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  • Let's talk about thrift.

    譯者: Marssi Draw 審譯者: Regina Chu

  • Thrift is a concept where you reduce, reuse and recycle,

    我們來談談節約。

  • but yet with an economic aspect I think has a real potential for change.

    節約的概念是減少、再利用、回收,

  • My grandmother, she knew about thrift.

    但還帶著一層經濟上的含意, 我認為這點很有改革的潛力。

  • This is her string jar.

    我祖母懂節約。

  • She never bought any string.

    這是她裝繩子的罐子。

  • Basically, she would collect string.

    她從來不買繩子。

  • It would come from the butcher's, it would come from presents.

    基本上她都自己收集。

  • She would put it in the jar and then use it when it was needed.

    可能是肉販給的, 或是附在禮物上的。

  • When it was finished, whether it was tying up the roses

    她會放在罐子裡,要用的時候再拿。

  • or a part of my bike,

    不管是用繩子來綁玫瑰花,

  • once finished with that, it'd go back into the jar.

    還是我的腳踏車零件,

  • This is a perfect idea of thrift; you use what you need,

    只要繩子用好,就會放回罐子裡。

  • you don't actually purchase anything, so you save money.

    這是節約的好方法;用你所需,

  • Kids also inherently know this idea.

    因為你沒買東西,所以也省了錢。

  • When you want to throw out a cardboard box,

    小孩也天生就會這招。

  • the average kid will say, "Don't! I want to use it for a robot head

    你想扔紙箱子的時候,

  • or for a canoe to paddle down a river."

    一般小孩都會說:「不要丟, 我想拿來做機器人的頭,

  • They understand the value of the second life of products.

    或是用來做獨木舟, 可以在河裡划水。」

  • So, I think thrift is a perfect counterpoint

    他們了解物品再生的價值。

  • to the current age which we live in.

    我想節約是我們所處的 這個時代的完美對立面。

  • All of our current products are replaceable.

    現在所有商品都能被取代。

  • When we get that bright, new, shiny toy,

    我們拿到耀眼、嶄新、炫麗的玩具,

  • it's because, basically, we got rid of the old one.

    基本上是因為我們丟了舊的。

  • The idea of that is, of course, it's great in the moment,

    重點是,當下那一刻當然很美好,

  • but the challenge is, as we keep doing this,

    但問題是,如果我們繼續這樣下去,

  • we're going to cause a problem.

    我們又會製造出麻煩。

  • That problem is that there is really no way.

    麻煩在於真的無地可容。

  • When you throw something away, it typically goes into a landfill.

    當你丟了某樣東西, 最後它會在垃圾掩埋場。

  • Now, a landfill is basically something which is not going to go away,

    基本上掩埋場不會消失,

  • and it's increasing.

    反而會一直增加。

  • At the moment, we have about 1.3 billion tons of material every year

    現在我們每年有 13 億噸的東西

  • going into landfills.

    進了掩埋場。

  • By 2100, it's going to be about four billion tons.

    到了 2100 年大約會有 40 億噸。

  • See, instead, I'd prefer if we started thrifting.

    所以我希望大家開始節約。

  • What that means is, we consider materials when they go into products

    這意味著我們要思考材料, 在這些材料變成商品、

  • and also when they get used,

    被使用過後,

  • and, at the end of their life: When can they be used again?

    以及在它們壽終正寢時: 它們何時可再次被利用?

  • It's the idea of completely changing the way we think about waste,

    這個概念會完全改變 我們思考廢棄物的方式,

  • so waste is no longer a dirty word --

    廢棄物不在是個骯髒的詞彙──

  • we almost remove the word "waste" completely.

    我們幾乎刪除了「廢棄物」這個詞。

  • All we're looking to is resources.

    我們要找的就是資源。

  • Resource goes into a product

    資源會變成商品,

  • and then can basically go into another product.

    之後可以再變成另一個商品。

  • We used to be good at thrifting.

    以前我們很擅長節約。

  • My grandmother, again, used to use old seed packets

    我祖母以前常用舊的種子袋

  • to paper the bathroom walls.

    貼在浴室當壁紙。

  • I think, though, there are companies out there who understand this value

    我知道市面上 有些公司懂得這個價值,

  • and are promoting it.

    也在宣傳這個價值。

  • And a lot of the technologies that have been developed for the smart age

    許多開發給智能時代的科技,

  • can also be adapted to reduce, reuse and also thrift more proficiently.

    同樣也能被改造,減少、再利用, 且更有效能的節約。

  • And as a materials scientist,

    身為材料科學家,

  • what I've been tracking over the last couple of decades

    我追蹤了 20 年,

  • is how companies are getting smart at thrifting,

    來看公司行號如何聰明節約,

  • how they're able to understand this concept

    他們是怎麼能了解這個概念,

  • and profit from it.

    並從中獲利。

  • I'm going to give you two examples.

    我舉兩個例子來說明。

  • The first one, a good one; the second one, not so good.

    第一個是很好的例子; 第二個不太好。

  • The first is the automotive industry.

    第一個是汽車產業。

  • Not always known as the most innovative or creative of industries,

    這行不是以創新、創意聞名的產業,

  • but it turns out, they're really, really good at recycling their products.

    但是他們真的很擅長回收產品。

  • Ninety-five percent of every single car that goes on the road

    95% 在路上跑的車子

  • gets recycled here.

    會回收到這裡。

  • And of that car, about 75 percent of the entire car

    至於車子本身大概 75% 的車體

  • actually gets used again.

    會被重新利用。

  • That includes, of course, the old steel and aluminum

    這當然包含了舊方向盤和鋁,

  • but then also the plastics from the fender and the interiors,

    而且還有擋泥板和車內的塑膠,

  • glass from the windows and the windshield

    窗戶的玻璃和擋風玻璃,

  • and also the tires.

    以及輪胎。

  • There's a mature and successful industry that deals with these old cars

    有個成熟且成功的產業 在處理這些老舊汽車,

  • and basically recycles them and puts them back into use

    回收再利用車輛,

  • as new cars or other new products.

    讓它們變成新車或其它新產品。

  • Even as we move towards battery-powered cars,

    甚至在我們朝電動汽車邁進的時候,

  • there are companies that claim they can recycle up to 90 percent

    還是有公司主張,他們能從 1100 噸電池中回收高達九成,

  • of the 11 million tons of batteries that are going to be with us in 2020.

    這些電池在 2020 年 就會再給我們利用。

  • That, I think, is not perfect,

    我想這雖不完美,

  • but it's certainly good, and it's getting better.

    但肯定很好,而且會變得更好。

  • The industry that's not doing so well is the architecture industry.

    做得不太好的產業是建築業。

  • One of the challenges with architecture has always been

    他們一直以來的挑戰在於

  • when we build up, we don't think about taking down.

    我們蓋的時候沒想過要拆。

  • We don't dismantle, we don't disassemble, we demolish.

    我們不分解、不拆開,我們破壞。

  • That's a challenge,

    這是個挑戰,

  • because it ends up that about a third of all landfill waste in the US

    因為美國掩埋場中三分之一的垃圾

  • is architecture.

    來自建築業。

  • We need to think differently about this.

    我們得要換個角度來思考這件事。

  • There are programs that can actually reduce some of this material.

    現在有些程式可以做到減少材料。

  • A good example is this.

    這裡有個好例子。

  • These are actually bricks that are made from old demolition waste,

    這些磚塊其實是用廢建材做的,

  • which includes the glass, the rubble, the concrete.

    裡面包含了玻璃、碎石和混凝土。

  • You put up a grinder, put it all together, heat it up

    只要架起一個研磨機, 全部放一起,加熱,

  • and make these bricks we can basically build more buildings from.

    我們就能用這些磚蓋起更多的建築。

  • But it's only a fraction of what we need.

    但這只是我們所需的一小部分。

  • My hope is that with big data and geotagging,

    我希望透過大數據和定位

  • we can actually change that,

    能夠真正改變這一點,

  • and be more thrifty when it comes to buildings.

    並且在蓋建築的時候可以更節約。

  • If there's a building down the block which is being demolished,

    如果下個街區有棟建築準備要拆,

  • are there materials there

    那裡的舊建材

  • that the new building being built here can use?

    能用來蓋新建築嗎?

  • Can we use that, the ability to understand

    我們能否運用能力來理解

  • that all the materials available in that building are still usable?

    所有舊建築裡 可得的材料都能再利用?

  • Can we then basically put them into a new building,

    我們能否就這樣把廢材蓋成新建物,

  • without actually losing any value in the process?

    且在過程中毫不損失任何價值?

  • So now let's think about other industries.

    現在我們來想想其他產業。

  • What are other industries doing to create thrift?

    其他產業是怎麼做到節約?

  • Well, it turns out that there are plenty of industries

    其實有很多產業

  • that are also thinking about their own waste

    也在思考自己的廢棄物,

  • and what we can do with it.

    以及能怎麼處理。

  • A simple example is the waste that they basically belch out

    最簡單的例子就是他們直接

  • as part of industrial processes.

    在生產過程中排除廢棄物。

  • Most metal smelters give off an awful lot of carbon dioxide.

    許多金屬冶煉廠釋放 極大量的二氧化碳。

  • Turns out, there's a company called Land Detector

    有間公司叫地察 (Land Detector),

  • that's actually working in China and also soon in South Africa,

    在中國營運,不久後也會在南非,

  • that's able to take that waste gas --

    他們能把廢氣──

  • about 700,000 tons per smelter --

    每個熔爐大約是 70 萬噸──

  • and then turn it into about 400,000 tons of ethanol,

    變成 40 萬噸的乙醇,

  • which is equivalent to basically powering 250,000, or quarter of a million, cars

    這等於可以供 25 萬臺車

  • for a year.

    運行一整年。

  • That's a very effective use of waste.

    用這個方式處理廢棄物的效益很高。

  • How about products more close to home?

    那居家用品呢?

  • This is a simple solution.

    有一個簡單的方法

  • And it, again, takes the idea of reducing, reusing,

    同樣也是採用減少、再利用的概念,

  • but then also with economic advantage.

    但還包含了經濟優勢。

  • So it's a simple process of changing from a cut and sew,

    這個簡單的改造過程藉由裁縫,

  • where typically between 20 and 30 materials are used

    通常會有二、三十種用過的東西,

  • which are cut from a large cloth and then sewn together or even sometimes glued,

    從一大塊布剪下來,然後縫在一起, 有時候甚至要用黏的,

  • they changed it and said that they just knitted the shoe.

    他們改裝後說,他們編了這支鞋。

  • The advantage with this is not just a simplification of the process,

    這樣做的優點不只是簡化過程,

  • it's also, "I've got one material. I have zero waste,"

    還有「我運用原料,做到零廢棄」,

  • and then also, "I'm able to potentially recycle that at the end of its life."

    加上「在這東西走到生命盡頭時, 我還能回收它」。

  • Digital manufacturing is also allowing us to do this more effectively.

    數位化製造也讓我們 能更有效地達成這個目標。

  • In this case, it's actually creating the theoretical limit of strength

    在這個部分,真的是幫原料 製造一個理論上的強度極限:

  • for a material:

    你無法讓這麼多的原料變得更強韌,

  • you cannot get any stronger for the amount of material

    除非用這個形狀。

  • than this shape.

    這是基本磚,

  • So it's a basic simple block,

    概念是,我可以向外推, 可以做成很大型的樣式,

  • but the idea is, I can extrapolate this, I can make it into large formats,

    可以做成建築、橋梁,

  • I can make it into buildings, bridges,

    還有機翼和鞋子。

  • but also airplane wings and shoes.

    這裡的概念是,我減少原料的用量。

  • The idea here is, I'm minimizing the amount of material.

    我來舉一個建築上的好例子。

  • Here's a good example from architecture.

    這些金屬接頭常用來支撐大帳篷。

  • Typically, these sorts of metal nodes are used to hold up large tent structures.

    這個例子是在海牙, 一個購物中心旁邊。

  • In this case, it in was in the Hague, along a shopping center.

    他們用了 1600 個左邊的原料。

  • They used 1600 of the materials on the left.

    不同的是,改用右邊的之後,

  • The difference is, by using the solution on the right,

    他們把七個步驟減少到只剩一個,

  • they cut down the number of steps from seven to one,

    因為左邊要用焊接的,

  • because the one on the left is currently welded,

    而右邊只要用印的。

  • the one on the right is simply just printed.

    所以能做到零廢棄,

  • And it was able to reduce waste to zero,

    減少支出,

  • cost less money

    還有因為這是鋼材做的,

  • and also, because it's made out of steel,

    最終可以回收。

  • can be eventually recycled at the end of its life.

    大自然在節約上也做得很成功。

  • Nature also is very effective at thrift.

    你們想想:大自然是零廢棄。

  • Think about it: nature has zero waste.

    每個東西對某個過程都有助益。

  • Everything is useful for another process.

    這個例子是奈米纖維素,

  • So, in this case, nanocellulose,

    基本上這是非常精細的纖維素構件,

  • which is basically one of the very fine building blocks of cellulose,

    也是讓樹木茁壯的元素之一,

  • which is one of the materials that makes trees strong,

    你可以將它分離,就能達到 非常像碳纖維的功能。

  • you can isolate it, and it works very much like carbon fiber.

    所以從樹上分解,做成纖維狀,

  • So, take that from a tree, form it into fibers,

    這些纖維可以強化東西,

  • and then those fibers can strengthen things,

    例如飛機、建築和汽車。

  • such as airplanes, buildings, cars.

    它的優點不只是從生物衍生而來,

  • The advantage of this, though, is it's not just bioderived,

    來自可再生資源,

  • comes from a renewable resource,

    而且是透明的,

  • but also that it is transparent,

    所以可以用在電子產品 和食物包裝上。

  • so it can be used in consumer electronics, as well as food packaging.

    自家後院就有的東西還算不錯。

  • Not bad for something that basically comes from the backyard.

    另一個來自生物資源的例子 是合成蜘蛛絲。

  • Another one from the biosource is synthetic spider silk.

    真的要做天然蜘蛛絲很難。

  • Now, it's very hard to actually create spider silk naturally.

    你可以從蜘蛛身上取得絲,

  • You can basically get it from spiders,

    但牠們大多會自相殘殺、吃掉彼此,

  • but in large numbers, they tend to kill each other, eat each other,

    所以要製造會有問題,

  • so you've got a problem with creating it,

    如果你用和一般絲同樣方式。

  • in the same way you do with regular silk.

    所以可以做的 是從蜘蛛身上取 DNA,

  • So what you can do is instead take the DNA from the spider,

    然後放進不同的東西裡,

  • and put it into various different things.

    可以放進細菌裡、酵母裡,

  • You can put it into bacteria, you can put it into yeast,

    放進牛奶裡。

  • you can put it into milk.

    接下來你可以做的是……

  • And what you can do then is,

    牛奶或細菌會製造出更大的量,

  • the milk or the bacteria produce in much larger volumes

    你就可以從中紡紗,製作布料或繩索。

  • and then from that, spin a yarn and then create a fabric or a rope.

    同樣的生物衍生、無比強韌, 和刻維拉纖維差不多,

  • Again, bioderived, has incredible strength -- about the same as Kevlar --

    所以被用來像是防彈衣、安全帽

  • so they're using it in things like bulletproof vests and helmets

    和戶外夾克等等。

  • and outdoor jackets.

    效能很好。

  • It has a great performance.

    同樣的,生物衍生, 而且在它的生命盡頭

  • But again, it's bioderived, and at the end of its life,

    能夠回歸大地、拿來堆肥,

  • it potentially can go back into the soil and get composted

    有機會再拿來做成新的材料。

  • to again be potentially used as a new material.

    最後我想介紹給大家的是 以生物為基礎,

  • I'd like to leave you with one last form which is biobased,

    但我想這也是極致的節約。

  • but this, I think, is like the ultimate thrift.

    想想炫耀型消費的最佳範例。

  • Think about the poster child for conspicuous consumption.

    水瓶。

  • It's the water bottle.

    我們有太多水瓶,基本上到處都是,

  • We have too many of them, they're basically going everywhere,

    是海洋裡的大麻煩。

  • they're a problem in the ocean.

    我們該拿它們怎麼辦?

  • What do we do with them?

    這個過程不只是要回收,

  • This process is able not just to recycle them,

    而是要無限的回收。

  • but to recycle them infinitely.

    這有什麼意思?

  • Why is that interesting?

    因為每當我們想到再利用和回收,

  • Because when we think about reusing and recycling,

    金屬、玻璃這類的東西, 你愛回收幾次都可以。

  • metals, glass, things like that, can be recycled as many times as you like.

    你車子裡的金屬

  • There's metal in your car

    可能來自 1950 年代的老爺車,

  • that may well have come from a 1950s Oldsmobile,

    因為你可以無限回收, 而且它的功效絲毫不減。

  • because you can recycle it infinitely with no loss of performance.

    塑膠大約能回收一到兩次,

  • Plastics offer about once or twice of recycling,

    不管是瓶子、椅子,

  • whether it's a bottle, whether it's a chair --

    還是地毯,

  • whatever it is, if it's carpet --

    兩次回收後,不管是回收成 另一張椅子還是什麼,

  • after two times of recycling, whether it goes back into another chair, etc,

    都會失去它的強度,變得一無是處。

  • it tends to lose strength, it's no longer of any use.

    針對這點,其實只要用一點酶 就能讓它永久回收。

  • This, though, just using a few enzymes, is able to recycle it infinitely.

    我拿瓶子、椅子或其它塑膠製品,

  • I take a bottle or a chair or some other plastic product,

    放進一點酶,將之分解,

  • I basically put it in with a few enzymes, they break it apart,

    就會將它還原到最初的分子。

  • they basically put it back into its original molecules.

    然後從那些分子,

  • And then from those molecules,

    你就可以做出另一個 椅子、地毯或瓶子。

  • you can build another chair or carpet or bottle.

    因此循環是無限的。

  • So, the cycle is infinite.

    當然,這個優點是

  • The advantage with that, of course,

    你能有零損失的原料資源。

  • is that you have potentially zero loss of material resources.

    同樣是節約的絕佳點子。

  • Again, the perfect idea of thrift.

    結論是,我只希望大家想想, 如果你製造任何東西,

  • So in conclusion, I just want to have you think about -- if you make anything,

    如果你是設計公司的一員,

  • if you're any part of a design firm,

    如果你正在改建房子,

  • if you basically are refurbishing your house --

    不管你在做什麼,

  • any aspect where you make something,

    想想那個產品

  • think about how that product could potentially be used

    在它第二、第三、第四次生命中, 可以如何再利用。

  • as a second life, or third life or fourth life.

    用讓它能被分解的方式來設計它。

  • Design in the ability for it to be taken apart.

    對我來說,這就是節約的極致,

  • That, to me, is the ultimate thrift,

    我想這也是我祖母會喜歡的方式。

  • and I think that's basically what my grandmother would love.

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

Let's talk about thrift.

譯者: Marssi Draw 審譯者: Regina Chu

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 回收 廢棄物 原料 建築 產業

TED】安德魯-登特。為了消除浪費,我們需要重新發現節儉(To eliminate waste, we need to rediscover thrift | Andrew Dent)。 (【TED】Andrew Dent: To eliminate waste, we need to rediscover thrift (To eliminate waste, we need to rediscover thrift | Andrew Dent))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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