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  • It was the Western Hemisphere's largest empire ever,

    印加帝國曾是西半球最大的帝國

  • with a population of nearly 10 million subjects.

    它的人口數曾經達到將近一千萬個子民

  • Over an area of more than 900,000 square kilometers,

    他的領土面積超過九十萬平方公里

  • its people built massive administrative centers,

    它的人民建蓋了龐大的行政中心

  • temples, and extensive road and canal systems.

    廟宇、四通八達的道路與運河系統

  • They did so in an inhospitable, extreme terrain,

    他們在個不宜居住且險峻的極端地形上蓋了這些建築

  • all without the use of wheels, horses, iron, or even written language.

    沒有輪子、馬匹、鐵器甚至文字的幫助

  • Yet within 100 years of its rise in the fifteenth century,

    然而,於 15 世紀,在崛起後的百年內

  • the Inca Empire would be no more.

    印加文明已不復存在

  • According to legend,

    根據傳說

  • the ancestors of the Inca rulers were created by the sun god Inti,

    印加文明的統治者的先祖是被太陽神因蒂所創造的

  • and they emerged from a cave called Tambo Toco.

    他們從一個叫做 Tambo Toco 的洞穴中出現

  • Leading four brothers and four sisters was Ayar Manco,

    Ayar Manco 帶領著四個兄弟與四個姊妹

  • who carried a golden staff with instructions

    他帶著黃金權杖遵循著指示

  • to find the place where it would sink into the ground,

    去尋找一片土地能把權杖插入地裡

  • showing fertile soil.

    以證明富饒的土壤

  • After many adventures and extensive searching,

    經過許多的探險與大範圍的探索

  • Ayar Manco and his siblings reached the Cuzco Valley,

    Ayar Manco 與他的手足們抵達了庫斯科山谷

  • where the staff pierced the ground.

    在那裡權杖刺穿了土地

  • After fighting off the fierce local native population,

    在打敗了兇猛的當地原住民之後

  • they founded their capital,

    他們建立了他們的首都

  • and Ayar Manco became Manco Capac, the first Sapa Inca, or king of the Incas.

    Ayar Manco 成為了曼科·卡帕克,第一位薩帕·印卡,印加帝國的國王

  • Archaeological evidence suggests

    考古的證據顯示

  • that the Incas first settled in this valley around 1200 CE.

    公元 1200 年的時候,印加帝國第一次定居於庫斯科山谷

  • They remained a small kingdom until 1438,

    一直到 1438 年他們都仍是一個小國度

  • when they were nearly overrun by the neighboring Chanka tribe.

    他們幾乎差點被鄰邦的昌卡部落推翻

  • The Inca king at this time, Viracocha, and his designated heir fled in fear,

    當時的印加國王,維拉科查與他的繼承人因害怕而逃跑

  • but one of his other sons remained

    但是他另一個兒子留了下來

  • and successfully rallied the city's defenses.

    並成功地組織了城市的防衛軍隊

  • For his military skill, he became the ninth Inca ruler,

    因為他的軍事能力,他成為了印加的第九任統治者

  • assuming the name of Pachacuti, or "Cataclysm."

    名號帕查庫帝,或者是「大地震」

  • Pachacuti expanded Inca rule throughout the Andes mountains,

    帕查庫帝將領土擴張到安第斯山脈

  • transforming the kingdom into an empire through extensive reforms.

    通過大量的改革,他將國度轉變成一個帝國

  • The empire's territory was reorganized as Tahuantinsuyu, or "four quarters,"

    帝國的領土重整為 Tahuantinsuyu,或是「四方之地」

  • with four divisions ruled by governors reporting to the king.

    四個分區由四個執行官掌控並回報給國王

  • Although the Inca had no writing,

    雖然印加並沒有文字系統

  • they used a complex system of knotted strings called quipu

    但是他們使用一種複雜的結繩系統叫做奇普

  • to record numbers and perhaps other information.

    去記錄數字和其他訊息

  • A decimal-based bureaucracy enabled systematic

    印加政府使用十進制系統

  • and efficient taxation of the empire's subjects.

    去有效率的向帝國的子民們徵稅

  • In return, the empire provided security, infrastructure, and sustenance,

    作為回報,帝國保證人民的安全`基礎建設與基本物資

  • with great storehouses containing necessities to be used when needed.

    他們有巨大的倉庫去儲存應急時的物資

  • Great terraces and irrigation works were built

    印加文明建造了龐大的梯田與灌溉系統

  • and various crops were grown in at different altitudes

    好耕種多種作物在不同的高度上

  • to be transported all over the empire.

    並把這些莊稼運送到帝國全境

  • And it was during Pachacuti's reign

    在帕查庫帝執政的時候

  • that the famous estate of Machu Picchu was constructed.

    他建造了出名的馬丘比丘

  • Pachacuti's son Topa Inca continued the empire's military expansion,

    帕查庫帝的兒子 Topa 接續了帝國的軍事擴張

  • and he eventually became ruler in 1471 CE.

    而在公元 1471 年,他成為了統治者

  • By the end of his reign, the empire covered much of western South America.

    在他的統治末期,帝國涵蓋了整個南美洲西半部

  • Topa's son Huayna Capac succeeded him in 1493.

    Topa 的兒子瓦伊納·卡帕克在 1493 年繼任

  • But the new ruler's distant military campaigns strained the social fabric.

    但是,新政權對於偏遠地區的軍事入侵增加了社會負擔

  • And in 1524, Huayna Capac was stricken by fever.

    然而,在 1524 年瓦伊納.卡帕克發高燒病倒了

  • Spanish conquistadors had arrived in the Caribbean some time before,

    不久以前,西班牙的征服者抵達加勒比海地區

  • bringing diseases to which the native peoples had no resistance.

    帶來了當地人沒有免疫力的疾病

  • Millions died in the outbreak,

    幾百萬人死於瘟疫的蔓延

  • including Huayna Capac and his designated heir.

    包刮瓦伊納.卡帕克和他指定的繼承者

  • The vacant throne ignited a civil war between two of the surviving brothers,

    空缺的王位點燃了兩位僅存的兄弟間的內戰

  • Atahualpa and Huascar,

    他們是阿塔瓦爾帕和 Huascar

  • greatly weakening the empire.

    他們的鬥爭使帝國急遽衰弱

  • In 1532, after finally winning the Inca civil war,

    阿塔瓦爾帕終於在 1532 年取得印加內戰的勝利

  • Atahualpa and his army encountered the European invaders.

    他和他的軍隊卻碰上了來自歐洲的侵略者

  • Although greatly outnumbered,

    雖然侵略者數量不及印加人民

  • Francisco Pizarro and his small group of conquistadors

    但是法蘭西斯克·皮澤洛與他的侵略小隊

  • stunned the king's much larger force with guns and horses,

    運用了槍枝與馬匹而震驚了印加國王的龐大軍隊

  • neither of which they had seen before.

    這兩樣是他們前所未見的東西

  • Atahualpa was taken captive and killed about a year later.

    阿塔瓦爾帕被俘虜,而在約一年後被殺害

  • The Spanish conquerors were awed by the capital of Cuzco.

    西班牙的征服者被庫斯科的首都而震懾

  • Pizarro described it as so beautiful thatit would be remarkable even in Spain.”

    皮澤洛形容他的美是「若它在西班牙也將會是超群的」

  • Though the capital had fallen

    雖然首都已淪陷

  • and the native population had been destroyed by civil war and disease,

    而當地的人口又因為內戰與疾病而消逝

  • some Incas fell back to a new capital at Vilcabamba

    一些印加人退守到 Vilcabamba 並將此地立為新成都

  • and resisted for the next 40 years.

    繼續抵抗西班牙人,長達 40 年

  • But by 1572, the Spaniards had destroyed all remaining resistance

    但是在 1572 年,西班牙殲滅掉了剩餘的反抗勢力

  • along with much of the Incas' physical and cultural legacy.

    並同時摧毀了許多印加實質上的建築與文化遺產

  • Thus, the great Inca empire fell even faster than it had risen.

    因此,強大的印加帝國比崛起時更快速的殞落

It was the Western Hemisphere's largest empire ever,

印加帝國曾是西半球最大的帝國

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 TED-Ed 印加 帝國 國王 侵略 西班牙

【TED-Ed】印加帝國興亡簡史 (The rise and fall of the Inca Empire - Gordon McEwan)

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    詹士緯 發佈於 2018 年 04 月 20 日
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