his parents were from Georgia.

    他發現,在他身邊

  • They migrated to Detroit.

    圍繞著大遷徙的孩子們,

  • And when he got to be a grown man, he decided he wanted to go into music.

    他們的父母在這趟旅程中 一直都帶著這些音樂。

  • But he didn't have the wherewithal to go all over the country

    在這些孩子當中,有三個女孩,

  • looking for the best talent,

    包括瑪莉·威森、

  • and it turned out he didn't have to.

    弗洛倫斯·巴拉德,

  • It turned out that there he was,

    以及第三位,

  • surrounded by children of the Great Migration

    黛安娜·羅斯。

  • whose parents had brought this music up with them during the journey.

    如果不是大遷徙,我們可能 不會知道黛安娜·羅斯。

  • And among those children were these three girls,

    因為和許多美國人 及許多一般人一樣,

  • there was Mary Wilson,

    若她的父母沒有相遇,就不會有她。

  • Florence Ballard

    她的母親來自阿拉巴馬,

  • and there was a third one:

    父親來自西維吉尼亞,

  • Diana Ross.

    他們在不同年分移居到底特律,

  • We might not know Diana Ross' name had there been no Great Migration.

    相遇、結婚,生了她和她的手足,

  • Because like a lot<