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  • Imagine you're being attacked by a ferocious predator.

    想像你正被某個兇猛的掠食者攻擊

  • With no chance of escape, you do what any courageous, self-respecting possum would do:

    毫無脫逃的機會

  • curl into an immobile state called catatonia, stick out your tongue, drool, and ooze some foul-smelling liquid from your anal glands.

    你做了任何一隻勇敢、有自尊的負鼠都會做的事 :

  • Disgusted, your assailant loosens its grip, decides you're not the dinner it was looking for, and departs.

    把自己捲成一團僵硬不動,稱作緊張症的狀態,

  • After 10 minutes, you resurrect and merrily saunter on.

    吐出舌頭、

  • From lemurs to lizards, ants to amphibians, sharks to chickens, hundreds of animals "play dead" as a survival tactic.

    無法控制地流口水、

  • Nicknamed "playing possum" after its star performer, feigning death is also called thanatosis.

    並從肛門腺排出惡臭的液體

  • That's from Thanatos, the ancient Greek deity of death.

    攻擊者因為覺得噁心而放鬆了鉗制

  • But most scientists call it tonic immobility, or TI.

    心想你並非他的晚餐人選

  • How and why TI occurs depends on the species and situation.

    便離開了

  • Spewing stench and adopting odd postures are common and often play important roles.

    10 分鐘過後,你原地復活並興高采烈地繼續遊蕩

  • Other animals sacrifice their neighbors: quail chicks that freeze while their kin run amok have a better chance of survival when pursued by a cat.

    從狐猴到蜥蜴、

  • Speaking of cats, feline mothers can pinch the napes of their kittens' necks and induce another kind of immobility called clipnosis.

    螞蟻到兩棲類動物、

  • This keeps their kittens quiet and easy to transport.

    鯊魚到雞隻,

  • Most of the physiological mechanisms underlying these theatrics originate in the parasympathetic nervous system, better known for controlling cycles of resting and digesting.

    數以百計的動物們把「裝死」視為一種求生戰術

  • In possums, the parasympathetic nervous system causes their heart rates to drop by nearly half, respiration by a third, and body temperatures by more than half a degree Celsius for up to an hour.

    以其備受矚目的「假扮負鼠」謔稱之

  • The neurotransmitter dopamine also plays a part.

    佯裝死亡也被稱作假死狀態

  • Flour beetles with low dopamine levels, play dead more frequently than those with high levels.

    這個字源於 Thanatos,古代希臘神祉中的死亡之神

  • And anything blocking dopamine receptor sites can lengthen catatonia.

    但大部分的科學家稱它為緊張性麻痺,或是縮寫為 TI

  • But maintaining a death ruse isn't easy.

    TI 發生的狀態和原因取決於物種和當時的狀況

  • The performers are constantly gauging their surroundings for queues on when it's safe to rise.

    吐出惡臭跟採取奇特的姿勢都是常見的手段,也經常扮演重要的作用

  • Chickens, for instance, can sense when a predator's eyes are upon them.

    其他物種則把他們的鄰居當作犧牲品 :

  • Researchers know this, because when they used a stuffed hawk in an experiment, their chicken subjects came out of their catatonia quicker when the hawk's eyes were averted.

    在同類四處竄逃時靜止不動的鵪鶉幼雛,

  • Other animals use TI for purposes other than defense.

    在被貓追捕的狀況下生存率較高

  • When the sleeper cichlid feels peckish, it sinks to the lake floor and lies motionless.

    說到貓,身為母親的貓科動物會叼住幼崽的後頸上方,

  • Its splotchy coloration making it seem like a rotting carcass.

    藉以製造稱作 clipnosis 的另一種型態的靜止不動

  • If a small scavenger investigates, this undead trickster strikes.

    這能讓牠們的幼崽保持安靜並易於移動

  • Some animals even feign death as a sexual ploy.

    這些戲劇性效果背後大部分的生理機制

  • Male nursery spiders offer gifts of silk-wrapped insects in hopes of wooing females.

    源於副交感神經系統,

  • But those females are known to eat love-seeking males.

    以控制休息和消化的周期而聞名

  • By playing dead while the female eagerly devours her snack, these males can cautiously revive and improve their chances of successfully mating.

    對負鼠來說,

  • So TI can work to an animal's advantage, unless someone else knows its secret.

    副交感神經系統使他們的心跳率下降將近一半、

  • California orcas can flip over young great white sharks, inducing TI for so long the immobilized sharkswho must move to respireessentially suffocate.

    呼吸量減少三分之一、

  • Humans can also flip sharks into TI.

    身溫降低超過 0.5 度長達一個小時

  • By stroking a shark's electrically-sensitive snout and gently turning it over, researchers can induce TI that lasts up to 15 minutes.

    神經傳遞物質多巴胺也發揮了作用

  • That's enough time to insert tags, remove hooks, and even perform surgeries.

    體內多巴胺含量低的扁擬穀盜甲蟲會比那些含量高的甲蟲

  • There are risks however:

    更頻繁地裝死,

  • TI can hamper respiration and induce hyperglycemia, a sign of stress.

    任何阻斷多巴胺受點的物質都可以延長緊張症的時間

  • So this technique should only be used when necessary.

    但要維持裝死的詭計並不容易

  • Humans can also experience TI when they freeze with fear during violent assaults.

    裝死者不斷地衡量他們周圍的環境,

  • Recognizing this ancient, involuntary form of self-defense has significant implications when trying to understand why some victims don't flee or fight in the face of danger.

    尋找何時可以安全起身的提示

  • So, studying TI in non-human animals not only helps us better understand some odd behaviors, it can also help us better understand our own, sometimes counterintuitive, responses to violence.

    以雞隻為例,牠們可以感知掠食者的視線何時落在牠們身上

  • Love animals? Check out this playlist for more videos on some of our favorite furry and not-so-furry friends.

    研究人員之所以得知這點,是因為當他們在實驗中使用老鷹絨毛娃娃時,

Imagine you're being attacked by a ferocious predator.

想像你正被某個兇猛的掠食者攻擊

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C1 高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 鯊魚 動物 狀態 靜止 多巴胺

【TED-Ed】為什麼動物要裝死? (The surprising reasons animals play dead - Tierney Thys)

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    April Lu 發佈於 2018 年 07 月 08 日
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