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  • I'm Chris Nowinski, and odds are if you've met me in the last five years

    譯者: Thomas Tam 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • I've asked you, after a few minutes, a bit of an odd question:

    我是克里斯·諾因斯基, 如果你在過去的五年中曾遇見我,

  • Can I have your brain?

    很有可能在我們交談幾分鐘後, 我問了你一個怪問題:

  • Now, it only seems like a strange question if you don't know my story

    「可以把你的大腦給我嗎?」

  • so please let me share it with you.

    如果你不知道我的故事, 那就看似是個怪問題,

  • I grew up outside of Chicago, and I was an athlete

    讓我與你們分享吧。

  • and I was very lucky to get recruited to play football at Harvard University.

    我在芝加哥郊區長大, 是一名運動員,

  • So that's me.

    我很幸運地被哈佛大學錄取踢足球。

  • And then after graduating, like most Harvard graduates,

    那就是我。

  • I decided I wanted to join the WWE.

    畢業後,像大多數哈佛畢業生一樣,

  • So that's also me.

    我決定加入世界摔角娛樂圈。

  • (Laughter)

    所以那也是我。

  • Sure you remember me from Monday Night Raw in 2002 and 2003,

    (笑聲)

  • and I had a blast

    當然你還記得 2002 和 2003 年的 Monday Night Raw,

  • playing what people affectionately like to call

    我造成極大的迴響,

  • Chris Harvard, the Ivy League snob.

    扮演大家喜愛的常春藤名校勢利鬼

  • (Laughter)

    克里斯·哈佛。

  • It was perfect for me.

    (笑聲)

  • But unfortunately,

    對我而言,那角色非常完美。

  • I got kicked in the head by my colleague Bubba Ray Dudley,

    但不幸的是,

  • and I suffered a severe concussion.

    我的頭給拍擋 布巴‧雷‧達德利的腳踢中了,

  • And it led to what became permanent postconcussion symptoms:

    我遭受嚴重的腦震盪。

  • constant headaches, inability to sleep, depression, feeling in a fog.

    導致永久性的腦震盪症候群症狀:

  • And in that first year,

    持續頭痛、難以入睡、 抑鬱、感覺迷迷糊糊。

  • I tried to figure out how could I make this pain go away.

    而在第一年裡,

  • And I wasn't getting the answers I needed from doctors,

    我試圖消除這痛苦,

  • and so I started digging into the medical literature.

    醫生沒給我需要的答案,

  • And I found there's this whole story about concussions

    所以我開始深入研究醫學文獻,

  • that we weren't really being told.

    發現了關於腦震盪

  • So I decided to write a book about it,

    原先未知的完整事實。

  • called "Head Games: Football's Concussion Crisis"

    所以我決定為此寫一本書,

  • that came out in 2006.

    書名是「頭部遊戲: 美式足球的腦震盪危機」,

  • But in that process, I learned it's not really just about concussions.

    在 2006 年出版。

  • I learned about a disease called chronic traumatic encephalopathy or CTE.

    但在寫作的過程中, 我了解到不僅是腦震盪而已,

  • What we used to call punch-drunk, because we only knew about it from boxers.

    有一種稱為「慢性創傷性腦病」 或 CTE 的疾病存在。

  • We knew that getting hit in the head too many times with boxers

    過去只知道是拳擊手的頭 受到重擊而醺醉的現象。

  • would cause their brain to essentially start to rot, to degenerate.

    由於拳擊手頭部被多次擊中,

  • And they'd have symptoms

    會導致他們的大腦開始損壞及退化。

  • like memory problems and problems with cognition,

    他們會有一些症狀

  • depression, impulse control issues, aggression.

    像記憶和認知問題、

  • So basically, I got ...

    抑鬱、衝動控制問題,及侵略性。

  • I got injured at the right time,

    基本上,我得知......

  • in which the first two NFL players were studied for this disease.

    我的受傷時間剛剛好,

  • And it turned out they both had it.

    有兩名前 NFL 球員, 因為這種疾病而被研究。

  • The first was Mike Webster, 50 years old, already had dementia.

    結果證明他們都有 CTE。

  • The second, Terry Long, 45 years old when he took his life.

    第一人是邁克‧韋伯斯特, 50 歲已經患有失智症。

  • The medical examiner in Pittsburgh decided to look at their brains

    第二人是特里‧龍, 於 45 歲時自殺。

  • and found this disease.

    匹茲堡的醫學檢查員 決定查看他們的大腦,

  • I wrote a chapter about it,

    發現他們有這種病。

  • and I thought people would make a big deal out of it.

    我為此寫了一章,

  • But shockingly, even when the first two cases came in positive,

    以為人們會反應強烈。

  • there was never a national news story about this,

    但令我震驚的是 即使有前面兩個陽性的病例,

  • what's going on in football with these cases of CTE.

    從來沒有全國性的新聞

  • So the book comes out,

    報導足球界的這些 CTE 案例。

  • not a whole lot is happening,

    這本書上架了,

  • and one day I read the newspaper -- November 20, 2006.

    沒多少事發生。

  • I find out that Andre Waters just took his life.

    有一天我在讀報紙── 當時是 2006 年 11 月 20 日,

  • Those of you who know football,

    發現安德烈·沃特斯剛自殺。

  • Andre Waters was someone I grew up watching.

    對足球熟識的人,

  • Former Philadelphia Eagles strong safety,

    像我就是看著安德烈·沃特斯長大的,

  • [44] years old, a Division II football coach

    他曾是費城老鷹隊堅固的防守後衛,

  • when he decided to put a gun to his head.

    在 44 歲擔任乙級足球教練時

  • In the article they reminded me, his nickname was Dirty Waters.

    舉槍自殺。

  • He was known for leading with his head,

    報導中提及他的綽號是 「骯髒的沃特斯」,

  • so I thought I'm just going to look up

    以頭先行防守而聞名,

  • did he ever talk about the concussions he had.

    這使我想查查看

  • And I found a quote from 1994 where Andre Waters said,

    他是否曾經談及自己腦震盪的事。

  • "I stopped counting my concussions at 15.

    我找到沃特斯在 1994 年的一段話:

  • I wouldn't say anything, I'd just sniff smelling salts and go back out there."

    「15 次腦震盪後我就不再數了。

  • And I thought, I wonder if he might have CTE, too.

    (撞了頭後)我什麼都沒說, 僅聞聞嗅鹽提提神就又回球場。」

  • If that might have contributed to whatever made him choose to end his life.

    我納悶他是否也有 CTE,

  • So I ended up calling the doctor who did the first two studies, and I said,

    那會不會是造成他 選擇自殺的部分原因。

  • "Hey, I think you should study Andre Waters."

    所以我後來打電話給之前 做兩項研究的醫生,我說︰

  • And he said, "I'd be happy to.

    「嘿,我認為你應該研究 安德烈‧沃特斯。」

  • The problem is, the first two cases died in the county in which I work,

    他說:「我很樂意。

  • and I could study them as part of my job.

    但問題是,前兩次死亡個案 發生在我工作的郡,

  • I can't do that with Andre Waters, he died in Florida.

    我的工作範圍許可研究它們的情況。

  • If you want me to study him, you're going to have to figure out

    沃特斯在佛羅里達州去世, 我沒法處理。

  • how to get me the brain."

    如果你想讓我研究他的情況,

  • So I said, "OK.

    就必須想辦法讓我取得他的大腦。」

  • How does one get a brain?"

    我說:「好的。

  • (Laughter)

    如何取得大腦?」

  • So I racked my brain

    (笑聲)

  • and I thought, why don't I call the medical examiner

    我絞盡腦汁,

  • who I think has the brain right now?

    想到,何不打電話給法醫?

  • So I called up the medical examiner in Florida, and I said,

    大腦現在應該在他那裏。

  • "Hey, you don't know me, but do you still have the brain of Andre Waters?"

    我打電話給佛羅里達州的法醫,

  • (Laughter)

    說:「嘿,你不認識我,但 安德烈‧沃特斯的腦還在你哪兒嗎?」

  • And he said, "Yes, I do."

    (笑聲)

  • I said, "OK, are you going to study him for CTE?"

    他說:「是的,在這裡。」

  • And he said no, in fact at that time he didn't believe that was a real disease.

    我說:「好,你打算研究 他有沒有 CTE 這方面的問題嗎?」

  • I said, "OK, if you're not, do you mind if I have it?"

    他說不,當時他並不認為 CTE 是一種真正的疾病。

  • And he said, "Well, young man,

    我說:「好,如果你用不著, 你介意把這個腦給我嗎?」

  • I can't give you the brain.

    他說:「這樣子吧,年輕人,

  • You need his family's permission.

    我不能把這個腦給你。

  • But if you do get the permission of his next of kin,

    你需要得到他家人的同意。

  • I will release the brain to you."

    如果他的近親許可了,

  • And I said, "Great!"

    我就把大腦交給你。」

  • And then I realized I had to figure out who his next of kin was and ask them,

    我說:「太棒了!」

  • and it turned out it was Andre Waters's 88-year-old mother.

    接著我意識到必須找出 他的近親是誰,詢問他們。

  • And I sat there, and I took a breath and I thought,

    結果是沃特斯 88 歲的母親。

  • "Am I really going to cold-call an 88-year-old grieving mother

    我坐在那裡,深吸一口氣,想︰

  • who just lost her son to suicide?"

    「真的要唐突地打電話 給一個兒子剛剛自殺,

  • And almost everything in me said, "Don't do it.

    88 歲的悲傷母親嗎?」

  • It's too much to put this poor woman through,

    我的內心掙扎著說:「不要這樣做。

  • she's been through so much already."

    實在太過分, 會傷透一個可憐女人的心,

  • But then this other voice in my head said,

    她已經受夠了。」

  • "You know what?

    但是,我腦海中有另一個聲音說:

  • If guys are killing themselves from this disease

    「知道嗎?

  • and we could study it to maybe prevent this from happening in the future,

    如果人們正在因 CTE 而自殺,

  • sometimes you've just got to suck it up and do something that's very hard."

    我們可以通過研究 防止未來再發生同樣的事,

  • So I called her.

    有時你要忍受痛苦, 做一些極困難的事情。」

  • First time, nobody answered.

    所以我打電話給她。

  • Second time, no one answered, third... no voice mails.

    第一次,電話沒人接聽。

  • The fifth time, I got an answer.

    第二次,電話沒人接聽, 第三次......沒語音信箱。

  • And thank God that Andre Waters's family was so gracious about the call and said,

    第五次,有人接電話了。

  • "You know what, we want to know what happened to Andre.

    感謝上帝,沃特斯的家人 如此親切地接電話,回答說:

  • We want to know why he changed so much in the last five years of his life."

    「你知道嗎,我們想知道 安德烈發生了什麼事。

  • And so we studied the brain,

    我們想知道在過去的五年中, 他的變化為何如此之大。」

  • and it turned out that he did have CTE.

    所以,我們研究那個腦,

  • He became the third NFL player diagnosed with the disease.

    事實證明他確實患有 CTE。

  • This is what it looks like.

    他成為第三位被診斷 患有該病的 NFL 球員。

  • He was somewhere between mild and severe.

    腦看起來就是這樣。

  • OK, we have three of three NFL players here.

    他處於輕度和重度之間。

  • Maybe this needs to get a little bit more serious.

    好的,我們有三名 NFL 的球員在這裡,

  • Maybe something's happening here.

    可能這需要更被重視些。

  • So I ended up starting the Concussion Legacy Foundation,

    也許當中發生了一些事情,

  • actually formalized the work,

    所以我最終成立了 「腦震盪後遺症基金會」,

  • so it wasn't just some guy calling for brains.

    正式展開這項工作。

  • And I searched the world.

    我不僅是個打電話要腦的人,

  • And I put together the best research team I could find.

    我還搜尋世界各地,

  • So we partnered with Boston University,

    盡我所能組成最好的研究團隊。

  • we partnered with scientists at the VA here in Boston,

    我們與波士頓大學、

  • and we started a brain bank.

    波士頓美國退伍軍人事務部的 科學家合作,

  • Turns out, if you want to know how to cure degenerative brain disease,

    我們起動了一個大腦儲存庫。

  • you have to start by actually studying the brains.

    原來,如果你想知道 如何治療退行性腦病,

  • At this point, we were the first center in the world focused on CTE.

    就必須從研究大腦開始。

  • It just had not been studied formally.

    我們是目前世界上第一個 專注於研究 CTE 的中心。

  • And so we start this brain bank, and it's my job to get the brains

    以前並沒有正式的研究。

  • for Dr. Ann McKee and her brain bank, right in the middle.

    我們啟動這個腦庫,

  • We also work with Dr. Bob Stern, Dr. Robert Cantu,

    我的工作是為相片中間的 安·麥基博士和腦庫取得腦。

  • truly my dream team of scientists that I support.

    我們還與鮑勃‧斯特恩博士、 羅伯特‧坎圖博士合作,

  • So my job is to get the brains.

    我支持這夢寐以求的科學團隊。

  • And I was very successful in those early years.

    我的工作就是要獲取大腦。

  • Since 2007 I've started every day by reading the obituaries.

    早年我非常成功。

  • And it's a tough way to live.

    從 2007 年起 我每天早晨閱讀訃文。

  • And it's hard on me

    這是個艱難的生活方式,

  • and it's even worse on these poor families that I've been calling

    對我來說很難,

  • for the last 10 years, to ask for their brains.

    更可憐的是曾經在過去 10 年中

  • And so early on in the process, as it started to really eat away at me,

    接我電話的那些家庭, 被要求捐出他們親人的大腦。

  • I decided, you know what, can I find another way

    早期的沉重工作使我精疲力竭,

  • to get people to donate their brains to this research?

    換個角度想,能否找到另一種方式,

  • And I figured out, what if we could create a culture

    讓人們自願捐獻大腦作這項研究?

  • of brain donation in this country?

    如果我們要在這個國家 創造出捐贈大腦的文化,

  • What if it became normal for athletes to donate their brain after they died?

    怎樣才辦得到呢?

  • And so what I started was a brain donation registry.

    運動員去世後捐出他們的腦 可否成為一種常態?

  • And I started asking athletes

    我從捐腦的註冊過程開始。

  • if they would publicly pledge to donate their brain to science.

    我開始詢問運動員

  • And it started with, actually, a hockey player in 2009.

    可願公開承諾捐出大腦供科學研究。

  • One of my first pledges was a former Harvard hockey player,

    計劃始於 2009 年,

  • Noah Welch, who was in the NHL at the time.

    早期承諾的人之一是 前哈佛曲棍球運動員,

  • It was a slow start people understanding what this was about.

    當時在國家冰球聯盟的諾亞‧韋爾奇。

  • So when the news hit the front page,

    起初,人們才開始慢慢理解這事。

  • "Noah Welch pledging his brain to science,"

    所以當頭版新聞出現:

  • he said he went to the locker room the next day,

    「諾亞‧韋爾奇將大腦奉獻給科學」

  • one of his teammates pulled him aside and said,

    之後的第二天,他走進更衣室,

  • "Hey, I heard you're donating your brain to science."

    一個隊友把他拉到一邊說:

  • And he said, "Yep."

    「我聽說你把大腦 捐獻給科學研究。」

  • And he said, "Wow. How many games are you going to miss?"

    他說:「是的。」

  • (Laughter)

    他說:「哇,你會錯過多少場比賽?」

  • True story.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    真實的故事。

  • But we've been remarkably successful --

    (笑聲)

  • over 2,500 athletes have signed up.

    但我們非常成功,

  • They get a brain-donation card they keep in their wallet.

    已經有超過 2,500 名運動員承諾。

  • This is mine, I was obviously first, it says 01.

    他們得到一張可放在 錢包的大腦捐贈卡。

  • And I will donate my brain to this.

    這張是我的, 顯然我是一號。

  • We've also been lucky to have people like Brandi Chastain,

    我會捐出我的大腦。

  • the women's soccer icon,

    我們很幸運有像布蘭迪‧查斯坦,

  • NASCAR's Dale Earnhardt Jr.

    她是女子足球的偶像;

  • Just two weeks ago, Hall-of-Famer Nick Buoniconti

    全國運動汽車競賽協會的 戴爾‧恩哈特;

  • who had been diagnosed with dementia, signed up to pledge his brain.

    尼克·布尼康蒂就在兩週前 許諾捐出他的大腦,

  • So it's been wonderful, and the great thing about it

    入選名人堂的他 已被診斷出患有失智症。

  • is that it has worked in changing how we're able to get brains.

    這真是太棒了,

  • So now, instead of me having to call, more families call us.

    棒在它改變了我們獲得大腦的方式。

  • And our phones ring off the hook.

    現在我不用向外打電話, 卻有更多的家屬打電話給我們,

  • And so I can now focus on taking this information,

    我們的電話鈴聲響個不停。

  • figuring out how do we work towards a cure,

    所以我現在能專注於獲取信息,

  • how do we work towards prevention,

    弄清楚我們如何治療,

  • and so my life has gotten a lot easier.

    以及預防的方向,

  • This is just some of the headlines that we've able to get over the years

    所以我的生活變得輕鬆多了。

  • from athletes pledging their brain.

    這只是這些年來我們獲得的 頭條新聞中的一部分,

  • The problem has been what we learned.

    關於承諾捐出大腦的運動員們。

  • So when we started this,

    我們研究腦所獲得的知識才是問題。

  • only 45 cases existed in the world of this disease

    一開始

  • that had been studied in brain banks.

    腦庫研究的這病

  • Since then, we have acquired 500 brains

    世上只有 45 例。

  • and found over 300 of them had CTE.

    從那時起,我們已經 獲得了 500 個大腦,

  • To put that in perspective,

    其中 300 多人被發現患有 CTE 。

  • the rest of the world has not studied 100 brains since we started this.

    從這個角度看來,

  • What we've seen though is very frightening.

    從我們開始到現在, 國外研究過的腦不超過 100。

  • So some of you might have seen the headline in July

    而我們的發現非常駭人。

  • in the "New York Times."

    你們當中有些人可能看過七月份

  • And a recent study we published,

    「紐約時報」的頭條。

  • that of the first 111 NFL players we looked at

    我們最近發表的研究報告顯示,

  • 110 were positive for this disease.

    最初 111 名被檢視的 NFL 球員,

  • Of the first 53 college football players we looked at,

    有 110 個確診為 CTE 陽性;

  • 48 had this disease.

    我們看過的頭 53 名 大學足球運動員中,

  • That's something that's a very big concern to me.

    48 人有這病。

  • And so now, I'm very much focused

    這是我非常擔心的事情。

  • on what can we do to actually treat this disease?

    所以現在,我非常專注於

  • We still can't diagnose CTE in living people,

    能做些什麼來治療這病?

  • we have no treatments that are going to be coming

    我們仍然無法 為活生生的人診斷 CTE,

  • out of the pharmaceutical industry in the next five years.

    在未來五年內

  • This is a long, long fight.

    我們無法找出藥品治療方案。

  • But our Concussion Legacy Foundation is here to not only facilitate this work,

    這是一場漫長的戰爭。

  • and that's the long game,

    我們的腦震盪後遺症基金會, 不僅促進尋找治療方案,

  • but the short game is, hey, we can prevent this.

    那是長期的工作;

  • We can prevent this disease

    但眼前的是,我們能夠預防這疾病,

  • if we just stopped hitting people in the head so much.

    我們能夠預防這疾病,

  • And frankly, we need to stop hitting children in the head.

    只要不再讓人腦常常受撞擊。

  • Turns out, it's not a great idea to hit a five-year-old in the head

    坦率地說,我們不要再讓 兒童的腦袋受到撞擊。

  • 500 times each year.

    事實證明,讓一個五歲孩子的 腦袋每年被撞擊 500 次

  • And it does actually open up the door to this disease.

    並不是個好主意。

  • And so, we've got a lot of work ahead of us.

    那會引致這病。

  • But I have great hope that we're on our way to curing this disease.

    所以,我們有很多工作要做。

  • But I hope you understand my story a little more now.

    我抱著極大的希望 我們正朝向治療這病的方向邁進。

  • And now that we've gotten to know each other a little bit better,

    希望你們現在更了解我的故事了。

  • this is the time where I ask you,

    我們現在已彼此了解多了些,

  • "Can I have your brain?"

    這個時刻我要問你︰

  • Thank you very much.

    「把你的大腦給我,好嗎?」

  • (Applause)

    非常感謝。

  • Thank you.

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

    謝謝。

I'm Chris Nowinski, and odds are if you've met me in the last five years

譯者: Thomas Tam 審譯者: Helen Chang

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 大腦 腦震盪 研究 安德烈 運動員

【TED】克里斯‧諾因斯基: 可以把你的大腦給我嗎? 追尋腦震盪和慢性創傷性腦病(CTE)的真相 (Can I have your brain? The quest for truth on concussions and CTE | Chris Nowinski)

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    Zenn 發佈於 2018 年 05 月 01 日
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