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  • Hello! I'm Emma from mmmEnglish!

    哈囉!我是 mmmEnglish 的 Emma!

  • My students are always asking me:

    學生總是問我:

  • What's the difference

    英式英文和美式英文

  • between British English and American English?

    的差異是什麼?

  • Which one's the best?

    哪一個是最好的?

  • Which one should I learn?

    我應該學習哪一種?

  • It's really confusing!

    這真的很讓人困惑!

  • In my last lesson I talked about which type of English

    在上一堂課我提過哪種類型的英文

  • you should learn.

    是你應該學習的

  • You can watch that right here if you missed it.

    如果你沒看過可以點擊這邊觀看

  • But in this lesson

    但是在這堂課中

  • we are going to look at the main differences

    我們要來看看

  • between standard British English

    標準英式英文

  • and standard American English.

    以及標準美式英文的差異

  • While it's incorrect to say that one type of English

    儘管去比較兩種英文

  • is better than the other

    表示其中一種英文比較好

  • or that one is more correct than the other,

    或是哪一種是比較正確的這種觀念是不恰當的

  • it is important to be aware of the differences

    但是注意英式英文和美式英文的差異

  • between British and American English.

    卻是相當重要的

  • And focus on the type of English that is most

    另外,特別注意與你息息相關的

  • relevant for you.

    那種英文

  • And that is what this lesson is all about.

    以上就是這堂課的大綱

  • The main areas that you'll notice differences between

    英式英文和美式英文的差別裡

  • British and American English are

    最主要的部份是

  • accent, obviously, spelling, vocabulary

    很明顯的-腔調,還有拼音及單字

  • and some areas of grammar including use of

    另外還有一部份的文法

  • prepositions and use of collective nouns.

    包含介係詞和集合名詞的用法

  • Now if you are studying for an English exam,

    如果你正在為英文考試準備

  • applying for or studying at an English University

    為申請或正就讀於英文大學

  • or using English professionally for your job

    或工作領域所需而使用受過專業訓練的英文

  • then this lesson is especially important for you!

    那麼這堂課對你來說特別地重要!

  • Usually in all of these situations,

    通常在這些情況中

  • you need to pay attention to spelling and grammar rules

    你必須注意拼字和文法規則

  • because it can affect your score or even your reputation.

    因為這些規則可能會影響成績,甚至是名聲

  • Okay so let's talk about some of these differences.

    廢話不多說,現在就來談談這些差異吧

  • Starting with accent.

    首先從腔調開始

  • It's probably the most obvious difference.

    這可能是最顯著的差異

  • But the difference is not as simple as British

    但是這些差異並不只是英式腔調

  • and American accents, right?

    或是美式腔調而已,對吧?

  • Regional accents

    地區性的腔調

  • in both of these countries can differ dramatically.

    無論在英國或是美國都有顯著的不同

  • Someone from South London sounds very different

    南倫敦的腔調

  • than someone from Scotland.

    和蘇格蘭的腔調聽起來就差異甚大

  • And both sound very different from the Queen of England.

    而這兩種腔調又和英國女王的腔調聽起來不同

  • And it's the same in America,

    在美國也是一樣

  • the accent can vary significantly

    腔調可以有相當大的多樣化

  • depending on where you are in the country.

    而這依據所處地區而改變

  • That said, if we compare standard British English

    這麼說的話,假如我們將標準英式英文以及

  • and standard American English accents,

    標準美式英文的腔調做比較

  • there are a few clear differences.

    也只有一些明顯的差異

  • There are differences in the way

    在母音的發音上

  • that vowels are pronounced.

    就有所不同

  • Hot.

    Hot

  • Hot.

    Hot

  • Okay so we would say hot. Hot.

    我們會說 hot hot

  • Ant.

    Ant

  • We say ant.

    我們說 ant

  • Ant. Ant.

    - Ant - Ant

  • Leisure. Leisure. Leisure.

    - Leisure - Leisure - Leisure

  • Leisure.

    - Leisure

  • Americans tend to pronounce a flap T

    美國人傾向於發彈舌音

  • when the letter T is between two vowel sounds.

    當字母 T 出現在兩個母音中間

  • Like in these words.

    像是這些單字

  • The flap T is a flatter sound

    彈舌音是一個比較平的音

  • that actually sounds more like a D.

    聽起來比較像 D

  • Water. Water.

    Water Water

  • Bottle. Bottle.

    Bottle Bottle

  • Little. Little.

    Little Little

  • Daughter. Daughter.

    Daughter Daughter

  • Hear that flap T sound?

    聽到彈舌音了嗎?

  • Its also very common in my Australian accent as well.

    在我的澳洲腔裡也很常見

  • Standard American English clearly pronounces

    標準美式英文很清楚地發出

  • the R after a vowel sound

    在母音後的 R 音

  • where most British English speakers don't.

    而大部分講英式英文的人不會這樣

  • So for example,

    例如

  • car, car.

    - car - car

  • Burger, burger.

    - Burger - burger

  • And I just say burger.

    而我只會說 burger

  • Daughter, daughter.

    - Daughter - Daughter

  • You can hear some more of those examples

    在這個影片中

  • in this video right here.

    你可以聽到更多相關例子

  • Okay so accent is one difference.

    所以,腔調是一個差異

  • But there are some more frustrating differences

    但是,還有更多令人挫敗的差異

  • that can actually get you into trouble, like spelling.

    因為這些差異可能導致你遭惹麻煩,像是拼音

  • Americans spell English words differently

    美國人拼字的方法

  • to the rest of us.

    與其他人不太一樣

  • Some of you may actually think that the

    有些人可能覺得

  • American spelling is easier.

    美式拼音比較簡單

  • It was changed only a few hundred years ago

    從英式英語改變成新的美式英語

  • from the British way to a new American English way.

    是在幾百年前才改變的

  • And the reason was to make words

    而原因是讓單字

  • look more phonetic.

    看起來跟發音更相似

  • So words are actually spelt more like they sound.

    那麼單字拼寫起來更像讀音

  • It makes a lot of sense right?

    蠻合理的,對吧?

  • Words that end in -our in British English

    在英式英文中以 -our 結尾的單字

  • so think about the words

    像是

  • colour, honour, neighbour.

    colour、honour、neighbour

  • They simply end in -or in American English.

    在美式英文中他們僅僅只是以 -or 結尾

  • In British English verbs that end in an L

    在英式英文中,在短母音後

  • after a short vowel sound

    以 L 結尾的單字

  • have a double L when -ed or -ing are added.

    加上 -ed 或 -ing,句尾重複 L

  • Travelled or modelling for example.

    像是:travelled 或 modelling

  • But in American English there is only one L.

    但是在美式英文中只有單一個 L

  • Jewellery is another example of this

    另一個例子則是 Jewellery

  • though even more changes were made to make jewellery

    雖然 jewellery 這個單字做了更多變化

  • more phonetic.

    變得與拼音更加相似

  • Words ending in -ise in British English

    在英式英文中,以 -ise 結尾的單字

  • end in -ize in American English.

    在美式英文中則以 -ize 結尾

  • Like realise, organise.

    像是 realise 和 organise

  • Words ending in -re in British English

    在英式英文中,以 -re 結尾的單字

  • end in -er in American English, most of the time.

    大部分時候在美式英文中則以 -er 結尾

  • Like in the word centre.

    像是 centre 這個單字

  • Words ending in -ence in British English

    在英式英文中,以 -ence 結尾的單字

  • end in -ense in American English

    在美式英文中則以 -ense 結尾

  • like defence and license.

    像是 defence 和 license

  • You'll also find some small differences with past forms

    在規律變化動詞的過去式中

  • of regular verbs.

    也可以發現一些小差異

  • So the past tense of learn in American English is learned

    所以,在美式英文中 learn 的過去式為 learned

  • but in British English learned or learnt is possible.

    但是在英式英文中,learned 或 learnt 都是可行的

  • Though the -ed form is more common where I'm from.

    雖然以 -ed 結尾的形式在我的家鄉是更常見的

  • Notice that the pronunciation is the same.

    注意,發音也是如此

  • The same rule applies for dreamt and burnt.

    規則同樣適用在 dreamt 和 brunt

  • As an extra hint make sure you're using a spellcheck tool

    給你們一個提醒,務必確認將拼音檢查工具

  • that is set to the type of English that you're learning,

    設定成你正在學習的那類英文

  • so that it's correcting your spelling

    那麼才能矯正

  • with the right type of English.

    正確類型的英文拼字

  • Vocabulary.

    單字

  • The most frustrating difference between

    在英式及美式英文中

  • British and American English is surely vocabulary

    最讓人挫敗的莫過於單字了

  • - even for native speakers!

    甚至是對母語使用者

  • There are hundreds of everyday words

    上百個日常單字

  • that are just different.

    都是不同的

  • And to make matters worse, Australian English

    更糟糕的是,澳洲式英文

  • Canadian English, New Zealander English

    加拿大式英文、紐西蘭式英文、

  • South African English,

    南非式英文

  • can also use different words for the same thing.

    也都在同樣事情上使用不同的單字

  • The difference is really obvious in nouns

    在名詞上差異特別顯著

  • especially food, where each type of English

    尤其是食物方面,每一種英文

  • has different nouns for the same thing.

    在同件事情上都有不同的名詞說法

  • So for example the herb coriander

    像是 herb coriander (芫荽)

  • is called cilantro in America, nothing alike!

    在美國被稱作 cilantro,一點也不像!

  • And there are heaps of differences just like that.

    還有一大堆的差異就跟上述例子一樣

  • I made a whole video about it right here.

    我錄了一集關於這個內容的影片,可以點擊這邊查看

  • These differences in vocabulary are something

    這些單字的差異

  • that even native English speakers

    甚至是英文母語者

  • have to try and understand too.

    也都必須試著去理解

  • We don't always know exactly

    我們沒辦法確切地得知

  • what another English speaker is talking about

    另一名說英文的人在談論什麼

  • because we use different words for the same thing.

    因為我們在同件事情上使用不同單字

  • In those situations,

    在這些情況中

  • we usually try to use the context of the sentence

    我們經常試著用句子的上下文

  • to understand what this new word is.

    去理解新單字是什麼意思

  • And if we still don't know, we just have to ask.

    如果我們還是不懂就必須開口詢問

  • If you know what type of English you need,

    如果知道哪式英文是你需要的

  • then I highly recommend

    那麼我強烈建議

  • finding a native English teacher

    找一位英文母語老師

  • who can help you to learn and understand

    他可以幫助你學習和理解

  • the English vocabulary that is used in that place.

    使用單字的時機

  • Cambly is a really great place for you to do that

    Cambly 就是一個幫助你進步很好的工具

  • because they've got native English teachers from

    因為他們擁有

  • all English-speaking countries.

    來自全世界英語系國家的老師

  • So if you're travelling to Canada,

    所以如果你正要去加拿大旅行

  • you can find a Canadian teacher to help you.

    就可以找一名加拿大老師幫助你

  • If you're applying for a university in the United Kingdom,

    如果你正在申請位在英國的大學

  • then find a teacher who uses the accent, the vocabulary

    那麼找一名有英式腔調、使用英式單字

  • and the spelling rules

    以及應用英式拼音規則的老師

  • that will get you really great results in your exams.

    在考試中會讓你得到相當好的成果

  • It will just make it so much easier for you

    一旦達成

  • once you arrive.

    一切都會變得更加簡單