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  • Wanna speak real English from your first lesson?

    想從第一節課開始說真正的英語嗎?

  • Sign up for your free lifetime account at EnglishClass101.com.

    在以下網站註冊您的終身免費賬戶 英語課件101網。

  • Hi, everybody!

    嗨,大家好!

  • My name is Alisha, and today I'm going to give a short explanation of some basic uses

    我的名字是阿麗莎,今天我要去 簡述一些基本用途

  • of the present perfect tense.

    的現在完成時。

  • So, let's begin!

    那麼,我們開始吧!

  • Okay, the present perfect tense, what I'm going to talk about today, there are two basic

    好吧,現在的完成時態,我是什麼 今天要講的,有兩個基本的。

  • points to think about when using the present perfect tense.

    使用現在的時候要考慮的問題 完美時態。

  • We use the present perfect tense, first, number one, to express a life experience so this

    我們用的是現在的完成時態,第一,數。 一,表達一種生活體驗,所以這

  • can be a life experience you have had, or a life experience you have never had.

    可以是你曾經的生活經歷,或 一種你從未有過的生活體驗。

  • So, we use this grammar point to talk about life experience but with one key nuance, this

    所以,我們用這個文法點來談談 的生活經驗,但有一個關鍵的細微差別,這個

  • life experience, it happened at a non-specific or an unimportant point in time, so the point

    生活中的經歷,它發生在一個不特定的。 或一個不重要的時間點,所以該點

  • in time when this life experience happened is not important in this sentence.

    生前 在這句話中並不重要。

  • In the sentence where you use the present perfect tense, the point in time where you

    在你使用現在的句子中 完全時態,在這個時間點上,你

  • had the experience is not the focus of your statement, the focus of your statement is

    經驗不是你的重點 聲明,你聲明的重點是

  • just the life experience.

    只是人生的經歷。

  • So, to give a visualization of this on a timeline with past present and future, the present

    是以,為了在時間軸上直觀地顯示這一點 古今中外

  • perfect tense is used to express a life experience at a non specific point in time meaning we

    完美時態 在一個不特定的時間點上,意味著我們

  • use it for some experience you had at some point before the present, some point before

    借鏡 前後

  • the current conversation.

    當前的對話。

  • So we use the present perfect tense to talk about a life experience that happened at a

    所以我們用現在的完成時態來說話 身邊事

  • non-specific point in the past.

    過去不特定的點。

  • So when specifically this experience happened is not important, this grammar point allows

    那麼這種經歷具體發生在什麼時候呢? 並不重要,這個文法點允許

  • us to simply say that we have or have not had an experience.

    我們只需說我們有或沒有。 有過一次經歷。

  • So this is the first grammar point about the present perfect tense, the simple use of the

    所以,這是第一個文法點,關於the 現在完成時態,簡單的使用

  • present perfect tense.

    現在完成時。

  • The next point I want to talk about though, is the second point, number two, here we use

    不過接下來我想說的是。 是第二點,第二條,這裡我們用的是

  • the present perfect tense to talk about an action that started in the past and continues

    現在進行時 前事不忘後事之師

  • to the present.

    到現在。

  • The effect of an action that started in the past continues to the present.

    開始的行動的效果 過去延續到現在。

  • So this is a grammar point that's slightly different from number one that I talked about,

    所以,這是個文法點,稍稍 與我說的第一條不同。

  • so the image here is an action that started at some point in the past, it began at some

    所以這裡的圖片是一個動作,開始 在過去的某個時候,它開始於某個

  • point in the past, and it continues to the present, or the effects of that action continue

    在過去的點上,它一直延續到現在。 或該行動的影響繼續存在

  • to the present.

    到現在。

  • So this is something we can use to talk about where we live, our studies, our work experience,

    所以,這是我們可以用來談論的東西 我們生活的地方,我們的學習,我們的工作經驗。

  • for example.

    例如:

  • I'll show you in a couple of example sentences a little bit later, but this is the second

    我用幾個例句來告訴你。 稍後,但這是第二件事

  • use; the second grammar point I want to talk a little bit about today.

    使用;我想說的第二個文法點是 關於今天的一點點。

  • So, it's important to note that when we use this second point, when we use the second

    所以,需要注意的是,當我們使用了 這第二點,當我們用第二

  • use of this grammar point, we often use the wordsforandsinceto express

    這個文法點的使用,我們經常會用 夫

  • that action that began in the past and continued to the present.

    始作俑者 到現在。

  • It gives the listener some extra information about the duration about how long that action

    它給了聽眾一些額外的資訊 關於該動作的持續時間

  • has continued, so the difference betweenforandsince,” many people make a mistake

    一直在繼續,所以,"為 "與 "不為 "之間的區別。 和 "自",很多人都犯了一個錯誤

  • with this.

    與此。

  • So use offorandsinceis important with grammar point number two here, especially

    所以 "for "和 "since "的使用很重要。 文法點二,尤其是

  • because it gives the listener some information about how long the action has been happening.

    因為它給了聽眾一些資訊 關於行動發生了多長時間。

  • So in an example sentence, you could say, “I have lived in Paris for three years,”

    所以在一個例句中,你可以說。 "我在巴黎生活了三年"。

  • or you could say “I have lived in Paris since 2014.”

    或者你可以說 "我在巴黎住過 自2014年以來。"

  • So you can hearforis used for a period of time, “I have lived in Paris for three

    所以你可以聽到 "為 "是用來表示句號的。 的時間,"我在巴黎生活了三

  • years.”

    年。"

  • Three years is a period of time, your period of time can be years, months, days, minutes,

    三年是一個時期,你的時期 的時間可以是年、月、日、分鐘。

  • hours, and so on.

    小時,以此類推。

  • Any period of time can be used with the wordfor.”

    任何時間段都可以用這個詞。 "為。"

  • I have been teaching this lesson for few minutes.

    這節課我已經教了幾分鐘了。

  • I have been standing up for about an hour ,for example.

    我已經站了一個小時了 比如說

  • You can use a different time duration for different expressions, you can use this actually

    您可以為 不同的表達方式,你可以用這個其實

  • a lot in your everyday life.

    在你的日常生活中,很多。

  • But on the other hand, let's talk aboutsince.”

    但另一方面,我們來談談 "自"。

  • Sosinceis used for a point in time.

    所以 "自 "是用來表示一個時間點的。

  • When we want to talk about a point in time where an action began, where an action started,

    當我們想談論一個時間點的時候。 一個行動開始的地方,一個行動開始的地方。

  • we can usesince.”

    我們可以用 "既然"。

  • So for example, in my sentence, I said, I have lived in Paris since 2014.

    所以,比如說,在我的句子中,我說,我。 自2014年起在巴黎生活。

  • So thatsinceshows the exact year when I started living in Paris, I have lived in

    是以,"自 "顯示了確切的年份,當 我開始在巴黎生活,我住在

  • Paris since 2014, and the action continues to the present.

    自2014年以來,巴黎的行動還在繼續 到現在。

  • So we can useforandsinceto show when an action began, and we also know

    所以我們可以用 "為 "和 "自 "來進行 顯示行動開始的時間,我們也知道了

  • that that action is going to be continuing, that action will continue to the present.

    該行動將繼續進行。 該行動將持續到現在。

  • So these are kind of the two grammar points I'd like to talk about.

    所以這也算是兩個文法點了 我想談談。

  • Then lastly, I want to talk about how to make this grammar point, how to make the present

    那麼最後,我想說的是如何使 這個文法點,如何讓現在的

  • perfect tense.

    完美時態。

  • So I have three categories here, there's positive statements, negative statements, and questions

    所以我這裡有三類,有積極的 語句、否定語句和問題

  • statements.

    聲明:

  • These are just the basic forms of these three types of sentences.

    這只是這三種的基本形式 句子的類型。

  • So, let's talk about a few different sentence patterns that we can make.

    那麼,我們就來談談幾個不同的句子吧 模式,我們可以做。

  • I have positive statements, negative statements, and question statements.

    我有正面的說法,負面的說法。 和問題陳述。

  • These are just a few examples of the type of sentences and questions that you can make

    這些只是幾個例子 的句子和問題,你可以使

  • with this grammar point.

    與這個文法點。

  • So first, to make a positive statement, we'll usehaveorhas,” depending on

    所以,首先,為了積極的聲明,我們將 視情況用 "有 "或 "已"。

  • your subject.

    你的主題。

  • If your subject is “I,” for example, we'll say “I have,” “you have,” andwe have;”

    例如,如果你的主題是 "我",我們就會。 說 "我有"、"你有"、"我們有"。

  • forheandshe,” “he has,” “she has,” and so on.

    為 "他 "和 "她","他有","她有",等等。

  • So depending on your subject, we will usehaveorhas,” next, we need to

    所以,根據你的主題,我們會用 "有 "或 "有",接下來,我們需要將

  • include the past participle form of the verb.

    包括動詞的過去分詞形式。

  • So for example, “I have lived in Paris,” “livedis the past participle form of

    所以,比如,"我曾在巴黎生活過" "住 "是過去分詞的形式。

  • the verblive.”

    動詞 "活"。

  • "I have been to Paris," so we can use these past participle forms of verbsbeen

    "我去過巴黎",所以我們可以用這些... 過去分詞形式的動詞 "被"

  • in this case to talk about the present perfect tense.

    在這裡說說現在的完美 時態。

  • To use the present perfect tense, please try to remember your past participle forms of

    要使用現在完成時態,請嘗試 記住你的過去分詞形式

  • verbs.

    動詞:

  • But I find that one of the best ways to get used to using the correct form of the verb

    但我發現,最好的方法之一是獲得 習以為常

  • here is just practicing in sentences, it's a little bit difficult to memorize all the

    在這裡只是練習句子,它的 有點困難,要記住所有的

  • verbs just from a list, so try practicing them in sentences to remember.

    動詞,所以嘗試著去練習 他們用句子來記憶。

  • Let's talk then about how to make a negative statement.

    那麼,我們就來談談如何讓消極的 聲明:

  • So a life experience you have not had, this is the sentence pattern that you can use to

    所以,一個你沒有的人生經歷,這個 是你可以用的句型,以

  • describe that.

    描述一下。

  • So again, depending on your subject, usehaveorhas;” “I have,” “he has,”

    所以再根據你的主題,用 "有" 或 "有";"我有"、"他有"

  • and so on.

    諸如此類。

  • Next, we'll includenever.”

    接下來,我們將加入 "永不"。

  • So “I have never,” “he has never,” “they have never,” “you have never,”

    所以 "我從來沒有","他從來沒有"。 "他們從來沒有","你從來沒有"

  • and so on.

    諸如此類。

  • So thisnevershows no experience, this is our negative expression.

    所以這個 "從來沒有 "說明沒有經驗,這個 是我們的負面表達。

  • Then finally, we'll include the past participle form of the verb, so “I have never eaten horse,”

    最後,我們將包括過去分詞。 的形式,所以 "我沒吃過馬"。

  • He has never visited Italy,” and so on.

    "他從未去過意大利 "等等。

  • These make negative statements withnever.”

    這些都是用 "從來沒有 "來做否定的陳述。

  • Okay, and finally, a couple of different question patterns that we can use.

    好吧,最後,幾個不同的問題。 模式,我們可以使用。

  • There are a lot of different questions, yes and no questions, information questions.

    有很多不同的問題,是的 而沒有問題,資訊問題。

  • Let's take a look at a simple one, a simple yes/no pattern.

    我們來看一個簡單的,一個簡單的。 是/否模式。

  • So again, we begin with ourhasandhavedepending on the subject here.

    所以,我們再一次從我們的 "已 "開始。 "有 "根據這裡的主題。

  • Sohave you been,” for example, with the past participle verb.

    所以,"你有沒有",比如說,與。 過去分詞動詞。

  • Has she seen,” and so on.

    "她有沒有看到 "等等。

  • So again, we need to use this past participle form of the verb when making our questions.

    所以,我們又要用這個過去分詞。 我們做題時,動詞的形式。

  • You might have heard people useever;” I have here at the bottom, thisever

    你可能聽過人們用 "曾經";。 我這裡的底部,這個 "永遠"

  • in this sentence style, “have you ever been to France?”

    在這種句式中,"你有沒有被 到法國?"

  • Have you ever eaten something?”

    "你吃過東西嗎?"

  • Thisever,” the nuance of thiseveris in your whole life experience, soever

    這個 "曾經",這個 "曾經 "的細微差別。 是在你的整個人生經歷中,所以 "曾經"

  • kind of amplifies, “everemphasizes the importance of your life experience, in your

    一種放大,"永遠 "強調的是。 你的生活經驗的重要性,在你的

  • entire life, have you had the experience of something.

    一生中,你是否有過 某種東西。

  • This "ever" emphasizes your entire life's experience.

    這個 "曾經 "強調了你一生的 經驗。

  • If you say, for example, “have you seen that movie?”

    如果你說,例如,"你見過嗎? 那部電影?"

  • It sounds like maybe it's a recent movie, but if you say "have you ever seen such and

    聽起來也許是最近的電影。 但如果你說 "你見過這樣的和。

  • such movie?"

    這樣的電影?"

  • It sounds like maybe the movie is a little bit older.

    這聽起來像也許電影是有點 老一點的。

  • So especially in cases where you'd like to emphasize something that's not so recent,

    所以,特別是在你想的情況下。 強調一些不近人情的東西。

  • you might consider using "ever" in your questions.

    你可以考慮在你的問題中使用 "永遠"。

  • "Have you ever been to a different country?"

    "你有沒有去過別的國家?"

  • "Have you ever studied something else?"

    "你有沒有學過別的東西?"

  • So using ever shows that maybe you're thinking about something a little bit further back,

    所以用ever表示你可能在想 關於更久遠的事情。

  • a little bit more in the past in someone's life.

    過去在別人的 生命。

  • Okay, so now that we know this, let's take a look at a few examples sentences that I've

    好了,現在我們知道了,讓我們來看看 看一下我的幾個例句吧

  • prepared.

    準備。

  • So first I have, they ______ in Germany.

    所以首先我有,他們在德國的_____。

  • So here, I want to use the verb "live," so the past participle form of the verb live

    所以在這裡,我想用動詞 "活",所以... 活的過去式

  • is lived, and my subject here is "they."

    是生活,我這裡的主體是 "他們"。

  • So I need to use "they have lived in Germany."

    所以我需要用 "他們在德國生活過"。

  • This is a very very simple sentence, they have lived in Germany.

    這是很簡單的一句話,他們 在德國生活過。

  • I'm using this simple structure, this simple grammar point number one which we talked about.

    我用這個簡單的結構,這個簡單的 我們談到的第一文法點。

  • So this is just a life experience, when did they live in Germany?

    所以,這只是一種生活經驗,什麼時候開始 他們住在德國?

  • We don't know, but it's just the experience that we want to focus on in this sentence.

    我們不知道,但這只是一種經驗。 我們在這句話中要重點強調的。

  • I could change the sentence to say, "they have lived in Germany since 1999."

    我可以把這句話改成 "他們"。 自1999年以來一直住在德國"。

  • In that case, it means they live in Germany now, also.

    如果是這樣的話,說明他們住在德國了 現在,還。

  • However, if they do not live in Germany, they only want to express their life experience

    但是,如果他們不在德國居住,他們就會 只想表達自己的生活經歷

  • of living in Germany, they could say, they have lived in Germany.

    他們可以說,他們在德國生活的日子裡 在德國生活過。

  • They have lived in Germany, only that sentence.

    他們在德國生活過,只有這句話。

  • So please be careful, "they have lived in Germany since 1999" shows they still live

    所以請大家注意,"他們已經住進了 德國自1999年以來 "表明他們仍然生活在

  • in Germany.

    在德國。

  • Saying "they have lived in Germany" shows only a life experience.

    說 "他們曾在德國生活過 "說明 只不過是人生的一次經歷。

  • If you'd like to give more information about where they live now, do it in the next sentence.

    如果您想提供更多關於以下方面的資訊 他們現在住的地方,在下一句做。

  • "They have lived in Germany, but they travel around a lot, and now they're living in Paris,"

    "他們在德國生活過,但他們的旅行。 周圍很多,現在他們住在巴黎,"

  • for example.

    例如:

  • So using the present progressive tense to give some more information in the next sentence.

    所以用現在的遞進式來 在下一句中再提供一些資訊。

  • Okay, so here we see grammar point number one is being used in this first sentence.

    好了,這裡我們看到的文法點編號是: 一正在這第一句話中。

  • Let's take a look here at a negative sentence.

    我們這裡看一下否定句。

  • "I _____ never ______ to Italy" here.

    "我從來沒有到過意大利 "這裡。

  • We have the subject "I" here, we know that it's a negative sentence because it's "never,"

    我們這裡有 "我 "這個主體,我們知道了。 這是一個否定句,因為它是 "從來沒有"

  • so we need to use "I have never," and then if I want to use the verb "be," if I want

    所以我們需要用 "我從來沒有",然後... ... 如果我想用動詞 "be",如果我想用。

  • to use the verb "be," the past participle form of the verb be is been.

    用動詞 "被 "的過去分詞。 動詞be的形式是be been。

  • "I have never been to Italy" is the correct sentence here.

    "我沒去過意大利 "才是正確的。 這裡的句子。

  • So I'm expressing no experience in my life, "I have never been to Italy," meaning as we

    所以我表達的是我的生活中沒有經驗。 "我從來沒有去過意大利",意思是說,正如我們的

  • talked about with grammar point number one, in my whole life I have not had an experience.

    談到與文法點一。 在我的一生中,我還沒有過這樣的經歷。

  • So there's no time point being used here, I have never had the experience of going to

    所以這裡沒有使用時間點。 我從來沒有去過