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  • Eastern Philosophy has always had a very similar goal to Western philosophy: that of making

    東方與西方哲學思想有著十分相似的目標:使我們更有智慧

  • us wiser, less agitated, more thoughtful and readier to appreciate our lives. However,

    減少焦慮、思慮更周全,並準備好欣賞我們的人生

  • the way it has gone about this has been intriguingly different. In the East, Philosophy has taught

    然而,東西方哲學思想達成這個目標的方式則大相逕庭。在東方,哲學思想傳授的方式

  • its lessons via tea drinking ceremonies, walks in bamboo forests, contemplations of rivers.

    包括品茶、竹林漫步或是在河流邊沉思

  • Here are a few ideas to offer us the distinctive

    以下有幾點可以讓我們分辨

  • wisdom of a continent and enrich our notions of what philosophy might really be. ONE: Life

    亞洲大陸的不同智慧思想,讓我們更了解哲學思想究竟是甚麼。一:一切生存是苦

  • is suffering. The first and central 'noble truth' of the Buddha is that life is unavoidably about misery.

    這是佛陀提出的第一個也是最主要的「真諦」,人生在世無法避免不幸

  • The Buddha continually seeks to adjust our expectations so we will know

    佛陀不斷地試圖調整我們的期望,如此我們才會知道該期待什麼

  • what to expect: sex will disappoint us, youth will disappear, money won't spare us pain.

    性慾會使我們受挫;沒有永遠的年輕;金錢無法避免我們痛苦

  • For the Buddha, the wise person should take care to grow completely at home with the ordinary

    對佛陀來說,賢人應該小心地與世上普遍存在的混亂一同成長

  • shambles of existence. They should understand that they are living on a dunghill. When baseness

    他們應該要了解自己生活在一個糞堆之上,當卑鄙

  • and malice rear their heads, as they will, it should be against a backdrop of fully vanquished

    與惡意襲來,它們也的確如此,它會在完全沒有希望的前提下襲來

  • hope, so there will be no sense of having been unfairly let down and one's credulity

    所以不會有因為不公平而產生的失望感與輕信他人後的背叛感

  • betrayed. That said, the Buddha was often surprisingly cheerful and generally sported

    據說,菩薩經常以高興的樣子呈現,並普遍展露出

  • an inviting, warm smile. This was because anything nice, sweet or amusing that came

    迷人的、溫暖的微笑。這是因為所有好的、和藹的、有趣的事物

  • his way was immediately experienced as a bonus; a deeply gratifying addition to his original

    都會藉此立刻體現出來;對身處的蕭瑟處境深感欣慰

  • bleak premises. By keeping the dark backdrop of life always in mind, he sharpened his appreciation

    將生命中黑暗的一面銘記在心,他以更加強烈的感激之心

  • of whatever stood out against it. He teaches us the art of cheerful despair.

    來對抗這一切。他教導我們如何達到絕望中快樂的境界

  • TWO: Mettā (pali): Mettā is a word which, in the Indian language of Pali, means benevolence,

    二:慈 (巴利語):Mettā 屬於古印度巴利語,為「慈」之意,有慈悲

  • kindness or tenderness. It is one of the most important ideas in Buddhism. Buddhism recommends

    仁慈與柔情的意思。是佛教重要的思想之一。佛教認為

  • a daily ritual meditation to foster this attitude (what is known as mettā bhāvanā). The meditation

    每天例行的打坐冥想可以培養出慈的態度 (也就是慈心)。

  • begins with a call to think very carefully every morning of a particular individual with

    慈心的冥想要求每日早晨為某個特定的人認真地思索

  • whom one tends to get irritated or to whom one feels aggressive or cold andin place

    那個人可能是會讓你惱怒的人、或是好鬥的人、或是冷漠的人,然後—取代普遍會有的

  • of one's normal hostile impulsesto rehearse kindly messages like 'I hope you

    敵意衝動—默誦一些仁慈的訊息,像是「我希望你得到平靜。」

  • will find peace' or 'I wish you to be free from suffering'. This practice can

    或是「我希望你從苦難中脫離。」。這樣的練習

  • be extended outwards ultimately to include pretty much everyone on earth. The background

    可以不斷向外擴大,最終能夠包括地球上的大多數人。其背後的假設是

  • assumption is that our feelings towards people are not fixed and unalterable, but are open

    我們放送給人們的感情並非固定不變的

  • to deliberate change and improvement, with the right encouragement. Compassion is a learnable

    而是在正確的激勵之下,能夠任意變動與改善的。佛教徒告訴我們同情是個可學習的

  • skill the buddhist tell usand we need to direct it as much towards those whom we love as those we are tempted

    能力,我們需要平等地將同情放送至那些我們愛的以及我們想要

  • to dismiss and detest. THREE: Guanyin Guanyin is a saintly female figure in East Asian Buddhism

    拋棄及憎恨的人。三:觀音。觀音在東亞佛教中是個聖潔的女性象徵

  • strongly associated with mercy, compassion and kindness. She occupies a similar role

    象徵寬恕、同情與仁慈。她在佛教的地位

  • within Buddhism as the Virgin Mary within Catholicism. There are shrines and temples

    就如同天主教中的聖母瑪莉亞。中國到處都有供奉觀音的寺廟

  • to her all over China; one, in the province of Hainan, has a 108 metre statue of her (it's

    在海南省中有一尊觀音菩薩,高達 108 公尺

  • the fourth largest statue anywhere in the world). Guanyin's popularity speaks of the

    (這是世界上第四大的雕像) 觀音的知名度說明了

  • extent to which the needs of childhood endure within us. She is, in the noblest sense, 'mummy'.

    我們內心某種程度上仍舊保有孩提時代的需求。觀音是,有一種尊貴感的「媽媽」

  • Across China, adults allow themselves to be weak in her presence. Her gaze has a habit

    綜觀中國,成年人允許他們自己在觀音面前表現脆弱的一面。觀音的凝視通常

  • of making people cryfor the moment one breaks down isn't so much when things are

    會使人們哭泣,這樣崩潰的時刻並不會太多,只有當事物太過艱難

  • hard as when one finally encounters kindness and a chance to admit to sorrows one has been

    而終於遇到一個仁慈的心、一個機會可以承認悲傷

  • harbouring in silence for too long. Guanyin doesn't judge. She understands that you

    以及無聲許久時。觀音不會對你審判,她了解

  • are tired, that you have been betrayed, that things aren't easy, that you are fed up:

    你已感到疲憊、你曾經遭受背叛、所有的事物都不容易、你感到厭倦

  • she has a measure of the difficulties involved in trying to lead a remotely adequate adult life.

    觀音知道要長久維持一個適當的成人生活有多困難

  • FOUR: Wu Wei (Chinese): Not making an Effort Wu Wei is a Chinese term at the heart

    四:無為 (中文):順其自然。無為

  • of the philosophy of Daoism. It is first described in the Tao Te Ching, written by the sage Lao

    是道家的中心思想。首先出現在聖人老子

  • Tzu in the 6th century BC. Wu Wei means 'not making an effort', going with the flow,

    在西元前 6 世紀所著的道德經。無為代表「順其自然」,順勢而為

  • but it doesn't in any way imply laziness or sloth. It suggests rather an intentional

    但並非怠惰、懶惰的意思。無為暗示了在審慎思考並了解需求之後

  • surrender of the will based on a wise recognition of the need, at points, to accede to, rather

    有意的放棄自己的意志

  • than protest against, the demands of reality. As Lao Tzu puts it, to be wise is to have

    也就是同意而非反抗現實的需求。如同老子所述,要變得賢明

  • learnt how one must sometimes 'surrender to the whole universe'. Reason allows us

    就要學會一個人有時候必須向世界萬物低頭。理智使我們

  • to calculate when our wishes are in irrevocable conflict with reality, and then bids us to

    衡量何時我們的願望與現實存在極大衝突,並讓我們

  • submit ourselves willingly, rather than angrily or bitterly, to necessities. We may be powerless

    欣然地而非憤怒或痛苦地接受什麼才是必然的。我們或許無力

  • to alter certain events but, for Lao Tzu, we remain free to choose our attitude towards

    改變某些事,但對老子而言,我們仍舊可以自由選擇要以何種態度面對它們

  • them, and it is in an unprotesting acceptance of what is truly necessary that we find the

    且那是無怨無悔地接受何為真正必然的事件,我們可以發現

  • distinctive serenity and freedom characteristic of a Daoist. FIVE: Bamboo as Wisdom

    道家獨特的寧靜與自由的本性。五:竹象徵智慧

  • East Asia has been called the Bamboo Civilization, not merely because bamboo has been widely used

    東亞過去被稱做竹文化,並不僅是因為日常生活中經常使用竹子

  • in daily life, but also because its symbolic qualities have been described and celebrated for hundreds of years in the philosophy of Daoism.

    也是因為它在數百年來道家思想中被用來象徵一個人的高雅品格

  • Bamboo is, surprisingly, classified

    竹子,令人訝異地,被歸類為

  • as a grass rather than a tree, yet it is tall and strong enough to create groves and forests.

    草本植物而非木本植物,雖然它又高又壯,足以成蔭成林

  • Unlike a tree trunk, the stems of bamboo are hollow, but its inner emptiness is a source of its vigour.

    與樹幹不同,竹子中間是空的,但中空的內在是它的力量來源

  • It bends in storms, sometimes almost to the ground, but then springs back resiliently.

    它會在風暴中彎曲、有時幾乎要彎到地上了,但會很有韌性地回彈

  • We should, says Lao Tzu, 'become as bamboo already is.' The greatest painter of bamboo

    我們應該,如老子所說:「如竹一般」。最偉大的竹繪家

  • was the Daoist poet, artist and philosopher Zheng Xie of the Qing Dynasty. Zheng Xie is

    是清朝的道家詩人、藝術家與哲人,鄭燮。

  • said to have painted eight hundred pictures of bamboo forests and saw in them a perfect

    鄭燮據說畫了八百幅竹林描繪並從中看出了

  • model of how a wise person might behave. Beside one pen and ink drawing of bamboo, he wrote

    一個智者如何行事的完美典範。除了竹子的水墨畫,他用優雅的書法提了一首詩

  • in elegant script: 'Hold fast to the mountain, take root in a broken-up bluff, grow stronger

    「咬定青山不放鬆、立根原在破岩中。

  • after tribulations, and withstand the buffeting wind from all directions'. It was a message

    千磨萬擊還堅勁,任爾東西南北風。」這是一首

  • addressed to bamboo but meant, of course, for all of us. SIX: Kintsugi

    描寫竹子的詩,但,當然,對我們所有人都頗具深意。六:金繕

  • Since the 16th century, Zen Buddhist philosophy in Japan has been alive to the particular beauty and

    從西元 16 世紀,日本的禪宗思想注意到被修復過後的事物

  • wisdom of things which have been repaired. Kintsugi is a compound of two ideas: 'Kin'

    其背後存在的獨特美感與智慧。金繕是兩個概念的複合字:「金」

  • meaning, in Japanese, 'golden' and 'tsugi' meaning 'joinery'. In Zen aesthetics,

    在日本意味,「黃金」,「繕」,意思是「修復工藝」。在禪宗美學中

  • the broken pieces of an accidentally-smashed pot should never just be tossed away, they

    不小心打破的壺、罐,不應直接扔掉

  • should be carefully picked up, reassembled and then glued together with lacquer inflected with a luxuriant gold powder.

    應該將它們小心翼翼的撿起,重新拼湊並以加了許多金粉的漆黏起來

  • There should be no attempt to disguise the damage, the

    無需嘗試掩藏器具的損傷

  • point is to render the fault-lines beautiful and strong. The precious veins of gold are

    重點就是要顯現修復線的美與堅韌。器具上的寶貴金色紋理

  • there to emphasise that breaks have a rich merit all of their own. It's a profoundly

    強調所有的破壞都有其珍貴價值。這猶如給我們當頭棒喝

  • poignant idea because we are all in some way broken creatures. It's not shameful to need repair;

    因為我們在某種程度上都是不完整的人。需要修復並不羞恥

  • a mended bowl is a symbol of hope that we too can be put together again and

    一個修補後的碗,象徵我們人類也能被再次拼湊

  • still be loved despite our evident flaws.

    儘管我們有明顯的缺點,也能被喜愛

  • We partnered with Skillshare today and they have given us an amazing offer to pass on to you.

    我們今天與 Skillshare 合作,它們提供了相當好的優惠要給你

  • The first 500 people to sign up using the link in the description will recieve a 2 month free trial.

    前 500 位登入資訊欄連結的人,將會收到 2 個月的免費試用

  • If you haven't heard of Skillshare before it's home to thousands of classes in Graphic design, animation, web development, music photography, design and more.

    如果你還沒聽過 Skillshare,這是個有許多關於圖像設計、動畫、網站設立、影音、設計等課程的網站

  • You can learn how to do just about anything. Is there a project you have been dreaming of completing but just aren't sure if you have the skills to do it?

    你可以在這學到任何東西。你有想要完成的企劃,但又不確定是否具備這項能力完成它嗎?

  • Why not start right now and sign up at the link below.

    為何不從現在開始,登入下面的連結吧!

Eastern Philosophy has always had a very similar goal to Western philosophy: that of making

東方與西方哲學思想有著十分相似的目標:使我們更有智慧

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 思想 竹子 老子 哲學 仁慈 佛教

東方哲學的六個概念 (Six Ideas From Eastern Philosophy)

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    Evangeline 發佈於 2018 年 05 月 15 日
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