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  • A lot of people call me a "justice architect."

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Yang Xinzhe

  • But I don't design prisons.

    很多人稱我為「正義建築師」

  • I don't design jails.

    但我不設計監獄。

  • I don't design detention centers, and I don't even design courthouses.

    我不設計監牢。

  • All the same, I get a call every week,

    我不設計拘留所, 我甚至不設計法院。

  • saying, "OK, but you design better prisons, right?

    我仍然每週都會接到一通電話,

  • You know, like those pretty ones they're building in Europe."

    說:「好,但你會設計 更好的監牢,對嗎?

  • And I always pause.

    就像他們在歐洲建造的 那種漂亮監獄。」

  • And I invite them,

    我總是會停頓。

  • and I invite you today,

    我會邀請他們,

  • to imagine a world without prisons.

    今天我也邀請各位,

  • What does that justice feel and look like?

    想像一個沒有監獄的世界。

  • What do we need to build to get there?

    正義感覺起來、 看起來,會是怎樣的?

  • I'd like to show you some ideas today of things that we're building.

    我們要建造什麼,才能達成它?

  • And I'm going to start with an early prototype.

    今天我想展示給各位一些想法, 是我們正在建造的東西。

  • This I built when I was five.

    我要從一個早期的原型開始。

  • I call it "the healing hut."

    這是我五歲時建造的。

  • And I built it after I got sent home from school

    我稱它為「療癒小屋」。

  • for punching this kid in the face because he called me the N-word.

    我被一個孩子稱為呆子, 所以我打了他的臉,

  • OK, he deserved it.

    學校把我送回家, 之後我就建造了這小屋。

  • It happened a lot, though,

    是他活該。

  • because my family had desegregated a white community in rural Virginia.

    不過,這種事常常發生,

  • And I was really scared.

    因為我的家庭消除了維吉尼亞郊區 一個白人社區中的種族隔離。

  • I was afraid.

    而我嚇壞了。

  • I was angry.

    我很害怕。

  • And so I would run into the forest, and I would build these little huts.

    我很憤怒。

  • They were made out of twigs and leaves and blankets I had taken from my mom.

    我會跑到森林裡然後建造這些小屋。

  • And as the light would stream into my refuge,

    它們的建材是樹枝、樹葉, 以及我從我媽媽那裡拿來的毛毯。

  • I would feel at peace.

    當光線從縫細射入我的庇護所,

  • Despite my efforts to comfort myself,

    我會感到很平和。

  • I still left my community as soon as I could,

    儘管我很努力安慰我自己,

  • and I went to architecture school

    我還是儘快地離開了我的社區,

  • and then into a professional career designing shopping centers,

    我去讀建築學校,

  • homes for the wealthy

    接著開始了我的職業生涯, 設計購物中心、

  • and office buildings,

    富人的家,

  • until I stepped into a prison for the first time.

    以及辦公室大樓,

  • It was the Chester State Correctional Institution in Pennsylvania.

    直到我第一次踏入一間監獄。

  • And my friend, she invited me there

    那是賓州的切斯特州立監獄。

  • to work with some of her incarcerated students

    我是被我的朋友邀請過去的,

  • and teach them about the positive power of design.

    去和她的一些被監禁的學生合作,

  • The irony is so obvious, right?

    教導他們設計的正面力量。

  • As I approached this concrete building, these tiny little windows,

    這真的很諷刺,對吧?

  • barbed wire, high walls, observation towers,

    我接近這座水泥的建築物, 裡面有很小的窗戶、

  • and on the inside, these cold, hard spaces,

    有刺鐵絲網、高牆、守望塔,

  • little light or air,

    在內部,那些冰冷、堅硬的空間裡,

  • the guards are screaming, the doors are clanking,

    光線和空氣都很少,

  • there's a wall of cells filled with so many black and brown bodies.

    守衛叫嚷著,門發出噹啷聲,

  • And I realized that what I was seeing

    有一整面牆都是牢房, 裡面滿是黑色和褐色的身體。

  • was the end result of our racist policies that had caused mass incarceration.

    我了解到,我所看到的景象,

  • But as an architect, what I was seeing

    是我們的種族政策造成了 大規模監禁的結果。

  • was how a prison is the worst building type we could have created

    但,身為建築師,我所看到的是,

  • to address the harm that we're doing to one another.

    就我們創造出來處理人類 對彼此之傷害行為的建築來說,

  • I thought, "Well, could I design an alternative to this,

    監獄真的是最糟的一種。

  • other than building a prettier prison?"

    我心想:「我是否能 為此設計一個替代方案,

  • It didn't feel good to me; it still doesn't feel good.

    而不是建造一間更漂亮的監獄?」

  • But back then, I just didn't know what to do.

    它那時給我的感覺不好; 現在的感覺仍然不好。

  • What do we build instead of this?

    但那時,我不知道該怎麼辦。

  • And then I heard about restorative justice.

    我們能建立什麼來取代它?

  • I felt at peace again,

    接著我聽說了修復式正義。

  • because here was an alternative system

    我再次感受到了平和,

  • that says when a crime is committed, it is a breach of relationship,

    因為這是個替代的體制,

  • that the needs of those who have been harmed

    它說,當罪刑被犯下時, 它就破壞了關係,

  • must be addressed first;

    被傷害者的需求

  • that those who have committed the offense

    需要先被處理;

  • have an obligation to make amends.

    而犯下罪刑的人,

  • And what they are are really intense dialogues,

    有義務要去做補償。

  • where all stakeholders come together to find a way to repair the breach.

    那些補償其實是很緊繃的對話,

  • Early data shows that restorative justice builds empathy;

    所有利害關係人齊聚在一起, 找到一種方式來修復這破裂的關係。

  • that it reduces violent reoffending by up to 75 percent;

    早期的資料顯示, 修復式正義能建立同理心;

  • that it eases PTSD in survivors of the most severe violence.

    能把暴力罪犯再犯的 狀況減低 75% 之多;

  • And because of these reasons,

    它能減輕最嚴重暴力行為的生存者 發生創傷後壓力症候群的情況。

  • we see prosecutors and judges and district attorneys

    因為這些理由,

  • starting to divert cases out of court and into restorative justice

    我們看到公訴人、法官、地方檢察官

  • so that some people never touch the system altogether.

    開始把案件從法庭導向修復式正義,

  • And so I thought, "Well, damn -- why aren't we designing for this system?"

    這麼一來有些人就永遠 不會再接觸這個體制了。

  • (Applause)

    所以我心想:「該死, 我們為何不為這體制設計?」

  • Instead of building prisons,

    (掌聲)

  • we should be building spaces to amplify restorative justice.

    不要建造監獄,

  • And so I started in schools,

    我們應該要建造空間 來放大修復式正義。

  • because suspensions and expulsions

    所以我從學校開始,

  • have been fueling the pathway to prison for decades.

    因為停學和開除學籍

  • And many school districts -- probably some of your own --

    數十年來都在助長通往監獄之路。

  • are turning to restorative justice as an alternative.

    許多學區,可能各位的包括在內,

  • So, my first project -- I just turned this dirty little storage room

    把修復式正義轉變為一種替代方案。

  • into a peacemaking room for a program in a high school

    所以,我的第一個計畫── 我剛把這個骯髒的小儲存室

  • in my hometown of Oakland.

    轉變為和平創造室, 給一間高中的專案計畫使用,

  • And after we were done, the director said

    位在我的家鄉奧克蘭。

  • that the circles she was holding in this space

    我們完工之後,主任說,

  • were more powerful in bringing the community together

    她在這個空間中所主持的圍圈,

  • after fighting at school and gun violence in the community,

    在將社區團結上有非常強大的力量,

  • and that students and teachers started to come here

    在學校內奮戰,在社區中對抗槍枝;

  • just because they saw it as a space of refuge.

    因此,學生和老師開始來到這裡,

  • So what was happening is that the space was amplifying the effects of the process.

    只因為他們把這個空間 視為是庇護所。

  • OK, then I did something that architects always do, y'all.

    所以,這個空間放大了過程的效應。

  • I was like, I'm going to build something massive now, right?

    接著,我做了建築師都會做的事。

  • I'm going to build the world's first restorative justice center all by myself.

    我心想,我接著要建造 讓人印象深刻的東西了,

  • And it's going to be a beautiful figure on the skyline,

    我要靠自己來建造世界上 第一個修復式正義中心。

  • like a beacon in the night.

    它將會是地平線上一個美麗的形體,

  • Thousands of people will come here instead of going to court.

    就像夜晚的燈塔。

  • I will single-handedly end mass incarceration

    數以千計的人會來到 這裡,而不是去法庭。

  • and win lots of design awards.

    我會靠自己一個人的力量 就終結大規模監禁,

  • (Laughter)

    還能贏很多設計獎。

  • And then I checked myself --

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    接著我阻止了我自己。

  • because here's the deal:

    (笑聲)

  • we are incarcerating more of our citizens per capita

    因為狀況是這樣的:

  • than any country in the world.

    我們監禁的人均公民數

  • And the fastest-growing population there are black women.

    高於世界上的每一個國家。

  • Ninety-five percent of all these folks are coming home.

    而人數成長最快的是黑人女性。

  • And most of them are survivors of severe sexual, physical and emotional abuse.

    這些人當中有 95% 會回家。

  • They have literally been on both sides of the harm.

    她們大部分是嚴重的性、身體, 及情緒暴力下的受害者。

  • So I thought, uh, maybe I should ask them

    她們是真的在傷害的兩方都待過。

  • what we should build instead of prisons.

    所以我心想,也許我應該問問她們,

  • So I returned with a restorative justice expert,

    我們該建造什麼來取代監獄。

  • and we started to run the country's first design studios

    我和一位修復式正義專家一起返回,

  • with incarcerated men and women

    我們開始運行全國第一家

  • around the intersection of restorative justice and design.

    設有監禁男女的設計工作室,

  • And it was transformative for me.

    圍繞在恢復性司法 和設計的交叉點上。

  • I saw all these people behind walls in a totally different way.

    對我來說這是會帶來改變的。

  • These were souls deeply committed to their personal transformation

    我以一種完全不同的方式 看待關在圍牆後的這些人。

  • and being accountable.

    這些人深深投入在 他們的個人轉變當中,

  • They were creative, they were visionary.

    負起責任。

  • Danny is one of those souls.

    他們有創意,他們有遠見。

  • He's been incarcerated at San Quentin for 27 years

    丹尼就是其中一位。

  • for taking a life at the age of 21.

    他已經被關在聖昆丁 州立監獄 27 年了,

  • From the very beginning,

    他在 21 歲時殺了人。

  • he's been focused on being accountable for that act

    打從一開始,

  • and doing his best to make amends from behind bars.

    他就一直專注在 要為那行為負起責任,

  • He brought that work into a design for a community center

    盡他的全力從獄中做補償。

  • for reconciliation and wellness.

    他把那份心力帶到了 一個社區中心的設計中,

  • It was a beautiful design, right?

    一個調解及健康中心。

  • So it's this green campus filled with these circular structures

    那是個很美的設計,對吧?

  • for victim and offender dialogue.

    這個綠色的校園 充滿了這些圓形的結構,

  • And when he presented the project to me,

    供受害者和犯罪者進行對話。

  • he started crying.

    當他把這個計畫拿給我看時,

  • He said, "After being in the brutality of San Quentin for so long,

    他開始哭泣。

  • we don't think reconciliation will happen.

    他說:「在聖昆丁州立監獄的 暴虐當中待了這麼久,

  • This design is for a place that fulfills the promise of restorative justice.

    我們不認為調解還有可能發生。

  • And it feels closer now."

    這個設計,是要建造一個地方 來實現修復式正義的承諾。

  • I know for a fact

    現在它感覺更接近了。」

  • that just the visualization of spaces for restorative justice and healing

    我很確定,

  • are transformative.

    光是將修復式正義 及療癒的空間給視覺化,

  • I've seen it in our workshops over and over again.

    就有改變的力量了。

  • But I think we know that just visualizing these spaces is not enough.

    我在我們的研討會 一再看到這樣的現象。

  • We have to build them.

    但我想我們都知道,光是將 這些空間視覺化還不夠。

  • And so I started to look for justice innovators.

    我們得把它們建造出來。

  • They are not easy to find.

    所以我開始尋找正義創新者。

  • But I found one.

    他們挺不容易找的。

  • I found the Center for Court Innovation.

    但我找到了一個。

  • They were bringing Native American peacemaking practices

    我找到了法院創新中心。

  • into a non-Native community

    他們要把美國原住民的調停做法

  • for the very first time in the United States.

    帶到非原住民社區中,

  • And I approached them, and I said,

    這是美國有史以來第一次。

  • "OK, well, as you set up your process,

    我去找他們,我說:

  • could I work with the community to design a peacemaking center?"

    「好,當你們在準備你們的流程時,

  • And they said yes.

    我能不能與社區合作, 設計一個調停中心?」

  • Thank God, because I had no backup to these guys.

    他們答應了。

  • And so, in the Near Westside of Syracuse, New York,

    謝天謝地,因為除了他們, 我沒有別的後備計畫。

  • we started to run design workshops with the community

    所以,在紐約雪城的近西界,

  • to both locate and reenvision an old drug house

    我們開始與社區進行設計研討會,

  • to be a peacemaking center.

    找到了一間毒梟的家,

  • The Near Westside Peacemaking Project is complete.

    把它重新想像成為一個調停中心。

  • And they are already running over 80 circles a year,

    西界調停專案計畫完成了。

  • with a very interesting outcome,

    現在每年已經會進行 超過 80 場圍圈坐談,

  • and that it is the space itself

    結果非常有意思,

  • that's convincing people to engage in peacemaking

    是那個空間本身

  • for the very first time in their lives.

    說服了大家去參與調停,

  • Isabel and her daughter are some of those community members.

    那也是他們人生中的初體驗。

  • And they had been referred to peacemaking

    伊莎貝爾和她的女兒 都是有參與的社區成員。

  • to heal their relationship after a history of family abuse,

    她們被轉介到調停中心,

  • sexual abuse

    來療癒她們的關係, 她們過去曾經歷過家暴、

  • and other issues that they'd been having in their own family

    性虐待,

  • and the community.

    以及其他和自己家庭間 及社區間的問題。

  • And, you know, Isabel didn't want to do peacemaking.

    伊莎貝爾並不想做調停。

  • She was like, "This is just like going to court.

    她說:「這就像上法庭一樣。

  • What is this peacemaking stuff?"

    這個調停是什麼東西?」

  • But when she showed up,

    當她出席時,

  • she was stressed, she was anxious.

    她很有壓力,很焦慮。

  • But when she got in, she kind of looked around,

    但她進來之後,她看了看四周,

  • and she settled in.

    她安頓下來了。

  • And she turned to the coordinator and said,

    她轉向協調者,說:

  • "I feel comfortable here -- at ease.

    我在這裡覺得很舒適、很安心。

  • It's homey."

    很像家。」

  • Isabel and her daughter made a decision that day

    伊莎貝爾和她的女兒在那天就決定

  • to engage and complete the peacemaking process.

    要參與並完成調停過程。

  • And today, their relationship is transformed;

    現今,她們的關係已經轉變了;

  • they're doing really well and they're healing.

    她們的狀況很好,她們在療癒。

  • So after this project, I didn't go into a thing

    在這個計畫之後,

  • where I'm going to make a huge peacemaking center.

    我沒有去建大型的調停中心。

  • I did want to have peacemaking centers in every community.

    我確實希望每個社區 都有一個調停中心。

  • But then a new idea emerged.

    但接著,一個新點子浮現了。

  • I was doing a workshop in Santa Rita Jail in California,

    我在加州的聖利塔監獄辦研討會,

  • and one of our incarcerated designers, Doug, said,

    我們有一位被監禁的 設計師叫道格,他說:

  • "Yeah, you know, repairing the harm, getting back on my feet, healing --

    「是的,修復傷害、 重新站起來、療癒──

  • really important.

    非常重要。

  • But the reality is, Deanna, when I get home,

    但現實是,狄安娜,當我回家時,

  • I don't have anywhere to go.

    我無處可去。

  • I have no job -- who's going to hire me?

    我沒有工作──誰會僱用我?

  • I'm just going to end up back here."

    我最後還是會回來這裡。」

  • And you know what, he's right,

    你們知道嗎,他說的沒錯,

  • because 60 to 75 percent of those returning to their communities

    因為返回社區的人當中, 有 60%~75%

  • will be unemployed a year after their release.

    在出獄後的一年內都找不到工作。

  • We also know, if you can't meet your basic economic needs,

    我們都知道,如果你的 基本經濟需求無法被滿足,

  • you're going to commit crime --

    你就會犯罪,

  • any of us would do that.

    每個人都必然如此。

  • So instead of building prisons,

    所以,若不要建造監獄,

  • what we could build are spaces for job training and entrepreneurship.

    我們可以建造職業訓練 和企業家精神的空間。

  • These are spaces for what we call "restorative economics."

    這些空間可以用來做 我們所謂的「修復式經濟」。

  • Located in East Oakland, California,

    在加州的東奧克蘭,

  • "Restore Oakland" will be the country's first center

    「恢復奧克蘭」將會是全國第一個

  • for restorative justice and restorative economics.

    修復式正義及修復式經濟中心。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • So here's what we're going to do.

    我們打算要做的事如下。

  • We're going to gut this building and turn it into three things.

    我們要改裝這棟建築的內部, 轉為三樣東西。

  • First, a restaurant called "Colors,"

    第一,一間餐廳,叫做「顏色」,

  • that will break the racial divide in the restaurant industry

    它會打破在餐廳產業的族群分裂,

  • by training low-wage restaurant workers

    做法是訓練低薪餐廳員工

  • to get living-wage jobs in fine dining.

    取得好的餐廳工作, 提供的工資足夠生活所需。

  • It does not matter if you have a criminal record or not.

    你是否有前科都無所謂。

  • On the second floor, we have bright, open, airy spaces

    二樓有明亮、開放、通風的空間,

  • to support a constellation of activist organizations

    用來支持一系列活動組織,

  • to amplify their cry of "Healthcare Not Handcuffs,"

    放大他們「要健康照護,不要手銬」

  • and "Housing as a human right."

    及「供給住房是基本人權」的呼籲。

  • And third, the county's first dedicated space for restorative justice,

    第三,該郡第一個 修復式正義的專用空間,

  • filled with nature, color, texture and spaces of refuge

    充滿了庇護所的本質、 顏色、結構,及空間,

  • to support the dialogues here.

    以支援在這裡進行的對談。

  • This project breaks ground in just two months.

    這個計畫再兩個月就要開工了。

  • And we have plans to replicate it

    我們打算把它複製到

  • in Washington D.C., Detroit, New York and New Orleans.

    華盛頓特區、底特律、 紐約、以及紐奧良。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • So you've seen two things we can build instead of prisons.

    所以,各位已經看到了 兩種代替監獄的選擇。

  • And look, the price point is better.

    而且,價格點更好。

  • For one jail, we can build 30 restorative justice centers.

    一間監獄可以換成 三十間修復式正義中心。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • That is a better use of your tax dollars.

    這也是把稅款做更好的運用。

  • So I want to build all of these.

    這些我全部都想建造。

  • But building buildings is a really heavy lift.

    但建造建築物是非常沉重的工作。

  • It takes time.

    要花時間。

  • And what was happening in the communities that I was serving

    在我服務的那些社區中, 發生的狀況是,

  • is we were losing people every week to gun violence and mass incarceration.

    每週我們都會因為槍枝暴力 和大規模監禁而失去一些人。

  • We needed to serve more people and faster and keep them out of the system.

    我們得要以更快的速度 服務更多人,讓他們遠離體制。

  • And a new idea emerged from the community,

    社區中浮現了一個新點子,

  • one that was a lot lighter on its feet.

    這個點子比較輕便。

  • Instead of building prisons, we could build villages on wheels.

    取代建造監獄, 我們可以建造有輪子的村子。

  • It's called the Pop-Up Resource Village,

    它叫做「快閃式資源村」,

  • and it brings an entire constellation of resources

    把所有的資源帶到